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Ancient greek architecture

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Ancient greek architecture

  1. 1. Ancient Greek Architecture
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • The civilization of Ancient Greece was one that spanned many years, and in this time, many the Greeks excelled various fields, such as art, entertainment, music, government, economy, leadership, science, mathematics, astronomy, and more. One particular application of science and mathematics is the ancient Greeks’ stunning and advanced architecture and engineering. this empire flourished in so many aspects has influenced a significant portion of our culture today. Everywhere in one’s life can he see Greek influence on modern day, especially in Architecture. The ancient Greeks developed and innovated for hundreds of years; from the 8th century BCE until around 600 CE
  3. 3. HISTORY • The history of the Ancient Greek civilization is divided into two eras, the Hellenic and the Hellenistic The Hellenic period commenced circa 900 BC, (with substantial works of architecture appearing from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. During the Hellenistic period, 323 BC - AD 30, Hellenic culture was spread widely, firstly throughout lands conquered by Alexander, and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture.
  4. 4. HISTORY • The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC. • Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 350 BC. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon), the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa), the town council building (bouleuterion), the public monument, the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium.
  5. 5. TYPE OF ARCHITECTURE • Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalized characteristics, both of structure and decoration. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles
  6. 6. ORIGIN • Our word “architecture” comes from the Greek architecton, which means “master carpenter.” • Early Greek architecture therefore employed wood, not stone. • These early structures, as well as those of mud-brick, have not survived.
  7. 7. Wood Features in Stone • By the 6th Century BC, stone replaced wood in the construction of important temples. • Designs still reflected their origins in wood, however.
  8. 8. TYPE OF ARCHITECTURE • The formal vocabulary of Ancient Greek architecture, in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order, was to have profound effect on Western architecture of later periods. The architecture of Ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day
  9. 9. The Classical Orders • The three classical orders are: • Doric • Ionic • Corinthian • Seen in several of the buildings • Parthenon • Temples • Theaters
  10. 10. • The rectangular temple is the most common and best-known form of Greek public architecture. Temples served as the location of a cult image and as a storage place or strong room for the treasury associated with the cult of the god in question,, and as a place for devotees During the late 5th and 4th centuries BC, town planning became an important consideration of Greek builders, with towns such as Paestum and Priene being laid out with a regular grid of paved streets and an agora or central market place, Every Greek town had an open-air theatre. These were used for both public meetings as well as dramatic performances. The theatre was usually set in a hillside outside the town, and had rows of tiered seating set in a semicircle around the central performance area, the orchestra
  11. 11. important structures • The important structures if ancient greek architecture includes many building some of which will be explained in the coming slides
  12. 12. Temples • Unlike modern churches or mosques, Greek temples were not meant to be meeting places for congregations. • They were homes for the community’s god or goddess and a place to keep offerings • A cult image was centrally located within a naos, or chapel.
  13. 13. Temples • In the mild climate of Greece, ceremonies generally took place outdoors. • Even the alter, upon which sacrifices were made, were outside the temple structure.
  14. 14. Imp Structures – The Acropolis • The most famous Greek buildings topped the Athenian Acropolis. • These include: the Propylaea, the Temple of Athena Nike, the Parthenon, and the Erectheum. • Propylaea is the monumental entry point to the acropolis
  15. 15. The Parthenon • This is the most important and perfectly formed temple on the acropolis. • Dedicated to Athena, it housed an enormous cult image. • This building is the culmination of Classical Greek architecture. • One of the Parthenon’s most impressive features was not seen by most worshippers – the great frieze showing the Panathenaic Procession.
  16. 16. • The Erechtheum is a complex building of up to four distinct spaces • The Great Altar of Pergamum, This Hellenistic • completely with traditional style
  17. 17. GOALS OF ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE • The purpose of ancient Greek structures reflected their culture, which were heavily influenced by their religion and entertainment. The most commonly found building is the temple, as ancient Greeks were polytheistic and prayed to a plethora of gods and goddesses. The Romans based their architecture off that of the ancient Greeks because when the Greek Empire fell, many immigrated to Rome, and diffused their culture into Rome. Roman columns are similar to the Greeks' in structure; they added bases to Doric columns but mainly used the fancier Corinthian columns. Temples were different in structure, but the Romans used pediments and adopted the Greek word "basilica," meaning royal; Roman theaters were also modified Greek theaters. While the Greeks are most famous for their column, the Romans are known for their use of the arch. • Ancient Greek civilization was one of the most advanced societies in history. They flourished in countless areas, including art, music, government, economics, and architecture
  18. 18. The Greek Heritage • Today, elements of Greek architecture surround us everywhere, from the Doric columns gracing local homes to the great Ionic capitals of the Vancouver Art Gallery.
  19. 19. The Greek Heritage • Greek forms have become an integral part of the vocabulary of world architecture The Supreme Court of the United States

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