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Ancient Greek civilzation and Architecture

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Ancient Greek civilzation and Architecture

  1. 1. Abhishek K. Venkitaraman Assistant Professor HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE LECTURE 4 Greek Architecture
  2. 2. Map of Ancient Greece Athen s Miletu s Crete
  3. 3. Between 1200-800 B.C, there was much warfare affecting Crete and Greece. • Up to and before 6th Century B.C., there is not much evidence of planned towns in Greece. • From 6th century B.C till 4th century B.C i.e. Alexander’s period, a number of cities were founded and developed on systematic lines and advanced the cause of civic structure. • Earlier, king was the dominating figure but later power gradually shifted to the wealthy land owning nobles who became the ruling class. GREEK PERIOD: Chronological Development The ruling class was were dependent on the support of the farmers and the merchants; • Importance of palace reduced and there was emergence of the middle class; • During 5th century, democracy took root in city states a new form of political organization of the community developed. Government, By law, determined by people.
  4. 4. Discovery of freedom through democracy brought impetus to search the truth-leading to- development of philosophy, science, mathematics, logic and law. • Freedom and spiritual values were symbolized in temples; • Freedom of speech led to Houses of People or council chambers; • The community needs led to Assembly Houses, OATs and the Agora or the market place; • Geographical situation of Greece with sea on there sides encourages trade and transportation by sea; • The climate varied between rigorous cold and relaxing heat . The hot sun and sudden showers were causes for buildings with colonnaded porticos. • Greece has ample supply of good building stones. • Their religion was based on worship of natural phenomena.
  5. 5. THE TOWN PLANNING The ancient Greek towns were divided into three parts:  Places for Gods  Administration  Dwelling Houses The Town had to justify the requirements of :  Hygiene  Defense  Circulation Three Classes of people  Craftsmen  Soldiers  Workers The heart of the city: Or the central place was to occupy 5 % of the city area and comprise of the temple, the assembly hall , the council chambers, council hall, the Agora and the Agora square. All major roads were to meet the Agora Square.
  6. 6. Streets were paved and there were underground drains beneath the streets. Maintained reservoirs, but no water distribution system. Orientation with respect to the climate, Principal rooms faced the south and opened on private courtyard. Determinants for Ancient Greek city development • Regional topography • Climate • Construction Material
  7. 7. Acropolis
  8. 8. Greek City States Greeks had a clearly defined territorial organization. Cities emerged as separate city states, instead of a single unified nation. The disperse nature of fertile area was only available in form of isolated valley, plains and plateau. These conditions favored an arrangement of : 1. Urban nucleus. 2. Surrounded by country side 3. Surrounded by subordinated agricultural village community.
  9. 9. Regional Topography “City State” and “Polis”- “Urban” and “Rural” • Polis is more than a city state/ urban / the nucleus • City state is the Greek City ( the Urban Nucleus) with its clearly defined limits, compact urban form and superficially at least- integrated social life. • Town and country were closely knit- except in those remote parts of Arcadia and Western Greece • Greek city states were founded upon agriculture and remained independent on it. • During warfare notably against Persia city states joined together to face the common enemy.
  10. 10. Climate “Greece – through out the year it was generally both agreeable and reliable- Greece is one of those countries which have a climate and not merely weather; • This attractive situation encouraged an open air, communally oriented attitude to life, which assisted the development of Greek democracy. But in direct contrast, however , the domestic Greek world was that of privacy within the ubiquitous courtyard house; • Meeting took place in open air, new indoor meeting places such as assembly hall ( ecclesiasteron), council hall (bouleuterion) were designed with an advent of advanced construction Technique; • Large scale open air theatrical ceremonies were also performed initially at the foot of conveniently sloping natural auditoria.
  11. 11. Construction Material The ancient Greek architectural characters has a great impact because of readily availability of high quality marble. • Worked on a fine details, marble was the medium by which Greek architecture attained standards of perfection seldom reached in later history. • The importance of civic buildings were conceived as three dimensional, free standing sculptural objects. • Unlike the civic buildings minimal effort and concern for domestic comfort. • Direct contrast to civic buildings houses were rudimentary and either grouped by chance or rigidly organized along basic grid line.
  12. 12. Emergence of Greek Civilization
  13. 13. Early Greek Civilizatio n Aegean period – till 1100 B.C. Mycenaean period – 1400 to 1100 B.C. Hellenic Period – 800 to 323 B.C. Hellenistic Period – 323 to 30 B.C.
  14. 14. Contributions in City Planning Colonizing movement Use of Grid-iron layout. Urban form components. Evolution of: Acropolis: Religious Centre Agora: The city center, the multi-purpose everyday heart. Clear distinction between Developed city districts and organic growth. Colonizing Movement This process involved the Greeks in the creation of new city states. They imposed a limit on population. Each colony was an independent city state which was well organized socially and economically.
  15. 15. Greek urban form component • The Acropolis • The enclosing city wall • The Agora • Residential districts • One or more leisure and cultural area • A religious precinct • The harbors and ports • Industrial district
  16. 16. Urban form component Priene: Port and Industrial District Miletus: Acropolis were sometimes situated outside the city limits. City walls were more demanded. There was a policy of limiting population by founding new cities. The agora, shrines, the theatres, gymnasia are occupied site determined by traditional sanctity and houses filled the rest of the space.
  17. 17. Athens The Organic Growth Athens was never planned as a whole; • Destroyed and reconstructed again over the old city; • Two main groups of civic building 1) Acropolis, 2)Agora; • It is considered as the best natural fortress of the ancient world; • It rises some 300 feet above the general level of the plain, irregularly shaped roughly 350 yards by 140 yards and the long dimension oriented east-west; The Athenian Acropolis started as Neolithic Village Nucleus; • Humans have been attracted to the area by the presence of natural spring and in 1581 BC worship of Athena was established on Acropolis. • Agora area developed from a market and meeting place;
  18. 18. Ancient Athens
  19. 19. Ancient Athens
  20. 20. Prominent features A powerfully assertive landscape influenced the Urban planning. The high points of the city were treated as sacred. In case of Athens, the high place was originally a fortified hilltop which became the Acropolis: The site for the temples of Gods, their treasures and artifacts. The city developed below Acropolis.
  21. 21. ARCHITECTURE • Hellenistic period • classical orders • public buildings • geometry and symmetry in their buildings • Acropolis • Agora • Temples • tombs and house forms. Aegean period – till 1100 B.C. Mycenaean period – 1400 to 1100 B.C. Hellenic Period – 800 to 323 B.C. Hellenistic Period – 323 to 30 B.C.
  22. 22. Aegean period – till 1100 B.C. Mycenaean period – 1400 to 1100 B.C.
  23. 23. A r c h i t e c t u r e Mycenaean Period • Also called Pelasgic, Cyclopean or Primitive period • Rough walling of large stone blocks • Corbel system, true arch evolved Hellenic Period • Trabeated style developed • Refinement from Mycenaean influence • Slender columns with refined mouldings • Principles of design • Correction of optical illusion
  24. 24. Barro w To mbs 4 100 BCE • The first architecturalexpression • Preserved memories of clan lineage • Served as place for gathering, trade and rituals Architecture • Chamber (circular mound) built of stone slabs • Narrow passageway • In some cases fortified by retaining walls • An artificial mound created on top • Sometimes side chambers surround the main chamber
  25. 25. Pre -Mycen aean (Aegean) Period • Turmoil in Mesopotamia benefitted the economies of the eastern Mediterranean (mostly Minoans on Crete island) • World’s first maritime trading economy • Peaceful trading- hence no defensive installations • Worshipped bull – Zeus, the fertilityGod • Rituals in open landscape or in front of palace – theatre-like setting • Large scale drinking and feasting, joyful festivals • No separate temple (part of Palace) • Largest Palace at Knossos- residences, kitchens, storage rooms, bathrooms, ceremonial rooms, workshops • Ground water conduits and basementstorage 3000 - 1 3 0 0 B CE
  26. 26. Pre -Mycen aean and Mycenaean Period • Three kind of masonry for walls: 1.Cyclopean- masses of rock roughly quarried stones piled on each other, with clay mortar. The interstices between the larger stones were filled with smallerblocks 2. Rectangular- carefully hewn rectangular blocks arranged in regular courses, but the joints between stones in the same course are not always vertical. Examples at Mycenae - the entrance passage in ‘tholos’ or beehive-tombs 3.Polygonal- many sided blocks accurately worked so as to fit together. 2000 B CE Minoan Palace at Knossos (Crete) • Courtyard surrounded by verandas at upper level inpalace
  27. 27. Palace at Knossos
  28. 28. Mycenaean Period 2000 - 4 0 0 B CE • Traded with Sicily, Southern Italy, Egypt, Sardinia and countries bordering Black sea • Small kingdom – lacked natural defence barriers • Decentralized society- Small but fiercely loyal fighters • Excellent works in ivory, carpentry and metallurgy • Palaces used to be the administrative as well as industrial centres • Eg- Around 550 textile and 400 metallurgical workers along with artisans, goldsmiths, ivory and stone carvers and potters were employed in Palace of Pylos
  29. 29. Mycenaean Period Characteristic features • Corbels- horizontal courses of stones were laid, projecting one beyond the other till the apex wasreached • This produced either a triangular opening (found above the doorways of the tholos tombs) or an apparent arch (found at the gallery at Tiryns, or a dome- shaped roof (found at the Treasury of Atreus) in Mycenae • Inclined blocks- triangular headed opening. • Arches 2000 - 4 0 0 B CE
  30. 30. Mycenaean Period 2000 - 4 0 0 B CE Megaron – The Great Hall in the Palace of Pylos • A square rooms with 4 columns • A hearth in the centre • Clerestoryceiling
  31. 31. Megaron
  32. 32. Mycenae 1300 - 400 BCE • 1450 BCE- Thick ring walls around(cyclopean) were built Mycenae • Entry to citadel through Lion Gate • Treasury of Atreus- 6-chambered tombs containing gold, silver and bronze burial treasures (Burial Tholos) • Palace compound on an elevated level
  33. 33. Th e L io n Gate, Mycenae • Relief carving of two lions facing a central column • Triangular sculpture supports the load above entrance. • Ashlar masonry walls on the sides.
  34. 34. Tr eas ur y of At reus • Kings were buried outside the cities in beehive tombs or tholos – monumental symbols of wealth and power • Circular chamber - 15m high and 15m diameter; into the hillside. • 36 m long and 6 m wide corridor (dromos) • Corbelled dome was covered with earth to form conical hill • 2 half columns and stone lintel above the entrance.
  35. 35. Tr eas ur y of At reus
  36. 36. Hellenic Period – 800 to 323 B.C. Hellenistic Period – 323 to 30 B.C. ARCHITECTURE
  37. 37. Hellenic Period – 800 to 323 B.C. Commenced circa 900 BC, (with substantial works of architecture appearing from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. Hellenistic Period – 323 to 30 B.C. Hellenic culture was spread widely, throughout lands conquered by Alexander, and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture.
  38. 38. GREEK COLUMN ORDERS DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN
  39. 39. GREEK COLUMN ORDERS Introduced by a Roman architect, Marcus Vitruvius Defined column styles and entablature Order of Architecture A set or rules or principles for designing buildings. Classical order of architecture An approach to building design established in Greece or Rome during the Classical period, roughly 850 BC through 476 AD. How Classical Architecture Began Great buildings were constructed according to precise rules Marcus Vitruvius (De Architectura, or Ten Books on Architecture) believed Builders used mathematical principles when constructing temples Without symmetry and proportion, no temple can have a regular plan
  40. 40. DORIC Basic Order in Greek Architecture –used by Spartans 1. Column –height is 7 D –plinth, dado and stylobate Shaft–20 flutes and arrises General Inter columnation–2 D Distinctive Capital –Abacus and Echinus 2. Entablature –consists of Architrave, Frieze and Cornice a) Architrave –¾ D, flat moulding called taenea Regula–short band with six ‘guttae’(small cone like blocks) b) Frieze –¾ D, contains Triglyph and Metope. Triglyph–formed by two V-shaped channels with similar half channels on both ends which are rounded at top. Metopes–square shaped space between Triglyph c) Cornice –½ D high –crowning part, projects beyond frieze Acroteria–for ornamentatal block 1) Tympanum 2) Acroterion 3) Cyma 4) Cornice 5) Mutules 6) Frieze 7) Triglyph 8) Metope 9) Regulae 10) Guttae 11) Taenia 12) Architrave 13) Capital 14) Abacus 15) Echinus 16) Column 17) Fluting 18) Stylobate
  41. 41. • Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement (the stylobate) without a base • Vertical shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves • Smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus • Carried the horizontal beam(architrave) • The Parthenon has the Doric design columns.
  42. 42. IONIC Named after the Ionians of ancient Greece 1. Column –9 D, has a base, moulded base consists of upper and lower torus- separated by Scotia and fillets Shaft has 24 flutes –diminishes to 5/6 D at its top. General Intercolumniations 4 D Remarkable for its volute(capital) 2. Entablature –2 D a) Architrave–¾ D, triple fasciae(three beams) b) Frieze–¾ D, either plain or ornamented c) Cornice–½ D, similar treatment like Doric Rainwater sprouts in the shape of lion’s heads Ionic Order is more ornate than the Doric –grace, refinement of outlines and elegance as compared to Doric Order
  43. 43. IONIC • More slender and more ornate than the Doric style • Scroll-shaped ornaments on the capital • A pair of volutes • Stands on a base of stacked disks • Shafts are usually fluted, but can be plain Buildings With Ionic Columns: The Erechtheum, Athens The Colosseum, Rome Doric columns on the first level, Ionic columns on the second level, and Corinthian columns on the third level
  44. 44. CORINTHIAN • Emerged as an offshoot of the Ionic style about 450 BCE • Distinguished by its more decorative capitals • Corinthian capital was much taller being ornamented with a double row of acanthus leaves topped by voluted tendrils. • Typically, it had a pair of volutes at each corner, thus providing the same view from all sides • The ratio of the column-height to column- diameter in Corinthian temples is usually 10:1 (compare Doric 5:1; Ionic 9:1), with the capital accounting for roughly 10 percent of the height.
  45. 45. CORINTHIAN 1. Column –10 D height Base –½ D high, similar to Ionic Shaft–circular and tapered to 5/6 D at top 24 flutes separated by fillets General Inter columnation–3 D Distinctive capital –perhaps evolved from a basket placed on the root of acanthus plant 2. Entablature –2.25 D high –and bears a close resemblance to the Ionic Order. a) Architrave –¾ D, divided into three fasciae b) Frieze –¾ D, ornamented by continuous sculptures c) Cornice –¾ D, dentils and corona – antefixal ornament Rarely used by Greeks, more decorative and delicate
  46. 46. AGORA AND ACROPOLIS IN ATHENS
  47. 47. The agora was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states. The literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city.
  48. 48. Acropolis The Acropolis The acropolis is the general term for the original defensive hilltop nucleus of the older Greek cities and the fortified citadel of many of the colonial foundation. • Possibly the religious sanctuary of the city like Athens or left deserted and left outside the city limit, as the Miletus. • If the acropolis is at the centre then, there were no need of city wall.
  49. 49. Athens Agora
  50. 50. Represented the sacred precinct of the city of Athens. • The building of the Acropolis did not have a geometrical/axial relationship with one another but had a definite visual relation with one another as well as the natural setting of the surrounding to be experienced by the human eye and people on foot. • The natural Panorama was dramatically accented by the foreground of man made temple- adding man’s world to nature’s.
  51. 51. The City Wall In Athens, Priene and Miletus, the walls are loosely spread around both unplanned and planned urban areas, in order to take maximum advantage of the terrain. Athens
  52. 52. Agora Agora is a public space in Greek cities contained sustained or intense concentration of varied activities. • The Agora was in fact not only a public place, but the central zone of the city- its living heart. • A ground for social life, business and politics. • Being ideally positioned between the main gate and entrance to the acropolis serves as a focal point of a planned city.
  53. 53. The Agora The Agora was the political and commercial heart. It was the CBD which developed at the foot of the Acropolis. There was a stress on a finite size for all things. Ideal size of a city-polis: 10000-20000 The Greek towns attempted to fit in as another component of nature. Architectural massing and detailing of building always gave a sense of human measure.
  54. 54. OPTICAL CORRECTIONS
  55. 55. Please refer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzhA3yiEofI
  56. 56. TEMPLES
  57. 57. • Classification is based on: -the number of columns on the entrance front -Type of collonade surrounding the naos -Type Of Portico Classification
  58. 58. Greek Temple Plans Typical floor plan incorporated a colonnade of columns (peristyle) on all four sides; a front porch (pronaos), a back porch (opisthodomos). Categorized based on their ground plan and the way in which the columns are arranged. 1.Prostyle temple is a temple that has columns only at the front 2.Amphiprostyle temple has columns at the front and the rear. 3.One of the more unusual plans is the tholos, a temple with a circular ground plan 4. Temples with a peripteral arrangement have a single line of columns arranged all around the exterior of the temple building. 5. Dipteral temples simply have a double row of columns surrounding the building.
  59. 59. • ORIENTED TOWARDS THE EAST • NAOS ( it refers to the Cella, i.e. the inner chamber of a temple which houses a cult figure) • PRONAOS ( is the inner area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple, situated between the portico's colonnade or walls and the entrance to the cella, or shrine) • AND EPINAOS (OPISTHODODMOS) - a room in the rear of the cella of an ancient Greek temple • SURROUNDED BY OPEN COLONNADE • ENTRANCE DOORS on the east and west walls • WINDOWS WERE RARE • PEDIMENT • TYMPANUM • TIMBER ROOFS covered with MARBLE OR TERRACOTTA TILES • ANTIFIXAE ORNAMENT at the end of the roof tiles Characteristics
  60. 60. Parts of a Greek Temple  There are four distinct parts to a greek temple.  The bottom, horizontal part is the steps. Most Greek temples had three of them.  The next section is vertical and is the column.  Most columns had a base (though not the Doric), at the bottom, a shaft in the middle, and a capital at the top.  The shaft may be smooth or fluted.
  61. 61. Parthenon
  62. 62. Built in pentelic marble. •On the high grounds of the Acropolis, south of temple Athena. •Architects –Ictinus & Callicrates ; sculptor –Pheidias. •Rectangular plan measuring 71m X 32m. Stands on a crepidoma of 3 steps with tread 70cm & rise 50cm. Designed in octal-style, eight columns in front & back, columns having base d = 1.9m, h = 10.4mand of the Doric order. The entablature is 3.4m high and curve up in the middle. •Architrave was ornamented with bronze shields. •Sculptured metopes are about 1.34m X 1.34m, 14 in on front, 32 on south and north. •The frieze lean outward slightly. The pediment inclined at 13˚ 30 mins. It has floral decoration called Acroteria about 3m high. The sloping cornices of the pediment has ornamentations. The Tympana had fine sculptures in bright colors.
  63. 63. The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  64. 64. Reconstructed West Elevation The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  65. 65. Plan The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  66. 66. Plan The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  67. 67. Caryatid porch The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  68. 68. West elevation & East Elevation South elevation & North Elevation The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  69. 69. East portico The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)
  70. 70. RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS
  71. 71. Residential Districts Residences were either grouped together, in organic growth districts or rigidly organized along basic grid-iron lines. There was a contrast between the splendor of civic areas and squalor of housing. Communal activities were more important than Home life. Individual dwellings within the same grid block were of different sizes and plans.
  72. 72. Ancient Athens Priene City Block Ancient Athens Houses
  73. 73. Houses in Priene
  74. 74. THANK YOU

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