Roman

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Roman

  1. 1. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine ROMAN Civilization
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  3. 3. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine PANTHEON
  4. 4. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine • is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome, and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian about 126 AD. • The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft). • The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotunda.
  5. 5. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
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  9. 9. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine Specifications Length 84 metres (276 ft) Width 58 metres (190 ft) Height (max) 58 metres (190 ft)
  10. 10. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine The building was originally approached by a flight of steps, although later construction raised the level of the ground leading to the portico, eliminating the steps. The 4,535 metric tons ) weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4 metres (21 ft) thick drum wall into eight piers. The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. The stresses in the dome were found to be substantially reduced by the use of successively less dense aggregate stones, such as small pots or pieces of pumice, in higher layers of the dome.
  11. 11. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine COLOSSEUM
  12. 12. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine The Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone,it was the largest amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. It is the largest amphitheatre in the world The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium, often anglicized as Flavian Amphitheater. The building was constructed by emperors of the Flavian dynasty,
  13. 13. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
  14. 14. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, and was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine. Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. It derives its basic exterior and interior architecture from that of two Roman theatres back to back. It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 meters (510 ft / 528 Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 6 acres (24,000 m2). The height of the outer wall is 48 meters (157 ft / 165 Roman feet). The perimeter originally measured 545 meters (1,788 ft / 1,835 Roman feet). The central arena is an oval 87 m (287 ft) long and 55 m (180 ft) wide, surrounded by a wall 5 m (15 ft) high, above which rose tiers of seating.
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  16. 16. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubic metres (3,531,467 cubic feet) of travertine stone which were set without mortar held together by 300 tons of iron clamps The arcades are framed by half-columns of the Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, while the attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning, known as the velarium, that kept the sun and rain off spectators The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue could be filled or evacuated quickly. Its architects adopted solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive.
  17. 17. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine The arena itself was 83 meters by 48 meters (272 ft by 157 ft / 280 by 163 Roman feet). It comprised a wooden floor covered by sand (the Latin word for sand is harena or arena), covering an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum (literally meaning "underground"). It consisted of a two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. Eighty vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals and scenery pieces concealed underneath; larger hinged platforms, called hegmata, provided access for elephants and the like. gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events.
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  19. 19. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine ROMANVILLA
  20. 20. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine A Roman villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class during the Roman republic and the Roman Empire. ARCHITECTURE By the first century BC, the "classic" villa took many architectural forms, with many examples employing atrium or peristyle, for enclosed spaces open to light and air. Upper class, wealthy Roman citizens in the countryside around Rome and throughout the Empire lived in villa-complexes, the accommodation for rural farms. The villa-complex consisted of three parts. The villa urbana where the owner and his family lived. This would be similar to the wealthy-person's in the city and would have painted walls. The villa rustica where the chef and slaves of the villa worked and lived. This was also the living quarters for the farm's animals. There would usually be other rooms here that might be used as store rooms, a hospital and even a prison. The villa fructuaria would be the storage rooms. These would be where the products of the farm were stored ready for transport to buyers. Storage rooms here would have been used for oil, wine, grain, grapes and any other produce of the villa. Other rooms in the villa might include an office, a temple for worship, several bedrooms, a dining room and a kitchen.
  21. 21. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine SOCIAL HISTORY CLIMATIC SOLUTION TO ACCOMMODATE TRADE MATERIALS FROM FAR OFF PLACES FOR LUXURY SELF SUFFICIENT ROMAN-IDEAL
  22. 22. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine PERISTYLE- FRONT VERANDAH VESTIBULE- CONNECTION BETWEEN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AREA THERMAE- BATH CULINE- COOKING
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  24. 24. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine •Villa Armira near Ivaylovgrad, Bulgaria •"House of Antiope" at the Museum of Mosaics in Devnya, Bulgaria •Fishbourne Roman Palace and Bignor Roman Villa in West Sussex, England •Lullingstone Roman Villa in Kent, England •Villa Romana del Casale in Piazza Armerina, Sicily, Italy •Chedworth Roman Villa in Gloucestershire •Littlecote Roman Villa in Wiltshire •Villa Rumana in Żejtun, Malta •Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii •House of Menander, Pompeii •List of Roman villas in Belgium •La Olmeda Roman Villa in Palencia, Spain •Roman Villa Borg, Germany
  25. 25. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine ROMANFORUM
  26. 26. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine The Roman Forum (Latin: Forum Romanum, Italian: Foro Romano) is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum. It was for centuries the center of Roman public life: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history
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