Four Colonial Subcultures 1. Chesapeake 2. New England 3. Middle Colonies 4. Southern Colonies
The Northern (New England) Colonies : Geography: Shorter Rocky Soil Growing Lots of Season harbors Cultural Adaptations : Cities Small farms Fishing/ (family) Shipbuilding Churches Schools Businesses Town Mtgs
Cultural Adaptations Fewer Cities, Churches, & Schools Large Farms/ Cash Crops Spread out on land SlaveryLonger Few harborssummers Fertile Soil Geography: The Southern Colonies :
Early ColonialTobacco1618: VA produces 20,000 lbs. oftobacco1622: 60,000 lbs.1627: 500,000 lbs.1629: 1,500,000 lbs.
Characteristics of New England Settlements Low mortality life expectancy about 70 Large, extended families; avg. 6 children per family. Avg. age at marriage: Women – 22 years old Men – 27 years old.
PopulationComparisons:New England v. Chesapeake
Boston: “A City on a Hill”• “beacon of righteousness” to the world• 1630-1640—16,000 immigrated, usually as families• Church attendance required, but membership not automatic• Government by elected representatives responsible to God; all adult male church members could vote
Provincial Cities• Only ~ 5% of pop!• Five largest cities: Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charles Town• Economies = commerce, not manufacturing• English culture, fashion, and architecture
The Emergence of North Carolina• VA = aristocratic planters and Church of England• Dissenters moved south to Carolina Poor farmers, little need for slaves Religious dissenters• Early North Carolinians: Strong resistance to authority, hospitable to pirates Irreligious• 1712 NC officially separated from SC
Rule Britannia?• Most Americans bound to England in 1763• Ties included British culture, consumer goods, religion, military victories• Americans thought of themselves as partners in Empire• To British, “American” equaled “not quite English”
Weaknesses of theArticles of Confederation A unicameral Congress [9 of 13 votes to pass a law]. 13 out of 13 to amend. Representatives were frequently absent. Could not tax or raise armies. No executive or judicial branches.
Underlying Principles of the US Constitution• Popular Sovereignty (people power)• Limited, Representative Government• Federalism (literally, united states)• Separation of Powers (to avoid dictatorship)• Checks and Balances (to avoid dictatorship)• Individual Rights (to protect citizens from gov.)• Flexibility (change with the times)