When he had returned from Europe, he found that his village had been wiped out be the great epidemic. * Important note: Interaction between Native Americans and settlers was rarer in Massachusetts than in Virginia because the Native Americans of Massachusetts had previously suffered a plague that had decimated much of the population
In a dramatic move, the Congregationalist merchants boldly decided to transfer to New England. The settlers would then be answerable to no one in the mother country and would be able to handle their affairs, secular and religious, as they pleased.
Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell
He told his follow settlers that: (1) the king of England had no right to grant them land already occupied by Indians (2) the church and state should be kept entirely separate (3) Puritans should not impose their religious beliefs on others This created a problem because Puritan leaders placed a heavy emphasis on consensus in both religion and politics. They could not tolerate significant dissent. Rhode Island adopted a policy of tolerating all religions, including Judaism. This forerunner of religious freedom eventually became one of the hallmarks of the United States.
The title Mistress revealed her high status. She greatly admired John Cotton, a minister who stressed the covenant of grace, or God’s free gift of salvation to unworthy human beings. Mistress Hutchinson began holding women’s meetings in her home to discuss his sermons. Mistress Hutchinson offered Puritans certainty of salvation, instead of a state of constant anxiety. Her approach also lessoned the importance of the institutional church and its members. She was interrogated by John Winthrop. She was able to cleverly defend herself. However, she triumphantly and boldly declared that God had spoken to her directly, explaining that he would curse the Puritans’ descendants for generations if they harmed her. That assertion assured her banishment. Several years later, after she moved to New Netherland, she and most of her children were killed by Indians. Mistress Hutchinson threatened not only religious orthodoxy, but also traditional gender roles. Puritans considered actual women inferior to men. They were almost as outraged by her “masculine” behavior as by her religious beliefs. Winthrop charged her with having set wife against husband, since so many of her followers were women.
New england colonies
The New EnglandColonies
The New England orNorthern Colonies Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut
Divine Right Idea that the King had the birthright to be in power – God gave Monarch power – Subjects had to obey it Pilgrims were persecuted – Did not believe in divine right – Would not recognize King James I as the
The Religious Dissenters Pilgrims Puritans Quakers Catholics Jews Calvinists
The Pilgrims Moved to Holland in 1608 so they didn’t have to attend Anglican services Feared they were becoming Dutch, sailed in 1609 The Godly family – Extended family – Education
The Mayflower Compact Received a patent to settle in Virginia In debt to English settlers Possessed no authorization from crown to form a government Decided to create their own
Squanto is a life saver During 1st month, one half of the Pilgrims died Spoke English – Captured by English traders and imprisoned in England for several years. Interpreter Taught how to plant 1st Thanksgiving is “sketchy”
“ The First Thanksgiving”Pilgrims Native Americans Prayed to give thanks Fall Festival Bradford was thankful to – Celebrate crops and plenty Native Americans for after the Fall Harvest teaching farming and Taught Pilgrims to hunt hunting techniques turkey Taught Pilgrims to grow corn and squash
New England EconomyGood harbors, fishing, shipbuilding, small farms and townsdevelop, trap fur
Religious Beliefs of thePuritans Purify church Group was more important than individual Predestination No public intoxication Physical love in marriaage
Massachusetts Bay is Established by Puritans Driven out by Charles I for opposing divine right Believed they had a covenant or agreement with God – They were chosen – “city upon the hill” Government was a covenant among the people – Group was more important than the individual
The Government of the Bay Colony Purpose of government was to enforce God’s laws Religious leaders were very influential – Barred from formal role Town meetings would occur after church service Property owning males could vote
Roger Williams Teacher – Church and state should be separate – Challenged policy f taking land from Indians Banished Move to modern-day Rhode Island – Allowed for the free exercise of religion – Did not require voters to be church members
Anne Hutchinson Needed only faith and God’s grace – Didn’t need to practice good deeds Challenged Puritan beliefs and the authority of the Puritan clergy She was tried of heresy, convicted, and banished.
The Salem Witch Trials Salem, Massachusetts Began by young girls
Half-Way Covenant Puritan zeal diluted over time Church membership declined Partial membership to those not yet converted (usually children/ grandchildren of members) Could be baptized but not vote
Rhode Island Settled for religious freedom – Roger Williams – Anne Hutchinson Forbade slavery Regions did not get along
Connecticut MakesSense•Populationincreasing inMassachusetts•Fertile Region•Access to sea forTradeDownfall-inhabited by
Fundamental Orders ofConnecticut Elected Assembly Elected a Governor Organized courts Property tax collected
The Mystic Massacre: May 26, 1637 Pequots attacked a Wakefield Settlement – 9 colonists die Retaliation followed – Burned village – Killed 400 – Result was near destruction of tribe – In 1910, there were 66 full blooded Pequots Begins the “acceptable” killing of Indians
New Hampshire Financially depended on Massachusetts Largely fishing and shipbuilding
Compare & Contrast: New England vs. Chesapeake• Entire families tended to emigrate to New England; in the Chesapeake, immigrants were often single males• The climate in New England was more hospitable, and so New Englanders tended to live longer and have larger families than Chesapeake residents• A stronger sense of community led New Englanders to settle in large towns that were closer to one another• Those in the Chesapeake lived in smaller, more spread-out farming communities = had tobacco has a cash crop