Chapter 3: Provincial America and the Atlantic World
Text: American History: A Survey 13th Ed. Alan Brinkley
The Glorious Revolution 1688–89
• In the late 1680s James II tried to unite
New England and New York into the
Dominion of New England.!
- James II tried to re-impose Catholicism
• Leading Englishmen called on James II‘s
daughter; Mary (Protestant) and her
William to replace him.
- The (bloodless) Glorious Rev, 1688.
• Important results:
– Dominion of New England ends.
(Pilgrims lose charter—
Salem Witch trials begin)!
– They get a new charter, BUT w/ !
– End of Puritan power!
– English Bill of Rights forced on Mary
– Era of salutary neglect (1713-1763)
William and Mary
The Decline of Puritanism
• First generation Puritans began losing
their religious zeal as time went on.
‣ Population became decentralized and
further from church control.
‣ Issues of religious intolerance
‣ Children of non-converted members
could not be baptized.
• The jeremiad, was used by preachers to
scold parishioners into being more
committed to their faith. BUT by 1660
church membership was in sharp decline.
• "Half-Way Covenant",1662: sought to
attract more members by giving partial
• Dominion of New England overthrown by
Puritans, when order is re-established they
LOSE original charter and Puritan
• Salem Witch Trials, 1692 -- accused
were often lower status women who were
viewed as threatening status quo
An Atlantic world view
• Massive population growth in
Europe because of New World
agriculture leads to a rise in
• Increase in regional conflicts/
• Competition to secure wealth
and natural resources.
• North American colonies help fuel
Mercantilism and further
encourage the growth of
• While British Parliament
maintained a policy of salutary
neglect toward colonial governance,
the two regions economically were
very connected in the early 18c.
The Atlantic was a booming trade region during the 1700s
Value of Colonial Exports by Region,
Annual Average, 1768–1772
Colonial Products in the Mid-1700s
Population growth hurts Natives
• Prior to contact, Native American
tribes often blended or co-existed as
a way to grow (economically and
• Native Amer. population decline, led
to more rigid forms of ‘tribalism’
• To secure their survival they formed
alliances against each other: Iroquois
+ English, Algonquin + French.
• Natives eventually crippled by 3-D’s
• By 1770, the non-Indian population
of the English colonies was just over
Movement into the
The complexity of foreign
• Contrary to traditional
beliefs, Native Americans
played an active role in
• The British and French
governments, colonists, and
Native Americans all
conspired against each other
to maintain political control.
- Ex: Iroquois used English to
kill Algonquin, and French
used Algonquin to kill Brit.,
and both Native groups used
Euros to kill the other
The Southern Atlantic
Variations in Slavery by Region:
• Northern and Middle Colonies:
– Domestic servants
– Few agricultural slaves
– Northern merchants profited from
the slave trade (as slave traders, industrialists
and financiers of plantations)
• Southern Colonies:
– Upper South – Tobacco
(poor man’s crop), gang system (Slaves
developed more Euro-African American
– Lower South – Rice (rich man’s crop), task
system (Slaves retained more African Traditions)
• European demand for colonial raw
materials increased the scope of slavery.
– Britain enters the industrial age 1st in large part
because of the benefits of American slave labor.
Southern Social Class: Rise of a new aristocracy.
Lesser Tradesmen, Manual Laborers, Hired Hands
Indentured Servants and Jailbirds
Aristocrats: Leading Planters,
high ranking Officials,
Lesser Professional Men
• Slavery affected not just Africans in the
south but also the white population.
• The vast majority of landowning whites
possessed no slaves, yet were forced to
compete with plantations economically.
**(75% lived on plantations of 10 or more
• Southern politics heavily influenced by
• Politics of fear (slave rebellion) was
• Slave Resistance:
• Florida and the cities (why Florida?)
– NYC Slave Revolt 1712
in British North America
– Stono Rebellion 1739
• South Carolina
• Largest pre-Revolutionary War revolt
• Put down by white militia
Southern Social Class: Rise of a new aristocracy.
The Stono Rebellion
• One of the earliest known organized rebellions in the British
colonies, the uprising was led by a slave known only as “Cato"
- Likely a slave belonging to the Cater family
- Cato was a literate, former Kongolese warrior who led 20 other
enslaved Kongolese, who may also have been former soldiers
• Slaves marched south of the Stono River in South Carolina headed
- They recruited nearly 60 other slaves and killed 22–25 whites
before being intercepted by the South Carolina militia. In that
battle, 20 whites and 44 slaves were killed, and the rebellion
was largely suppressed.
- Most of the captured slaves were executed; a few survived to
be sold to the West Indies.
Impact of the Stono Rebellion
• In response to the rebellion, the South Carolina legislature passed
the Negro Act of 1740 restricting slave assembly, education, and
- It also enacted a 10-year moratorium against importing African
slaves, and established penalties against slaveholders' harsh
treatment of slaves.
- It required legislative approval for manumissions (freeing of
slaves), which slaveholders had previously been able to
• Predict: What are some potential effects of the 10-year ban on slave
importation, limitation of manumission, and penalties for harsh
treatment of slaves?
**Consider also the hypocrisy of the entire situation as it relates to
Freedom: they allow slavery, but regulate how it must be done, and
what you can do with your own slaves.
The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment
The Great Awakening
• Religious, social and cultural movement in the 1730s-1740s
• Shorter sermons (previously avg. 2.5 hrs long) directed at
• Style was often intense, vivid, theatrical and intellectual in
• Leaders: Jonathan Edwards (Sinners in the Hands of an Angry
God), John Wesley and George Whitefield
Impact: Democratizing effect
– changed view of authority
– Separation of church and state
– If the common people could make their own religious decisions
w/out relying on ministers, then might they also make their own
political decisions w/out deferring to political elite?
– The widely-preached doctrine of salvation for all —of equal
opportunity to share in God’s grace— encouraged the notion of
equal rights to share also in the good life on earth
– Diversity of faiths meant no single faith dominated culture
Began in Europe in 1700s
Focused on natural laws, rationalism, optimism
• Reason NOT faith creates progress & knowledge
• Deism (watchmaker idea of God)
John Locke –the consent of the governed and inherent “natural rights”. Citizens have an obligation to rebel
against gov’t that fails to protect rights
Conflicted w/ G.A. as “loyalty to faith vs. prosperity in secular world”
Ideas by Francis Bacon and John Locke influenced Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison,
The Zenger Trial and Freedom
of the Press
•In 1733, Zenger was accused of
Libel, which at the time was
when you published
information that was opposed
to the government.
- Truth or falsity were
•Zenger never denied printing
the pieces. The judge therefore
felt that the verdict was never
•In a stirring appeal to the jury,
Zenger’s lawyer argued the
case was “not the cause of one
poor printer but the cause of
•The jury verdict of not guilty
est. a legal precedent for future
freedom of press laws (1st
•The era of salutary neglect corresponded with the rapid growth of the
Atlantic trade network.
•In addition, colonial assemblies (which technically had to obey royal
governors) were more responsive to local needs than Parliament.
Impact of Geography on Political Development
The fluctuation of
over the colonies
Urbanization and Elitism
• The Colonial Economies
– The Southern Economy
• Tobacco Based (cash-crop)
• Labor intensive
– Northern Economy
• Trade and finance based
• Growth of merchant class
– The Rise of Consumerism
• Class Differences
• Persistent Colonial Poverty
• The American Colonies
developed a leadership
group different from
•Money was more
important than nobility for
• Native Born
• Displayed their status
• University of Virginia
• London schools
Top 10% getting
Current U.S. Wealth Distribution (2007)
• Never a COMPLETE
theocracy, and declining
Puritan power over time.
• Town Meetings
• Least Diversity
• Declining importance
relative to Middle
• “Old Deluder Act” Public
Education for boys &
girls to about 5th grade
• Harvard est. 1636
– Economics – Growth of
Merchant Class and cities
• Plantation Society (tiny colony
• Large Farms of many square
miles (coastal towns for
• society based on TOBACCO
(South's gold & silver)
• demanded large areas, used up
land, hard on soil
• sovereign/self sufficient
• House of Burgesses (Elitist and
• 1st “representative” government
–1619 Virginia -House of
»(Burgess - land/owner)
• tutors on plantations
• sons & daughters sent to Europe
• poor public schools
Pennsylvania and the
• In 1681, Charles II gave a grant to William Penn, the
son of a major creditor.
• Penn, a Quaker leader, envisioned his colony as a haven
for Quakers and a center of tolerance and fair treatment
• Philadelphia was meticulously planned. and successful:
active recruitment of immigrants, including Native
• Representative Democracy
• Land Ownership was easier to achieve
• Church influence minimal
• Bread Basket Colonies
• Largest cities
• Banking and commercial center
• Highest literacy
• Highest degree of public tax supported education
• Late 17th century uprising in
colonial New York, in which
Jacob Leisler seized control of the
colony's southern territory and
ruled it from 1689 to 1691.
• The uprising took place in the
aftermath of Britain's Glorious
Revolution and the 1689 Boston
revolt in the Dominion of New
England, which had included New
• The rebellion reflected colonial
resentment against the policies of
the deposed King James II.