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AP US History Chapter 3


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by bwellington
Brinkley 13th ed.

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AP US History Chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter 3: Provincial America and the Atlantic World Text: American History: A Survey 13th Ed. Alan Brinkley The Glorious Revolution 1688–89 • In the late 1680s James II tried to unite New England and New York into the Dominion of New England.! - James II tried to re-impose Catholicism on England. • Leading Englishmen called on James II‘s daughter; Mary (Protestant) and her husband 
 William to replace him. - The (bloodless) Glorious Rev, 1688. • Important results: – Dominion of New England ends. 
 (Pilgrims lose charter—
 Salem Witch trials begin)! – They get a new charter, BUT w/ ! – End of Puritan power! – English Bill of Rights forced on Mary – Era of salutary neglect (1713-1763) William and Mary
  2. 2. The Decline of Puritanism • First generation Puritans began losing their religious zeal as time went on. ‣ Population became decentralized and further from church control. ‣ Issues of religious intolerance ‣ Children of non-converted members could not be baptized. • The jeremiad, was used by preachers to scold parishioners into being more committed to their faith. BUT by 1660 church membership was in sharp decline. • "Half-Way Covenant",1662: sought to attract more members by giving partial membership • Dominion of New England overthrown by Puritans, when order is re-established they LOSE original charter and Puritan hegemony. • Salem Witch Trials, 1692 -- accused were often lower status women who were viewed as threatening status quo
 An Atlantic world view • Massive population growth in Europe because of New World agriculture leads to a rise in nationalism. • Increase in regional conflicts/ wars • Competition to secure wealth and natural resources. • North American colonies help fuel Mercantilism and further encourage the growth of settlements. • While British Parliament maintained a policy of salutary neglect toward colonial governance, the two regions economically were very connected in the early 18c.
  3. 3. The Atlantic was a booming trade region during the 1700s Value of Colonial Exports by Region, Annual Average, 1768–1772 Colonial Products in the Mid-1700s
  4. 4. Population growth hurts Natives • Prior to contact, Native American tribes often blended or co-existed as a way to grow (economically and politically) • Native Amer. population decline, led to more rigid forms of ‘tribalism’ • To secure their survival they formed alliances against each other: Iroquois + English, Algonquin + French. • Natives eventually crippled by 3-D’s – Disunity – Disease – Disposability • By 1770, the non-Indian population of the English colonies was just over 2 million Movement into the Backcountry, 1720–1760 The complexity of foreign relations • Contrary to traditional beliefs, Native Americans played an active role in colonial diplomacy • The British and French governments, colonists, and Native Americans all conspired against each other to maintain political control. - Ex: Iroquois used English to kill Algonquin, and French used Algonquin to kill Brit., and both Native groups used Euros to kill the other Natives.
  5. 5. The Southern Atlantic System Variations in Slavery by Region: • Northern and Middle Colonies: – Domestic servants – Few agricultural slaves – Northern merchants profited from 
 the slave trade (as slave traders, industrialists and financiers of plantations) • Southern Colonies: – Upper South – Tobacco 
 (poor man’s crop), gang system (Slaves developed more Euro-African American Culture) – Lower South – Rice (rich man’s crop), task system (Slaves retained more African Traditions) • European demand for colonial raw materials increased the scope of slavery. – Britain enters the industrial age 1st in large part because of the benefits of American slave labor. Southern Social Class: Rise of a new aristocracy. Small Landowning Farmers Lesser Tradesmen, Manual Laborers, Hired Hands Indentured Servants and Jailbirds Slaves Aristocrats: Leading Planters, high ranking Officials, Clergymen Lesser Professional Men Merchants, Lawyers,
  6. 6. • Slavery affected not just Africans in the south but also the white population. • The vast majority of landowning whites possessed no slaves, yet were forced to compete with plantations economically. **(75% lived on plantations of 10 or more slaves) • Southern politics heavily influenced by landed elite • Politics of fear (slave rebellion) was almost constant. • Slave Resistance: – Runaways • Florida and the cities (why Florida?) – NYC Slave Revolt 1712 • 1 st in British North America – Stono Rebellion 1739 • South Carolina • Largest pre-Revolutionary War revolt • Put down by white militia Southern Social Class: Rise of a new aristocracy. The Stono Rebellion • One of the earliest known organized rebellions in the British colonies, the uprising was led by a slave known only as “Cato" - Likely a slave belonging to the Cater family - Cato was a literate, former Kongolese warrior who led 20 other enslaved Kongolese, who may also have been former soldiers • Slaves marched south of the Stono River in South Carolina headed towards Florida. - They recruited nearly 60 other slaves and killed 22–25 whites before being intercepted by the South Carolina militia. In that battle, 20 whites and 44 slaves were killed, and the rebellion was largely suppressed. - Most of the captured slaves were executed; a few survived to be sold to the West Indies.
  7. 7. Impact of the Stono Rebellion • In response to the rebellion, the South Carolina legislature passed the Negro Act of 1740 restricting slave assembly, education, and movement. - It also enacted a 10-year moratorium against importing African slaves, and established penalties against slaveholders' harsh treatment of slaves. - It required legislative approval for manumissions (freeing of slaves), which slaveholders had previously been able to arrange privately. • Predict: What are some potential effects of the 10-year ban on slave importation, limitation of manumission, and penalties for harsh treatment of slaves? **Consider also the hypocrisy of the entire situation as it relates to Freedom: they allow slavery, but regulate how it must be done, and what you can do with your own slaves. The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment The Great Awakening • Religious, social and cultural movement in the 1730s-1740s • Shorter sermons (previously avg. 2.5 hrs long) directed at younger audiences. • Style was often intense, vivid, theatrical and intellectual in nature. • Leaders: Jonathan Edwards (Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God), John Wesley and George Whitefield Impact: Democratizing effect – changed view of authority – Separation of church and state – If the common people could make their own religious decisions w/out relying on ministers, then might they also make their own political decisions w/out deferring to political elite? – The widely-preached doctrine of salvation for all —of equal opportunity to share in God’s grace— encouraged the notion of equal rights to share also in the good life on earth – Diversity of faiths meant no single faith dominated culture
  8. 8. Enlightenment Began in Europe in 1700s
 Focused on natural laws, rationalism, optimism • Reason NOT faith creates progress & knowledge • Deism (watchmaker idea of God) John Locke –the consent of the governed and inherent “natural rights”. Citizens have an obligation to rebel against gov’t that fails to protect rights Impact: Conflicted w/ G.A. as “loyalty to faith vs. prosperity in secular world” Ideas by Francis Bacon and John Locke influenced Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Thomas Paine The Zenger Trial and Freedom of the Press •In 1733, Zenger was accused of Libel, which at the time was when you published information that was opposed to the government. - Truth or falsity were irrelevant. •Zenger never denied printing the pieces. The judge therefore felt that the verdict was never in question. •In a stirring appeal to the jury, Zenger’s lawyer argued the case was “not the cause of one poor printer but the cause of liberty." •The jury verdict of not guilty est. a legal precedent for future freedom of press laws (1st Amendment)
  9. 9. •The era of salutary neglect corresponded with the rapid growth of the Atlantic trade network. •In addition, colonial assemblies (which technically had to obey royal governors) were more responsive to local needs than Parliament. 1763 1776 1607 1660 1688 1692 1713 1642 Impact of Geography on Political Development The fluctuation of Parliamentary control over the colonies Urbanization and Elitism • The Colonial Economies – The Southern Economy • Tobacco Based (cash-crop) • Labor intensive – Northern Economy • Trade and finance based • Growth of merchant class – The Rise of Consumerism • Class Differences • Persistent Colonial Poverty Selling Tobacco (American Heritage)
  10. 10. Colonial Elites • The American Colonies developed a leadership group different from Europe. •Money was more important than nobility for elite status. • Elites: • Native Born • Merchants/Planters • Displayed their status with goods • Education: • Harvard • University of Virginia • London schools 20 Top 10% getting wealthier
  11. 11. Current U.S. Wealth Distribution (2007) NE Colonies – Politics • Never a COMPLETE theocracy, and declining Puritan power over time. • Town Meetings (miniature Parliaments) • Least Diversity • Declining importance relative to Middle Colonies – Education: • “Old Deluder Act” Public Education for boys & girls to about 5th grade • Harvard est. 1636 – Economics – Growth of Merchant Class and cities (Boston)
  12. 12. Southern Colonies – Economics: • Plantation Society (tiny colony in itself) • Large Farms of many square miles (coastal towns for shipping) • society based on TOBACCO (South's gold & silver) • demanded large areas, used up land, hard on soil – Politics: • sovereign/self sufficient "region“ • House of Burgesses (Elitist and Aristocratic) • 1st “representative” government –1619 Virginia -House of Burgesses »(Burgess - land/owner) – Education • tutors on plantations • sons & daughters sent to Europe • poor public schools Pennsylvania and the Middle Colonies Pennsylvania • In 1681, Charles II gave a grant to William Penn, the son of a major creditor. • Penn, a Quaker leader, envisioned his colony as a haven for Quakers and a center of tolerance and fair treatment for all. • Philadelphia was meticulously planned. and successful: active recruitment of immigrants, including Native Americans. Middle Colonies – Politics • Representative Democracy • Land Ownership was easier to achieve • Church influence minimal – Economics • Bread Basket Colonies • Largest cities • Banking and commercial center – Education • Highest literacy • Highest degree of public tax supported education
  13. 13. Leisler's Rebellion • Late 17th century uprising in colonial New York, in which German-American merchant Jacob Leisler seized control of the colony's southern territory and ruled it from 1689 to 1691. • The uprising took place in the aftermath of Britain's Glorious Revolution and the 1689 Boston revolt in the Dominion of New England, which had included New York. • The rebellion reflected colonial resentment against the policies of the deposed King James II.