Blood #4, Anemias - Physiology

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  • 1. Anemias Definition: Anemia is defined as the decrease in oxygen carrying capacity of the blood either due to decrease number of RBC’s or decrease Hb content. O2 carriage
  • 2. :Classification of anemias Hemorrhagic Hemolytic A- According to the cause Aplastic Nutritional B- According to size of RBC’s and Hb concentration Normocytic normochromic Microcytic hypochromic Macrocytic hyperchromic
  • 3. A- According to the cause Hemolytic anemias a) Intracapsular causes abnormalities in the red cell membrane e.g. herditary spherocytosis abnormalities in Hb e.g. G.6.P.deficiency incompatible blood transfusion b) Extracapsular causes certain drugs hypersplenism
  • 4. A- According to the cause Aplastic anemia a) Certain drugs e.gchloramphenicol b) Exposure to gamma ray radiation or excessive X-ray treatment c) Leukemia .d) Certain chronic infections fibrosis of B.M
  • 5. A- According to the cause Nutritional (deficiency) anemias • Iron deficiency anemia • Prenicious anemia due to Vit. B12 deficiency • Macrocytic anemia due to folic acid deficiency
  • 6. B- According to size of RBC’s and Hb concentration Normocytic Normochromic Microcytic Macrocytic hypochromic hyperchromic Size of normal Decreased RBC’s HB normal Decreased content Causes Blood loss Iron Hemolysis Aplastic Chronic infections deficiency Thalassemi a Increased Increased Vit.12 deficiency Folic acid deficiency
  • 7. Effects of anemia viscosity peripheral resistance diastolic pressure and the venous return to the heart. Anemic hypoxia peripheral vasodilatation venous return to the heart The cardiac output is thus increased and workload of the heart is greatly increased
  • 8. • At rest the oxygen supply to the tissues may not affected because of the increased cardiac output. • however severe tissue hypoxia results with exercise.