Anatomy and biology of immune system lecture notes


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  • @Ann Mayo this site may help A Quick Guide to: Excessive Mucus, Phlegm, PND
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  • The organs of the immune system are color-coded on this slide. yellow = primary organs - bone marrow, thymus blue = response organs  
  • Cells of the immune system are called lymphocytes.
  • Anatomy and biology of immune system lecture notes

    1. 1. Anatomy and biology of immune system Prof M.I.N. Matee
    2. 2. Chapter 20 The Lymphatic and Immune systems <ul><li>Structures: </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels and lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoid tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoid organs </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Immune system is important in the defense against infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for 5% of body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of 5x10 13 </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Immune organs <ul><li>Generative/Primary = origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow, thymus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral/secondary = mature cells respond to foreign antigens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph-nodes, spleen, Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), cutaneous immune system </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Lymphoid organs <ul><li>Peripheral – remove and destroy antigens in the blood and lymph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonsils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intestinal lymphoid tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central – site of maturation of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Lymphocyte Activation
    7. 7. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM <ul><li>The immune system is localized in several parts of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>immune cells develop in the primary organs - bone marrow and thymus (yellow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immune responses occur in the secondary organs (blue) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. ORGANS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM <ul><li>Thymus – glandular organ near the heart – where T cells learn their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow – blood-producing tissue located inside certain bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood stem cells give rise to all of the different types of blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spleen – serves as a filter for the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>removes old and damaged red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes – small organs that filter out dead cells, antigens, and other “stuff” to present to lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels – collect fluid (lymph) that has “leaked” out from the blood into the tissues and returns it to circulation </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Shared properties of </li></ul><ul><li>peripheral lymphoid organs </li></ul><ul><li>1. a means to collect antigen </li></ul><ul><li>a means to recruit lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>distinct B and T cell zones </li></ul>
    10. 10. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Consists of 2 semi-independent parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of lymphatic vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function primarily to return fluid to the vascular system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various lymphoid organs and tissues scattered throughout the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functions in immune defense </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Lymph capillaries <ul><li>Closed-ended vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Lined by endothelium </li></ul><ul><li>1-way flaps into capillary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows passage of tissue fluid, large proteins, bacteria, viruses, cancer cells, cell debris </li></ul></ul>20.2ab
    12. 12. Lymph capillaries <ul><li>Found in all areas of blood capillaries except: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone, teeth, bone marrow, CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacteals – lymph capillaries in villi of small intestine transports fat (chyle) [compare with blood capillaries] </li></ul>20.2a 22.17b
    13. 13. Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Lymphatic Collecting Vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive lymph from lymphatic capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the same 3 tunics as veins, but: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are thinner, have more internal valves, and anastomose more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic Trunks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed from the union of the largest of the lymphatic collecting vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drain large areas of the body </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>Lymphatic Ducts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 vessels that receive lymph from lymphatic trunks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right Lymphatic Duct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drains lymph from the right upper arm and the right side of the head and the thorax </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empties into the vascular system at the junction of the right internal jugular vein and right subclavian vein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How would obstruction of this duct affect the circumference of the right arm? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic Duct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drains lymph from the left upper arm, left side of the head and thorax, and digestive organs, pelvis, and legs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much larger </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empties into the vascular system at the junction of the left internal jugular vein and left subclavian vein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Lymphoid Tissue <ul><li>2 main functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses and provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an ideal site for surveillance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composed largely of reticular connective tissue and lymphoid cells </li></ul><ul><li>Can be found as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffuse lymphatic tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scattered reticular tissue and lymphoid cells found in most organs and especially prominent beneath mucous membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphoid Follicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spherical, tightly packed bodies of reticular and lymphoid cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphoid Organs </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Lymph nodes <ul><li>Scattered in trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Located along lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanses lymph </li></ul></ul>20.3 20.1
    17. 17. Lymph Node Function <ul><li>Produce new B and T cells </li></ul><ul><li>Filter lymph </li></ul>
    18. 19. Lymph node structure <ul><li>Functional tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph sinuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph sinuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph cords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afferent lymphatic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph sinuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of unwanted material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent lymphatic </li></ul></ul></ul>20.4a
    19. 20. Lymph Node Function <ul><li>Multiple afferent lymphatic vessels enter a lymph at its hilus - the indented region on the concave side </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph percolates thru the node and it is scrutinized by macrophages and lymphocytes ready to mount an immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph leaves via a few efferent lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph usually has to pass thru several nodes before it is “clean” </li></ul>Why is it significant that there are more afferent than efferent lymphatic vessels?
    20. 22. Lymph trunks <ul><li>Lumbar trunks </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal trunks </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchomediastinal trunks </li></ul><ul><li>Subclavian trunks </li></ul><ul><li>Jugular trunks </li></ul>20.3
    21. 23. Lymph ducts <ul><li>Thoracic (L) lymphatic duct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drains ¾ of lymph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L head, neck, thorax, upper extremity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&L abdomen, lower extremities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right lymph duct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R head, neck, thorax, upper extremity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ducts drain into subclavian veins </li></ul>20.6a
    22. 25. Lymphoid Cells <ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the 2 types? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are plasma cells? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do they secrete? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lymphoid macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is their function? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblastlike cells that produce the reticular fiber stroma – the network that supports other cell types in lymphoid organs </li></ul></ul>
    23. 27. Spleen <ul><li>Supporting tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hilus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Splenic artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trabeculae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trabecular arteries </li></ul></ul></ul>20.11ab
    24. 28. Spleen <ul><li>Functional tissue: </li></ul><ul><li>White pulp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes around central arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches of trabecular arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune response to antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces both B & T lymphocytes </li></ul></ul>20.11b
    25. 29. Spleen <ul><li>Red pulp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venous sinuses (splenic sinusoids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Splenic cords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanse blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove old rbcs </li></ul></ul></ul>20.11b
    26. 30. Thymus <ul><li>Located in thorax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior to sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trabeculae </li></ul></ul>20.9,20.10b
    27. 31. Thymus <ul><li>Functional tissue - lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Site of T lymphocyte development </li></ul><ul><li>Most active during childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases from adolescence to adult </li></ul>20.10
    28. 32. Tonsils <ul><li>Aggregations of lymphocytes and lymph nodules </li></ul><ul><li>MALT – mucosa associated lympoid tissue </li></ul>20.12
    29. 33. Tonsils <ul><li>Palatine tonsils – in pharynx, near palate </li></ul><ul><li>Lingual tonsils – in tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal tonsils – in pharyngeal roof </li></ul>21.3a
    30. 35. Spleen <ul><li>Largest lymphoid organ. About the size of a fist. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left side of the abdominal cavity, just beneath the diaphragm and curling around the anterior stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Served by the splenic artery and vein which enter at its hilus </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by a fibrous CT capsule with inward extending trabeculae </li></ul>
    31. 36. <ul><li>Functions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracting old & defective RBCs and removal of debris and foreign matter from blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of blood platelets and iron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal structure consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White Pulp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller portion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islands of lymphocytes and reticular fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Pulp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venous sinuses and splenic cords (regions of reticular fibers and macrophages) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 37. Thymus <ul><li>Found in inferior neck and anterior thorax </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes hormones that allow T lymphocyte maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent in newborns, it increases in size throughout childhood. In adolescence, it begins to atrophy and is fatty/ fibrotic in adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Only lymphoid organ that does not fight antigens </li></ul>
    33. 38. Tonsils <ul><li>Form a ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>3 main sets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located on either side of the posterior oral cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest and infected most often </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lie at the base of the tongue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called adenoids when infected </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 39. Lymphocyte Activation