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Ancient greece
 

Ancient greece

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    Ancient greece Ancient greece Presentation Transcript

    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Parthenon— symbol of Ancient Greece. It was a temple to Athena. Athenians believed that the Parthenon (the temple to Athena)provided protection for their city-state
      • Acropolis– fortress located in the center of most city-states. A place that provided Greeks with protection, a place to worship and a place to socialize (gather).
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • City-State--are political units made up of a city and all surrounding lands. Many city-states were geographically formed by rugged mountains and isolated valleys
      • Athens– city-state located in eastern Greece. Famous for its focus on education, literature, government and art
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Sparta– rival city-state of Athens. Famous for its focus on its military
      • Hellenistic –”Greek-like” Historians refer to blended cultures (cultures that have aspects of Greek influence) as Hellenistic.
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Golden Age— a period in a society’s history marked by great achievement. In Greece it was a time when Greek thinkers, artists and writers contributed many new ideas to the world.
      • Pericles—most famous leader in all Athenian history. He encouraged Athenians by supporting education, art, literature and architecture
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Alexander the Great— a ruler who united all of Greece.
      • Direct Democracy— A system of government in which the people participate directly in decision making.
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • The following columns were created by the Greeks and are still used in architecture today.
      • Doric Column--a Greek-style column with only a simple decoration around the top
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Ionic Column--a Greek-style column topped by a single scroll just below the top
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Corinthian Column-- a Greek-style column topped by bag of curlicues, scrolls and other lavish decoration.
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Mythology--is the body of stories and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes. These stories were about the nature of the world.
    • Ancient Greece Vocabulary
      • Monotheism--belief in a single God
      • Polytheism—belief in multiple (many) gods
    • Zeus
      • God of the heavens and the earth, ruler of the weather, giver of justice
      • Ruled with his lightning and thunderbolts
      • Symbols: eagle and oak tree
      • Olympic Games began in Anceint Greece (776 BC). They were a religious festival in honor of Zeus
    • Hera
      • Goddess of marriage and married women; wife of Zeus
      • Symbol: cow
    • Poseidon
      • God of the sea and earthquakes; brother of Zeus
      • Symbols: trident, dolphins and horses
    • Hades
      • God of the underworld; guarded all the dead
      • Symbol: Cerberus (three headed dog)
    • Hestia
      • Goddess of the hearth and home; known for her pure and simple life
      • Symbol: hearth fire
    • Demeter
      • Goddess of all growing things; when she was sad and lonely plants did not grow (winter)
      • Symbols: a bunch of wheat and the cornucopia
    • Athena
      • Goddess of wisdom and war; daughter of Zeus who sprouted from his head
      • Symbol: owl and olive tree
    • Aphrodite
      • Goddess of love and beauty; born form the foam of the sea and rode to shore on a seashell
      • Symbol: dove, sparrow and rose
    • Ares
      • God of war, hatred and violence; he had a short temper
      • Symbols: dogs, vultures, spear and shield
    • Hades
      • God of the underworld; guarded all the dead
      • Symbol: Cerberus (three headed dog)
    • Hestia
      • Goddess of the hearth and home; known for her pure and simple life
      • Symbol: hearth fire
    • Demeter
      • Goddess of all growing things; when she was sad and lonely plants did not grow (winter)
      • Symbols: a bunch of wheat and the cornucopia
    • Athena
      • Goddess of wisdom and war; daughter of Zeus who sprouted from his head
      • Symbol: owl and olive tree
    • Aphrodite
      • Goddess of love and beauty; born form the foam of the sea and rode to shore on a seashell
      • Symbol: dove, sparrow and rose
    • Ares
      • God of war, hatred and violence; he had a short temper
      • Symbols: dogs, vultures, spear and shield
    • Hephaestus
      • God of blacksmiths, metalworkers and craftsmen; son of Zeus and Hera; married to Aphrodite
      • Symbol: anvil and hammer
    • Apollo
      • God of sunlight, truth, poetry, music and healing; twin brother of the goddess Artemis; protector of single men
      • Symbols: lyre (harp) and wreath
    • Artemis
      • Goddess of the moon, single women, hunting and childbirth
      • Symbols: crescent moon, stag (deer), bow and arrow
    • Hermes
      • God of trade, travel and theft; messenger for the gods
      • Symbols: winged cap and winged sandals
    • Dionysus
      • God of wine, parties and drama
      • Symbols: grapes, a wine cup or a leopard
    • City-States
      • City-States are political units made up of a city and all surrounding lands. City-States were geographically formed by mountains and valleys
      • The two most famous Greek city-states were Athens and Sparta
    • Athens
      • Athenians thought that having a strong mind was equally as important as being physically strong
      •  
      • Athens was an important trading center. (it is located 4 miles from the coast)
    • Athens (Continued)
      • Athenian boys began school when they were six years old
      • boys were taught reading, writing, music and history. 
      • a boy became a citizen in Athens when he was eighteen. (he was expected to know all the laws)
      • After a boy became a citizen he spent the next two years in the army
    • Athens (Continued)
      • Athens had the first democratic government. (everyone had a voice in their government)
      •  
      • Athens had many famous philosophers that included Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
    • Sparta
      • Sparta was Athens’ rival city-state.
      • Sparta valued strength, deceit of an enemy and fearlessness about death
      • Sparta’s power came from its tough and professional army
    • Sparta (continued)
      • Sparta was ruled by an oligarchy (small ruling group) of rich families.
      • Spartans valued order and discipline.
      • Dominated Greece from 600 B.C.to 371 B.C.
    • Sparta (Continued)
      • Newborn babies were inspected to see if they were strong enough to be a Spartan
      • Boys at the age of seven left their family to begin military training
      • Spartan boys were whipped if they made a mistake. They were supposed to show no sign of pain while being whipped.
    • Sparta (Continued)
      • Spartan boys had only a basic education. They were instructed in reading and writing.
      • Men became full citizens at the age of 30. Then they could hold office or vote.
      • All Spartan men ate their meals with the army; not with their families .
    • Sparta (continued)
      • Spartan women’s job was to have strong healthy babies.
      • Spartan girls were just as athletic as the boys. They learned how to wrestle, throw a javelin and they exercised daily.
      • Spartan women could own their own land, run their households and conduct business.
    • Sparta (Continued)
      • Spartan men were not allowed to do any manual labor outside of their job as soldiers. Slaves were used to do the manual labor.
      • Spartans were expected to fight to the death.
      • Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 B.C.)
      • Sparta’s dominance only lasted until 371 B.C. when it was defeated by the city-state of Thebes.