Ancient Greece


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Ancient Greece

  1. 1. Greece!
  2. 2. Archaic Period <ul><li>800-500 BC </li></ul><ul><li>The scattered tribes from the Greek Dark Ages started settling down </li></ul><ul><li>They formed city-states with governments </li></ul><ul><li>City-states made ties with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Within 200 years, it was a unified community and the center of the civilized world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. City-States <ul><li>The islands/mountain-valley geography made individual cities make more sense </li></ul><ul><li>City = polis </li></ul><ul><li>An ideal city-state = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small enough to walk across in a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large enough to have all the necessities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants, Farmers, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The city-states would have a fortress/temple on top of a hill </li></ul><ul><li>= The Acropolis (“high city”) </li></ul><ul><li>The agora (marketplace) sat at the base of the hill </li></ul><ul><li>Homes and farms gather around the agora </li></ul><ul><li>The stoa (a covered walkway) is where people met to discuss politics </li></ul><ul><li>(All of these are still in Athens today) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Acropolis in Athens
  6. 6. The Agora in Athens
  7. 7. The Stoa in Athens
  8. 9. The Acropolis in Rome
  9. 10. The Agora in Rome
  10. 11. <ul><li>Bad land for farming </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks were excellent craftsmen, sailors, and salesmen </li></ul><ul><li>They settled and traded in distant lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek ruins in southern Italy, Sicily, Egypt, France, and Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They also picked up cultural lessons from their travels such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art from the Egyptians (statues!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The alphabet from the Phoenicians </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Government Evolution <ul><li>Hereditary Kings </li></ul><ul><li>Rich Land-owners (oligarchy) </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Tyrants (seize power during crisis) </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by Citizens (= democracy ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(However, only free, landowning men were allowed to vote in these early democracies) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Some quarrels between city-states, but they were almost more like sport than serious war </li></ul><ul><li>Outsiders were considered “barbarians” </li></ul><ul><li>With a common language and common religion, the city-states allied with their neighbors and the political units grew </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Olympics <ul><li>In 776 BC athletes from across Greece gathered in Olympia to strip naked and compete in sports </li></ul>
  14. 15. Art in the Archaic Period <ul><li>Statues are crude and stiff </li></ul><ul><li>Not individuals, but generic people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kore (girl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kouros (boy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Style copied from the Egyptians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms in fists at sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A forced smile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One foot forward to try to show movement </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>The generic style embodies balance, order, and stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfectly round heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetrical bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A navel in the center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The statues represent what the unstable city-states were trying to achieve </li></ul>
  16. 17. Sparta <ul><li>Archaic Greece’s largest city-state </li></ul><ul><li>3000 square miles (bigger than Delaware!) </li></ul><ul><li>A highly organized military state </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered neighbors and turned them into farm-working slaves </li></ul><ul><li>NOT democratic – ruled by kings </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Men (and women) were raised to be warriors </li></ul><ul><li>At 7, boys were taken from their families and raised in the barracks where they were taught the art of war, discipline, and how to endure hardships </li></ul><ul><li>They were deliberately underfed so they would master the art of stealing food </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>At 18 they joined the army (although some were first sent into the wilderness with only a knife as a test) </li></ul><ul><li>At 20 they were encouraged to marry, but </li></ul><ul><li>Married couples couldn’t live together until the man was 30 (he also became a citizen at that age) </li></ul><ul><li>Women were schooled by the state (the only place in Greece to teach women!), including training for battle </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>By 700 BC, Greece’s city-states were centered around two major powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Militaristic, no-frills Sparta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic, business-friendly Athens </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. The Rise of Athens <ul><li>With a good harbor and good farmland, Athens flourished. </li></ul><ul><li>In 490 BC the Persians (under King Darius I) came to get revenge on the Greeks who tried to take over western Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks were outnumbered 3:1 </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>A few thousand Athenian soldiers ran to Marathon to cut the Persians off at the bottlenecked valley </li></ul><ul><li>With cunning, the Athenians won! </li></ul><ul><li>(And one excited solider ran all the 26.2 miles back to Athens to report the news, then promptly died) </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>10 years later, the Persians attacked again </li></ul><ul><li>This time all of Greece united to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Between Athens’ ships and Sparta’s soldier, they drove the Persians out </li></ul><ul><li>Athens was hailed as Greece’s protector and all the city-states pledged tributes to Athens in exchange for their protection </li></ul><ul><li>(Sparta was mad!) </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Golden Age of Athens <ul><li>Greeks flocked to Athens and the money from the city-state tributes fueled a cultural explosion – </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings, sculptures, architecture, drama, music, poetry, dancing, trade, politics, science, and philosophy all flourished and defined the Greek Golden Age </li></ul><ul><li>(450-400 BC) </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>The ideal Greek was a well-rounded man </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An athlete and a bookworm, a lover and a philosopher, an architect and a musician, a warrior and a poet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Of course, he was also a free, land-owning man) </li></ul><ul><li>Education flourished, and the Greeks loved to study man and his place in the world </li></ul><ul><li>(Interestingly, this was happening in several places in the world all around the same time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucius in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Old Testament prophets in Palestine) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Greece led the world with brains, not brawn </li></ul><ul><li>Art, Philosophy, Science, Math – what was developed in Ancient Greece in all of these still very much influences our world today </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Decline of Athens <ul><li>Eventually, the city-states started to resent the money they were paying Athens each year for protection they didn’t seem to need. </li></ul><ul><li>They rallied behind Sparta and ganged up on Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>In 339 BC, all of the city-states (including Athens and Sparta) were conquered from the north by the Macedonians </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>The stiff, traditional Archaic period </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Age of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>The democratic, wildly individualistic Hellenistic age </li></ul>
  28. 29. Hellenism <ul><li>(333-31 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Hellene = Greek </li></ul><ul><li>After King Philip of Macedonia conquered the Greece, his 20-year-old son succeeded him. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander had been tutored by Aristotle (who got him hooked on all things Greek) and supposedly went to bed each night with two things under his pillow: a copy of The Iliad and a knife </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>He was a daring general, </li></ul><ul><li>a benevolent conqueror, </li></ul><ul><li>and a good administrator. </li></ul><ul><li>He was, well, great! </li></ul><ul><li>In 334 BC Alexander and his army of 40,000 headed east and conquered Turkey, Palestine, Egypt (where he was declared a living god), Iraq, Iran, and part of India </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>As he conquered, he set up cities on the Greek model with the Greek language and opened Greek schools </li></ul><ul><li>After 8 years on the road, he headed back home but died en route at the age of 32. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>For the next 300 years, most of the Mediterranean and Asia (in other words, the entire civilized world) was dominated by Greek culture and Greek rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandria (in Egypt) became a thriving intellectual center and the greatest library in the world – no ship was allowed to enter the port without first surrendering its books to be copied. </li></ul>
  32. 33. So what happened? <ul><li>As Alexander was conquering the East, a new power was rising the West: </li></ul><ul><li>Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Rome eventually conquered Greece, but culturally the Greeks ruled the Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>But that’s a story for another day…. </li></ul>