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Ancient greece

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Ancient greece

  1. 1. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Parthenon— symbol of Ancient Greece. It was a temple to Athena. Athenians believed that the Parthenon (the temple to Athena)provided protection for their city-state </li></ul><ul><li>Acropolis– fortress located in the center of most city-states. A place that provided Greeks with protection, a place to worship and a place to socialize (gather). </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>City-State--are political units made up of a city and all surrounding lands. Many city-states were geographically formed by rugged mountains and isolated valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Athens– city-state located in eastern Greece. Famous for its focus on education, literature, government and art </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Sparta– rival city-state of Athens. Famous for its focus on its military </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic –”Greek-like” Historians refer to blended cultures (cultures that have aspects of Greek influence) as Hellenistic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Golden Age— a period in a society’s history marked by great achievement. In Greece it was a time when Greek thinkers, artists and writers contributed many new ideas to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Pericles—most famous leader in all Athenian history. He encouraged Athenians by supporting education, art, literature and architecture </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Alexander the Great— a ruler who united all of Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Democracy— A system of government in which the people participate directly in decision making. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>The following columns were created by the Greeks and are still used in architecture today. </li></ul><ul><li>Doric Column--a Greek-style column with only a simple decoration around the top </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Ionic Column--a Greek-style column topped by a single scroll just below the top </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Corinthian Column-- a Greek-style column topped by bag of curlicues, scrolls and other lavish decoration. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Mythology--is the body of stories and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes. These stories were about the nature of the world. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ancient Greece Vocabulary <ul><li>Monotheism--belief in a single God </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism—belief in multiple (many) gods </li></ul>
  11. 11. Zeus <ul><li>God of the heavens and the earth, ruler of the weather, giver of justice </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled with his lightning and thunderbolts </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: eagle and oak tree </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic Games began in Anceint Greece (776 BC). They were a religious festival in honor of Zeus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hera <ul><li>Goddess of marriage and married women; wife of Zeus </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: cow </li></ul>
  13. 13. Poseidon <ul><li>God of the sea and earthquakes; brother of Zeus </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: trident, dolphins and horses </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hades <ul><li>God of the underworld; guarded all the dead </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: Cerberus (three headed dog) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hestia <ul><li>Goddess of the hearth and home; known for her pure and simple life </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: hearth fire </li></ul>
  16. 16. Demeter <ul><li>Goddess of all growing things; when she was sad and lonely plants did not grow (winter) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: a bunch of wheat and the cornucopia </li></ul>
  17. 17. Athena <ul><li>Goddess of wisdom and war; daughter of Zeus who sprouted from his head </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: owl and olive tree </li></ul>
  18. 18. Aphrodite <ul><li>Goddess of love and beauty; born form the foam of the sea and rode to shore on a seashell </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: dove, sparrow and rose </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ares <ul><li>God of war, hatred and violence; he had a short temper </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: dogs, vultures, spear and shield </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hades <ul><li>God of the underworld; guarded all the dead </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: Cerberus (three headed dog) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hestia <ul><li>Goddess of the hearth and home; known for her pure and simple life </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: hearth fire </li></ul>
  22. 22. Demeter <ul><li>Goddess of all growing things; when she was sad and lonely plants did not grow (winter) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: a bunch of wheat and the cornucopia </li></ul>
  23. 23. Athena <ul><li>Goddess of wisdom and war; daughter of Zeus who sprouted from his head </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: owl and olive tree </li></ul>
  24. 24. Aphrodite <ul><li>Goddess of love and beauty; born form the foam of the sea and rode to shore on a seashell </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: dove, sparrow and rose </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ares <ul><li>God of war, hatred and violence; he had a short temper </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: dogs, vultures, spear and shield </li></ul>
  26. 26. Hephaestus <ul><li>God of blacksmiths, metalworkers and craftsmen; son of Zeus and Hera; married to Aphrodite </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: anvil and hammer </li></ul>
  27. 27. Apollo <ul><li>God of sunlight, truth, poetry, music and healing; twin brother of the goddess Artemis; protector of single men </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: lyre (harp) and wreath </li></ul>
  28. 28. Artemis <ul><li>Goddess of the moon, single women, hunting and childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: crescent moon, stag (deer), bow and arrow </li></ul>
  29. 29. Hermes <ul><li>God of trade, travel and theft; messenger for the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: winged cap and winged sandals </li></ul>
  30. 30. Dionysus <ul><li>God of wine, parties and drama </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols: grapes, a wine cup or a leopard </li></ul>
  31. 31. City-States <ul><li>City-States are political units made up of a city and all surrounding lands. City-States were geographically formed by mountains and valleys </li></ul><ul><li>The two most famous Greek city-states were Athens and Sparta </li></ul>
  32. 32. Athens <ul><li>Athenians thought that having a strong mind was equally as important as being physically strong </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Athens was an important trading center. (it is located 4 miles from the coast) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Athens (Continued) <ul><li>Athenian boys began school when they were six years old </li></ul><ul><li>boys were taught reading, writing, music and history.  </li></ul><ul><li>a boy became a citizen in Athens when he was eighteen. (he was expected to know all the laws) </li></ul><ul><li>After a boy became a citizen he spent the next two years in the army </li></ul>
  34. 34. Athens (Continued) <ul><li>Athens had the first democratic government. (everyone had a voice in their government) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Athens had many famous philosophers that included Socrates, Plato and Aristotle </li></ul>
  35. 35. Sparta <ul><li>Sparta was Athens’ rival city-state. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta valued strength, deceit of an enemy and fearlessness about death </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta’s power came from its tough and professional army </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sparta (continued) <ul><li>Sparta was ruled by an oligarchy (small ruling group) of rich families. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartans valued order and discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated Greece from 600 B.C.to 371 B.C. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Sparta (Continued) <ul><li>Newborn babies were inspected to see if they were strong enough to be a Spartan </li></ul><ul><li>Boys at the age of seven left their family to begin military training </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan boys were whipped if they made a mistake. They were supposed to show no sign of pain while being whipped. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Sparta (Continued) <ul><li>Spartan boys had only a basic education. They were instructed in reading and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Men became full citizens at the age of 30. Then they could hold office or vote. </li></ul><ul><li>All Spartan men ate their meals with the army; not with their families . </li></ul>
  39. 39. Sparta (continued) <ul><li>Spartan women’s job was to have strong healthy babies. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan girls were just as athletic as the boys. They learned how to wrestle, throw a javelin and they exercised daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan women could own their own land, run their households and conduct business. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Sparta (Continued) <ul><li>Spartan men were not allowed to do any manual labor outside of their job as soldiers. Slaves were used to do the manual labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartans were expected to fight to the death. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 B.C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta’s dominance only lasted until 371 B.C. when it was defeated by the city-state of Thebes. </li></ul>

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