Introduction To Immigration


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Introduction To Immigration

  1. 1. Introduction to Immigration
  2. 2. Lee’s Basic Migration Model
  3. 3. Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration <ul><li>Ravenstein came up with his &quot;laws&quot; of migration in the 1880s based on studies carried out in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Most migrants only go a short distance at one time. </li></ul><ul><li>Long distance migrations are for those who come from large cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Most migration is from rural areas to urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Most international migrants consist of young males between the ages of 20 and 45. </li></ul><ul><li>Most migrations proceed in step-by-step processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Each migration flow produces at least one counterflow. </li></ul><ul><li>Females remain more migratory than the males within their country. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration increases in volume as industries develop and transportation improves. </li></ul><ul><li>The economy is a major factor in migration. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Zelinsky’s mobility transition model
  5. 5. History of immigration in the US <ul><li>60 mn people have entered since 1820. </li></ul><ul><li>1901-1910 – highest recorded rate – 8.75mn newcomers arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharply fell after 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – ‘national origins quotas’ introduced to reduce immigration rates, especially from eastern & southern Europe. Largest quotas offered to British, Irish & German immigrants (70% in total). </li></ul><ul><li>Racist overtones led to abolition in 1965. The 1965 Act set an annual limit of 120,000 immigrants from the Western Hemisphere and 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere – equal chance of acceptance. </li></ul>
  6. 6. White Migration <ul><li>1800-1910 – 40mn from Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Settled initially in the NE to work in industry and on the land. As the west opened up, movement took place westwards to California aided by the railways. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent internal migration to ‘Sunbelt’ of west and south – for retirement and to new industrial growth and out of desire to move out fo the cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences – brought capital, expertise & labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich cultural & political mix, rising living standards, products shifted back to Europe & helped further growth. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Black Migration <ul><li>1750-1850 15mn slaves from West Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>After Civil War & abolition of slavery, many moved to industrial cities in the North & settled in black ghettos. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1945 move west to large metropolitan centres of California. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent counter-migration back to the south attracted by oil and technology boom. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: Higher fertility rates than whites, rich labour source, culture, racial tension, discrimination, ghettos </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consequences of policy changes <ul><li>Europe the major source region, has been overtaken since 1970 by the rest of the Americas & by Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic recession reopened the debate, as 5mn immigrants arrived 1991-6. Some Americans argued the immigrants were taking scarce jobs, racial tensions were voiced as well as the impact on welfare system. </li></ul><ul><li>1993 – Hardening attitudes – 60% of Americans seeing the current levels as worrying. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Spatially selective <ul><li>1995 – 55% of all immigration was to just 4 states – California, NY, Florida & Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>*Location of existing immigrant communities. </li></ul><ul><li>*Availability of employment in 4 most populous states. </li></ul><ul><li>*The land border with Mexico for California & Texas & Florida’s proximity to Caribbean countries. </li></ul><ul><li>(1/4 of Californians in 1997 were born outside the US, in LA it is 40%, NY 16% and 9.5% is the US average) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Recent migration trends <ul><li>West to California and south to Gulf states, partly a flow of retired people to warmer areas but much is due to more job opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralisation from large cities to the outer fringes and beyond. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent immigration amounting to 8 mn mainly from Mexico and Puerto Rico to the South and West to work in agriculture. </li></ul>