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  1. 1. URBANIZATION AND MIGRATION SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SURAT Presented by: 1. Manoj Patel Guided by: Prof. Himanshu Padhya Planning History & Theory 1
  2. 2. 1. Introduction 2. migration 3. Causes of Rural-Urban migration 4. Reasons migrate 5. Impact of migration 6. Effects of Rural-Urban Migration 7. Migration classification 8. Conclusion 9. Recommendations 10. References Contents 2
  3. 3.  Introduction Urbanization is the increase in the urban population of a country or area due to the following components of urban population growth: (a) urban natural increase, (b) urban net migration, (c) the reclassification of parts of the rural population into the category „urban‟. The process of urbanization is probably the most significant dimension of migration, due to its salient social and economic implications 3
  4. 4.  MIGRATION One of the most significant migration patterns has been rural to urban migration the movement of people from the countryside to cities in search of opportunities. Migrant: A person whose last usual place of residence was different from the present place of enumeration on the date of inquiry has been considered as migrants. 4
  5. 5.  Causes of Rural-Urban migration The major causes of rural-urban migration is identified as; search for better wages, education, political and social stability, better technologies, employment and business opportunities. poverty, unemployment, crop failures and famine, inadequate social amenities and facilities in the rural areas such as pipe borne water, electricity, good roads, hospitals, schools, vocational centres. 5
  6. 6.  Reasons Migrate 1. People migrate for both voluntary and involuntary reasons 2. Voluntary migration occurs when people choose to leave one place for another 3. An example of voluntary migration is moving to Florida from the northeastern U.S. in search of warmer weather 4. Involuntary migration occurs when people are forced to move to a new place 5. Africans who were kidnapped and brought to the Americas as slaves are an example of involuntary migrants 6
  7. 7.  Impacts of Migration Human migration affects population patterns and characteristics, social and cultural patterns and processes, economies, and physical environments. As people move, their cultural traits and ideas diffuse along with them, creating and modifying cultural landscapes. 1. Diffusion: The process through which certain characteristics (e.g., cultural traits, ideas, disease) spread over space and through time. 2. Relocation Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc. that move with people from one place to another and do not remain in the point of origin. 3. Expansion Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc., that move with people from one place to another but are not lost at the point of origin, such as language. 7
  8. 8.  Effects of Rural-Urban Migration 1. As more and more people arrive in the urban centre, there will be insufficient jobs for them and the unemployment rate will increase 2. brings pressure on urban housing and the environment as migrants arrive from rural areas they live on the streets & makeshift sub- standard accommodation 3. Population growth in the urban centres also lessens the quality of life because it: destroys resources, such as water and forests, needed for sustenance 4. Over population of the urban centres thus encouraging and raising the rate of crime in the society 8
  9. 9.  Types Of Migration 1. Permanent migration 2. Return migration 3. Forced migration 4. Seasonal migration 5. Irregular migration 6. Migration for education 7. Voluntary migration 8. Marriage migration 9
  10. 10.  Factors affecting Globalization synonymous acceleration. Globalization has today precipitated the process due to increased opportunities. The reality is that people today, are moving in search of survival, fulfillment, in search of way to create new identities and a better life for themselves and their families. Marketisation Sound marketisation becomes center of gravity for migration by surrounded regions. This type of areas attracts more & more people from the other areas for better earnings prospects and better standard of life and these impacts on migration for shifting from one region to other. 10
  11. 11.  Migration classification  Inter state: Movement beyond the border of one state  Intra state: Movement within the border of one state  Rural to rural  Rural to urban  Urban to rural  Urban to urban  Governing factors 11
  12. 12.  Conclusion 1. The rate of rural-urban migration is alarming in recent years and its effects are not only felt by the destination regions alone but also felt by the source regions-as facilities in the destination regions are overstretched, the source regions are virtually deserted. 2. Unless the government provides the basic necessities of life to the rural areas and provide the productive youth in the rural areas with employment opportunities people will continuously drift in to the urban centres from the rural areas in search for better life and employment 12
  13. 13.  Recommendations 1. In view of the effects of rural-urban migration the Government should strive to provide social amenities and facilities in the rural areas 2. The Government should also provide jobs for the citizens in the rural areas 3. Vocational training centres should be established in the rural centres for training of the productive youths for self employment 4. Those youths that passed out of the Vocational training centres should be given micro-loans as a start-up capital 13
  14. 14. References Reports 1. A pilot Study: Report of Migration, Trafficking and sites of work: Rights and Vulnerabilities, by jagori, New Delhi. 1995. 2. A report on Migration in India, National Sample Survey Organization, October, 1998. 3. Urbanization and migration, Department of social development, 2009 Research Papers 1. J. Ghosh, (2009), “Migration and Gender Empowerment: Recent Trends and Emerging Issues”, The Journal of UNDP. 2. J.n.chodhary(2002), “Male-female migration in india:Causes And Trends” 14