The Earth is like a living organism, which itself engaged in a self regulation to support its own "survival"
"The chemical and physical condition of the surface of the Earth, of the atmosphere, and of the oceans has been made fit and is actively made fit and comfortable by the presence of life itself."
A. Population growth B. Resource use without preventing pollution and reducing waste C. Degrading habitats and reduction of biodiversity D. Poverty E. Failure of govt to encourage earth sustaining economic development
I mpact = P opulation x A ffluence x T echnology. where: I is the impact on the environment resulting from consumption P is the population number A is the consumption per capita (affluence) T is the technology factor
Troposphere : 75% of mass of air; 17 km thick A turbulent layer of rising and falling air currents.
Stratosphere : extends up to 50 km above the Earth's surface. Less dense, contains nearly 99% of remaining atm.; similar composition. Ozone has a higher volume here (1000 x troposphere), water vapor has a lower volume (1/1000). Calm air. Little vertical mixing.
Air pollution results from human activities such as burning fossil fuels (oil, coal, and gasoline) to create electricity and power automobiles, and manufacture industrial products such as chemicals and plastic.
The air Pollutants are particulates, HC, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, SO3 -- source may be industrial, autos, etc.
Air pollutants can overload or break down the natural defenses such as hair in our nose, sticky mucus in the lining of the upper respiratory tract causing diseases like lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis etc.,
Cigarette smoking is responsible for the greatest exposure to carbon monoxide.Exposure to air containing even 0.001% of carbon monoxide for several hours can cause collapse, coma and even death.
CO is attached to blood hemoglobin reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. This impairs perception and thinking, slows reflexes and causes headaches, drowsiness, dizziness and nausea and blurred vision.
Nitrogen oxides and suspended particles both can irritate lungs, aggravate asthma or chronic bronchitis and increase respiratory infections.
Many volatile organic compounds such as benzene and formaldehyde and toxic particulates such as lead and cadmium can cause mutations, reproductive problems and cancer, breathlessness and irritation of the eye, nose and throat.
Caused by SO2 and NO2. Alone cause dry acid deposition, with all forms of water vapor, these form sulfuric and nitric acid - acid rain downwind of sites of emission.
Logarithmic scale. pH of 4 is 10 x more acidic than pH of 5. Normal rain water pH 5.0-5.6 approx. Acid rain < 5.0 Affects industrialized areas worldwide. Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, N.E. U. S. Developing countries have more pollution, fewer controls than developed countries.