ICT Centered Teaching & Learning


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ICT Centered Teaching & Learning

  1. 1. ICT- centered Teaching Learning Presented by Dr. B. Victor St. Xavier’s College Palayamkottai.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Teacher centered Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Learner centered Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>ICT centered Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>ICT Skills and competencies </li></ul><ul><li>ICT Tools and Digital Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Computers in Education </li></ul><ul><li>Web based teaching/ learning </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory learning </li></ul><ul><li>Visual representations </li></ul><ul><li>End Note </li></ul>Presentation outline
  3. 3. “ The quality of education is not to be measured by its length and breadth but only by its depth” -Vinoba Bhave
  4. 4. <ul><li>For many years, teachers taught and students were responsible for learning the material. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the student’s responsibility to acquire the knowledge for success. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary concern of the teacher was to impart the knowledge. </li></ul>Teacher Centered Philosophy
  5. 5. <ul><li>Student learning is the primary goal of the teacher as opposed to teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher must motivate the students to learn, participate, critically think and successfully perform in tests. </li></ul>Learner centered philosophy
  6. 6. Student- centered Flexible Learning
  7. 7. <ul><li>Learning is a process in which four components interact : </li></ul><ul><li>(1) the teacher, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the student, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) curriculum content and goals, (4) instructional materials and infrastructure </li></ul>Process of Learning
  8. 8. Materials Teachers Learners Teaching / Learning Materials
  9. 9. <ul><li>Learning by Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by Example </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul>Learning Modes
  10. 10. <ul><li>ICT in education is a much needed vehicle of achieving the modern philosophy of education whereby a student can decide on:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT he learns  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHEN he learns  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHERE he learns, and  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW he learns  </li></ul></ul>The modern philosophy of education
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ Technology will not have a significant impact on student learning until teachers change the way they teach.” Larry Cuban, 1986 </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Technology is continuously changing . It is an ongoing process. It demands continual learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Change is not always easy. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial human reaction to change is resistance. Resistance makes for slow change. </li></ul><ul><li>Change is inevitable . </li></ul><ul><li>Change led to progress . </li></ul><ul><li>The acceptance of change is a major requirement for technology integration. </li></ul>Technology integration
  13. 13. <ul><li>Technology is revolutionizing the way we think, work, and play. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology enables teachers to provide multiple representations of content (images, graphs, diagrams, tables) and multiple options for expression ( multimedia, power point). </li></ul><ul><li>Computer technology changes traditional classroom instructional techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers enable students to process the information via multiple intelligences . </li></ul>Why do we need technology integration?
  14. 14. <ul><li>Technology integration helps to achieve 21st Century Skills in students . They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal and social responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning, critical thinking , reasoning, and creativity . </li></ul><ul><li>Strong communication skills , both for interpersonal and presentation needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizing and decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how and when to use technology and choosing the most appropriate tool for the task. </li></ul>Technology integration: Reasons
  15. 15. <ul><li>Technology helps change the student/teacher roles and relationships . </li></ul><ul><li>Technology cannot teach; only teachers can teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology can enhance the teaching- learning process. </li></ul>Technology can do..
  16. 16. What is Technology integration? <ul><li>Technology integration is the use of technology resources -- computers, Internet, e-mail, digital cameras, CD-ROMs, software applications, electronic publications, etc. -- in daily classroom practices, and in the management of a College. </li></ul>
  17. 17. How to use Information technologies effectively ? <ul><li>Using computer-based services to search for and find relevant information in a range of contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>using a variety of media to retrieve information. </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding information in variety of forms- written, statistical and graphic. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Information literacy <ul><li>Using computer based services to write, analyze, present and communicate information; </li></ul><ul><li>Using information technologies to create, to share and to store knowledge . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The literature generally describes 3 major instructional use of computer based technologies: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from the Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Learning about the Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Learning with the Technology. </li></ul>Instructional use of Computer based Technology
  20. 20. <ul><li>According to Mr. Kofi Annan , Secretary-General of the United Nations, Information and Communication Technology has transformed education. </li></ul>Viewpoint...
  21. 21. <ul><li>ICTs provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text - bound classrooms into rich, student – focused, interactive knowledge environment. </li></ul>Viewpoint...
  22. 22. Food for thought <ul><li>“ Any technology which increase the rate of learning would enable the teacher to teach less and the learner to learn more ” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Information and Communication technology <ul><li>Information technology (IT) is defined as the study or use of electronic equipments, especially computers for storing, analysing and sending out information. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication technology is the process of sending, receiving and exchanging information. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>ICT is a generic term referring to technologies, which are being used for collecting, storing, editing and passing on information in various forms (SER,1997) </li></ul>The meaning of ICT
  25. 25. Factory model of education Broadcast model of education Paradigm shift
  27. 27. <ul><li>ICT literacy basically involves using digital technology, communication tools and/or access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information in order to function in a knowledge society. </li></ul>ICT literacy
  28. 28. <ul><li>EFFICIENCY: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FASTER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHEAPER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEWER STEPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LESS PEOPLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LESS PAPER WORK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EFFECTIVENESS: </li></ul><ul><li>MOST INTERACTIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEWER ERRORS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CUSTOMIZED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PERSONALIZED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARCHIVABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRANSPARENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEARCHABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>INNOVATION </li></ul><ul><li>NEW PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>NEW TECHNIQUES </li></ul>ICT- Characteristics
  29. 29. 1.Entry Phase <ul><li>Teachers use traditional print-based media. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning activities center around seat-based work. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are most concerned about the basic operation of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I just don’t have time!” </li></ul>
  30. 30. 2.Adoption Phase <ul><li>Classroom instruction still depends heavily upon chalkboards, textbooks, </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers use word processors for writing activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers use educational software, including rudimentary drill-and-practice software to develop low-level skills. </li></ul>
  31. 31. 3.Adaptation Phase <ul><li>Students use word processors, databases, some graphics applications, and many computer-assisted instruction packages. </li></ul><ul><li>With the support of technology, student productivity increases </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ basic computer skills improve. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are allowed to progress at their own paces. </li></ul>
  32. 32. 4.Appropriation Phase <ul><li>Teachers and students demonstrate highly developed skills with technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are comfortable with technology </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers develop new instructional strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis shifts to collaborative learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Students move toward collaborative work patterns. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 5.Invention Phase <ul><li>Teachers facilitate the construction of student knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Classrooms promote social interaction, encouraging students to share their own knowledge and experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers implement a curriculum integrated with technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers employ a variety of student assessment activities, </li></ul>
  34. 34. the educators should acquire: <ul><li>1.ICT Operations and Concepts – teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of ICT operations and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences – teachers plan and design effective learning environments supported by ICT. </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Teaching, Learning and the Curriculum – teachers implement curriculum plans that include methods and strategies for applying ICT. </li></ul>ICT skills and competencies-
  35. 35. The skills and competencies <ul><li>4.Assessment and Evaluation – teachers apply ICT to facilitate a variety of effective assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Productivity and Professional Practice – teachers use ICT to enhance their productivity and professional practices </li></ul><ul><li>6.Social, Ethical, Legal and Human Issues – teachers understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of ICT in College. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Initial: This level indicates that the educator has a level of awareness of the potential uses of ICT. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the stage when the educator first begins to experiment ICT in the classroom at a basic level for discrete lessons. </li></ul>Skilled Educators :  ICT Literacy Level - I
  37. 37. <ul><li>Developing :  This level indicates that the educator is increasingly aware of using ICT to enhance student learning.  </li></ul><ul><li>The educator now incorporates ICT into the classroom on a daily basis. </li></ul>ICT Literacy Level - II
  38. 38. <ul><li>  Proficient :  This level indicates that the educator is a leader in the use of ICT. </li></ul>ICT Literacy Level - III
  39. 39. <ul><li>Instructional computing consists of IT tools, methods and services. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows faculty to improve their teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>It provide an enhancing learning environment for students. </li></ul>Instructional Computing
  40. 40. <ul><li>1.Improved /expanded faculty- student communications-e.g e-mail, on-line chatrooms, virtual class hours. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Improved instructional logistics and communications-e.g. e-syllbus, on-line submission of assignment, on-line testing </li></ul>Instructional I T
  41. 41. <ul><li>3.Expanded and improved classrooms and laboratory instructional methods- e.g . simulations ,visualization applications. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Use of alternate learning delivery mechanisms- e.g . satellite, video, cable, internet </li></ul>Instructional I T
  42. 42. <ul><li>5.Faculty IT access to electronic material-e.g . digital library, multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>6.The IT infrastructure needed to support the above uses-e.g . www, file servers, news servers, courseware acquisition and distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Wired classrooms with audio/visual equipment and computer projection and instructional laboratories. </li></ul>Instructional I T
  43. 43. Attributes of Computer based technology <ul><li>Multi-sensory delivery : Text, graphics, animation, sound and video. </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning : enhanced learner interest . </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operative learning : positive group/social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills : one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many. </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural education : link students from across the country/around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation : greater learner engagement (time). </li></ul>
  44. 44. Computer technology-based learning <ul><li>Prior to working with computers , students can discuss concepts in the lesson and plan - what they are going to do. </li></ul><ul><li>While using computers , students can discuss - either orally or via computer - what they are working on. </li></ul><ul><li>During a pause in computer use , students can analyze - what they have learned and done , share information with others, and plan their next steps. </li></ul><ul><li>After using computers , students can again analyze and share - what they have learned and done, as well as what they need to do next. </li></ul>
  45. 45. ICT poses new challenges to Educators <ul><li>The teachers have to learn how to use the variety of ICT applications; </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers have to use , adapt and design ICT-enhanced curricula; </li></ul><ul><li>They have to expand the content area of knowledge; </li></ul><ul><li>They have to take new roles ; and </li></ul><ul><li>They have to respond to individual students </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Learning Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborator </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer </li></ul><ul><li>Advisor </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum designer </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional designer </li></ul><ul><li>Team Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Co-learner </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Specialist </li></ul>New roles of teachers
  47. 47. <ul><li>Traditional medium </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>books </li></ul><ul><li>ICT medium </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul>New Learning Resources
  48. 48. <ul><li>ICT does not automatically add quality to teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT application in education can accelerate and improve learning on a number of fronts from basic skills, problem solving, information management, establishing life-long learning habits and concepts development . </li></ul><ul><li>It can also provide the means of gathering, connecting and analysing data about teaching and learning. </li></ul>ICT in Education
  49. 49. <ul><li>Multimedia PC, Laptop, Notebook. </li></ul><ul><li>CDs& DVDs. digital video, still camera. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet and its tools- e-mail ,browsers, website, search engines, chat etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer aided instruction & computer mediated conferencing , video/audio conferencing. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital libraries , e-books& electronic publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive TVs. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft publishing -news letter, poster, brochure. </li></ul>ICT - Tools
  50. 50. <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Logistic skills </li></ul>ICT-Benefits
  51. 51. Advantages of ICT <ul><li>resource sharing;  </li></ul><ul><li>wide variety of services;  </li></ul><ul><li>flexibility;  </li></ul><ul><li>reliability;  </li></ul><ul><li>faster speed;  </li></ul><ul><li>cheaper cost.  </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Word processing -documents, notes, projects, assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Spread sheet programming -records, exam scores </li></ul><ul><li>Data bases -information storage </li></ul><ul><li>Graphing software -to prepare teaching-learning resources </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Multimedia kits -to make process interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Using internet and e-mail facilities -to gain knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Games and simulations -to improve quality of learning </li></ul>Digital techniques in Education
  53. 53. <ul><li>Helps to provide interactive learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Students are stimulated and motivated by the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Students have comfortable learning . </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization aids in the understanding of difficult concepts and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Caters to different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students to gain valuable computer skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in collaboration and group work . </li></ul>ICT influence in Learning
  54. 54. <ul><li>Transforms teaching and helps teachers to be more efficient and effective . </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in the organization and the structure of the course and the course materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides innovative ways to help students learn basic concepts and skills . </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in the provision of interesting and creative presentations of content. </li></ul>ICT Influence on Teaching
  55. 55. <ul><li>Facilitate collaboration and communication . </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in the visualization of difficult concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Promote creativity . </li></ul><ul><li>Enable ease in revision and updating of course content. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide flexibility and variety in learning . </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a multimedia presence in the classroom. </li></ul>Unique Attributes
  56. 56. <ul><li>C omputer is a creativity machine, </li></ul><ul><li>Computer is a information processing tool, </li></ul><ul><li>Computer is a teaching aid. </li></ul>Computer
  57. 57. Computer technology <ul><li>1. Computers provide an opportunity to enhance the way students think about, manage, process and use information. </li></ul><ul><li>2.The use of computers helps us see patterns and relationships in the data that we collect and work with. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Students can learn the material at their own time and pace. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Computer based learning appeals to a variety of cognitive strengths and learning styles. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Computer-mediated instructional (CMI) materials <ul><li>Learner centered </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge centered </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment centered </li></ul><ul><li>Society centered </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>CBI provides consistency of content delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI provides for diverse learning needs. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI offers learner flexibility in controlling and pacing learning. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI provides motivation and promotes interactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI provides greater retention and reduces the instructional time. </li></ul>Computer –Based Instruction, CBI
  60. 60. <ul><li>CBI provides means of tracking learners’ progress. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI allows standardized testing. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI provides opportunities for practice through simulation. </li></ul><ul><li>CBI more readily provides training to remote locations and eliminates cost associated with travel. </li></ul>CBI
  61. 61. <ul><li>A system that allows access to information sites all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is presented in text, audio and video files. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources such as lecture notes, readings, tutorials and assignments can be delivered to, and received from, students both on and off campus. </li></ul>World Wide Web
  62. 62. <ul><li>Web assisted classroom instruction -the teacher teaches the lesson with the help of the website. </li></ul><ul><li>The interactions may be in the form of discussion ,questioning, demonstration and experiment. </li></ul>Web Based Instruction
  63. 63. <ul><li>The learner searches website, collects information and learns the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Web is a viable tool to help students gain education without being on campus. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows greater autonomy of learning. </li></ul>Web based learning
  64. 64. <ul><li>the Internet consists of a vast collection of independent computers linked by national and international tele-communication networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Internet site contains information ( text, images, audio, video, links etc .) which are accessible to the individual working from their home computer. </li></ul>Internet
  65. 65. <ul><li>Internet sites are increasing in number, sophistication and content. </li></ul><ul><li>These changes have arisen due to commercial adoption of the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet provides information in text, graphics, audio and video . </li></ul><ul><li>New programming allows a greater degree of interactivity through real time audiovisual transfers and chat. </li></ul><ul><li>Coloured and animated graphics are of much greater educational value than photocopied images </li></ul>Properties of Internet sites
  66. 66. Online learning tasks <ul><li>One - alone: Online data bases, e-journals, digital libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>One – to - one: Collaborative assignments’ interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>One – to - many: Online lectures, symposiums. </li></ul><ul><li>Many - to - many : Discussion groups, debates, games, simulations, case studies, brain storming, project groups. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Hypertext consist of a complex webs of interrelated ideas/documents. </li></ul><ul><li>The linking of information together by highlighted key words that have been marked up creating paths through related material from different sources. </li></ul>Hypertext tools
  68. 68. <ul><li>An approach to information storage and retrieval that provides multiple linkages among elements . </li></ul><ul><li>It allows the learner to navigate easily from one piece of information to another. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the storage and retrieval of text, images audio and video files. </li></ul>Hypermedia tools
  69. 69. <ul><li>A connection among documents in a hypermedia or hypertext format. </li></ul>Hyperlink
  70. 70. <ul><li>It provides a platform for incorporating a variety of different kinds of multi-media file types: images, video, audio and animations. </li></ul><ul><li>It is neat and clean and it allows for portability of materials. </li></ul><ul><li>It is easy for professors to update, saving them time and energy. </li></ul>Power point Presentation
  71. 71. <ul><li>Scanning media. </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to experts. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording information. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing/ producing compositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging research. </li></ul>Multi-media applications
  72. 72. <ul><li>Students who use multimedia tools are active learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Students reflect these kind of tasks throughout their life. </li></ul><ul><li>Students work collaboratively, not only with each other, but with researchers and teachers. </li></ul>Multimedia Applications in Student Learning
  73. 73. <ul><li>A typical system consists of a combination of a compact disc, computer and video technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The interactive video refers broadly to software that responds to certain choices and commands by the user. </li></ul>Interactive video
  74. 74. <ul><li>Videodisc systems store video pictures, still pictures, and sound on discs that users can control with a videodisc player. </li></ul><ul><li>These systems can provide the interactive capabilities of computers and the motion-picture capabilities of videos. </li></ul>The interactive video
  75. 75. <ul><li>Video Conferencing is a medium where individuals or groups can meet face-to-face in real time to interact and exchange ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing began in the mid 1980's as compressed video. </li></ul><ul><li>Since it was introduced, communication technologies have improved exponentially. </li></ul>Video Conferencing
  76. 76. <ul><li>A computer simulation attempts to reproduce real-life situations </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations feature a combination of text and graphics ,using dialogue and inquiry to guide the student through a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations also can bring about higher-order synthesis and analysis skills . </li></ul>Simulation
  77. 77. <ul><li>Tutorials are one of the most common types of computer-assisted instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials are “page-turners” similar to textbooks, interspersed with predetermined questions and responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The one-to-one tutoring and feedback provided by a tutorial can make it an excellent tool for improving student knowledge (cognitive domain). </li></ul>Tutorials
  78. 78. <ul><li>Drill-and-practice programs work well in increasing student knowledge through repetition, usually through cues </li></ul><ul><li>Students can take as much time as they need or repeat sections, helping to individualize instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Drill-and-practice programs provide automatic feedback to learners. </li></ul>Drill-and-Practice (Review)
  79. 79. <ul><li>ICT allow students to direct their own learning. </li></ul><ul><li>the student learns facts, concepts, and procedures through the process of discovery, or guided discovery. </li></ul>Role of ICT in Discovery Learning
  80. 80. ICT in Discovery Learning <ul><li>1.Computer-based information retrieval systems (e.g., electronic databases), </li></ul><ul><li>2. Micro-worlds (microcomputer-based labs and simulations. Simulations are available for biology, genetics, geology, chemistry, physics, environment, social studies, economics, and mathematics- ), and </li></ul><ul><li>3.Interactive video </li></ul><ul><li>It allows control of sound, animation, text, graphics, and full-motion video . </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>A digital library is a collection of textual, numeric, graphic, audio and video data stored in digital form, indexed and logically linked for ease of retrieval. </li></ul>Digital Library
  82. 82. <ul><li>Textual data </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric data </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics data </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Audio data </li></ul><ul><li>Video data </li></ul>Components of a Digital Library
  83. 83. Unique features of digital library <ul><li>Safe storage and multiple access of material </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to process numerical data published in the literature </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to store variety of data </li></ul><ul><li>Access information from anywhere in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of search and retrieval </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>E-learning allows for different learning experiences through: </li></ul><ul><li>On - line students group : allowing students to interact with each other </li></ul><ul><li>On - line lecturing : allowing faculty to interact with students </li></ul><ul><li>On - line counseling : helps students in decision- making </li></ul><ul><li>On - line libraries and resource center : providing text, documents, articles for reference. </li></ul>E-learning
  85. 85. <ul><li>E-mail enables students and faculty to communicate with each other and with people all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Students send questions to the instructor and instructor can transmit the answer instantaneously to all students. </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty can hold “ electronic office hours” so that students can ask questions and receive answers almost immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty can create “electronic suggestion foxes” where students can post their comments about the course. </li></ul>E- mail
  86. 86. <ul><li>Structured face-to-face telephone interviewing where computer is used to prompt the interviewee and record the answer in a format convenient for further processing. </li></ul><ul><li>It saves time and the need to travel. </li></ul><ul><li>It opens up possibilities for interviewing research subjects from different parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a limited register for communication. </li></ul>E- interviews
  87. 87. Technology-enhanced pedagogical practices <ul><li>Promote active and autonomous learning in students; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with competencies and technological skills that allow them to search for, organize, and analyze information, and communicate their ideas in a variety of media forms; </li></ul><ul><li>Enable teachers, students, and their parents to communicate and share information on-line; </li></ul><ul><li>Engage students in collaborative, project-based learning in which students work with classmates on complex, real-world-like problems or projects; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with individualized or differentiated instruction , to meet the needs of students with different achievement levels, interests, or learning styles; </li></ul>
  88. 88. Computers and Related Technology in Education
  89. 89. Applications of graphics <ul><li>Rieber (1994) proposed five applications of graphics that relate to learning outcomes and events of instruction; these include: </li></ul><ul><li>cosmetic – graphics serve only as decoration </li></ul><ul><li>motivation – graphics serve to arouse curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>attention-gaining – graphics serve to focus the learner’s attention on the instruction </li></ul><ul><li>presentation – graphics serve to &quot;demonstrate or elaborate a lesson concept&quot; (p.50) </li></ul><ul><li>practice – graphics serve to provide visual feedback </li></ul>
  90. 90. A dual coding theory of learning from visual and verbal materials. (Mayer, 1993)   
  91. 91. Framework of Mayer (1993) <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>This framework postulates the formation of three types of mental &quot;connections&quot;:    </li></ul><ul><li>1) visual material is used to mentally form a internal visual representation;  </li></ul><ul><li>2) verbal material is used to form a verbal representation, thus forming a verbal representational connection; </li></ul><ul><li>3) the learner builds referential connections between the visual representation and verbal representation. </li></ul>
  92. 92. SIMPLE GRAPHICS- 1
  95. 95. VISUAL TOOLS <ul><li>To clarify your point </li></ul><ul><li>To emphasize your point </li></ul><ul><li>To simplify your point </li></ul><ul><li>To unify your point </li></ul><ul><li>To impress your learner </li></ul>
  96. 96. <ul><li>Dart, B & Boulton-Lewis, G (eds) (1998) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education . Melbourne, Australian Council for Educational Research. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbs G & Habeshaw T (1995) 253 Ideas for your Teaching. Bristol, Technical and Education Services. </li></ul><ul><li>Laurillard, D (1993) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use </li></ul><ul><li>of Educational Technology . London, Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Weimer, M. (1990). Improving college teaching: Strategies for developing instructional effectiveness . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Sandholtz, J. H., C. Ringstaff, and D.W. Dwyer (1997). Teaching with Technology: Creating Student-centered Classrooms . New York, Teachers College Press. </li></ul>References
  97. 97. <ul><li>“ If we understand the human mind, we begin to understand what we can do with educational Technology” </li></ul><ul><li>- Herbert A. Simon. </li></ul>
  98. 98. About the presenter <ul><li>Dr.B.Victor is a highly experienced postgraduate biology teacher, recently retired from the reputed educational institution St. Xavier’ s College, Palayamkottai, India-627001. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the dean of sciences and assistant controller of examinations. </li></ul><ul><li>He has more than 32 years of teaching and research experience </li></ul><ul><li>He has taught a diversity of courses ranging from Send your comments to : pre- university to post graduate classes. </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  99. 99. Thanks a lot Presentation is over