<ul><li>Logical operations of thinking in </li></ul><ul><li>investigations. They are either basic or </li></ul><ul><li>integrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Process Skills : Observing, comparing, classifying, quantifying, inferring, predicting, communicating and manipulative skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Process Skills: Embodied in experimenting which includes hypothesizing, controlling variables and classifying data . </li></ul>
1. OBSERVING <ul><li>most basic and fundamental of the process skills. One cannot compare, classify or perform the other process skills without being a good observer. We observe objects or events through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Describing a pencil as yellow </li></ul>
The Process of observing can be: <ul><li>Qualitative – this is identifying and naming the properties of an object such as its shape, color, size, texture, smell, and sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative – This kind of observation involves measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Change – it could be the result of crushing, pounding, burning, cutting, decaying, etc. </li></ul>
2. COMPARING <ul><li>Comparing is using observable properties in discovering similarities of and differences between objects and phenomena. Through comparison, we are able to identify relationships among objects and phenomena observed. </li></ul>
3. CLASSIFYING <ul><li>There is an overwhelming number of things around us – nonliving and living things. Order can be attained by observing similarities, differences and interrelationships and by grouping them accordingly to suit some purpose. </li></ul>Example: Placing all rocks having certain grain size or hardness into one group.
4. INFERRING <ul><li>While observing is getting information by using one or more senses, inferring is explaining or interpreting an observation. </li></ul>Example: Saying that the person who used a pencil made a lot of mistakes because the eraser was well worn.
5. PREDICTING <ul><li>Predicting is the process of using past observations or data along with other kinds of scientific knowledge to forecast event or relationships. A statement not based on observation is not a prediction. It is simply a guess. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpolation – is predicting new data based on and within a trend/ pattern of previously observed data. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrapolation - is predicting new data outside or beyond the range of previously observed data. </li></ul>
6. QUANTIFYING <ul><li>Quantifying is making and manipulating quantitative observations. </li></ul><ul><li>This involves: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Using numbers </li></ul><ul><li>2. measuring </li></ul><ul><li>3. using time and space </li></ul>Example: Using a meter stick to measure the length of a table in centimeters.
7. COMMUNICATING <ul><li>Expressing ideas in many forms, such as orally, in writing or with graphs, diagrams, tables of data or photographs is a way of communicating. </li></ul>Example: Describing the change in height of a plant over time in writing or through a graph.
8. MANIPULATIVE SKILLS <ul><li>These skills involve using equipment and materials properly and accurately, preparing setups for investigation, and handling specimen carefully. </li></ul>
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