BIO-ENERGY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY(314554) TRIMESTER 1/2012 SCHOOL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY SURANAREE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Jiraphorn Lubsungnoen ID. M5430116
Introduction Energy problem is one of the most important issues seeming endless and continually affects all human beings directly. Whereas the price of crude oil in the world market has been increased from time to time and the quantity of crude oil available is decreasing and shortage of fuel oils in world, therefore, it is essential to urgently seek for some substitute resources.
Introduction Each year world has to depend on imported energy from foreign sources which costs over a millions; therefore, saving energy whereas seeking and supporting for substitute ones called renewable energy should be encouraged. Renewable energy is usually in a never-ending supply.
Nonrenewable Energy Sources Natural resource which cannot be reproduced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate, once depleted there is no more available for future needs. Also considered non-renewable are resources that are consumed much faster than nature can create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas),nuclear power.
Nonrenewable Energy Sources In addition to these resources being limited, not only the burning but also the extraction of these energy sources has dire consequences to our environment
Fossil fuels Fuels formed by natural processes such as anareobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and nature gas.
Fossil fuels are non- renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. A global movement toward the generation of resources energy is therefore under way to help meet increased energy needs .
Coal A combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The forms of coal Peat Lignite Sub-bituminous Bituminous Anthracite
Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. Gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage are slightly more than those from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas.
Coal is extracted from the ground by mining, either underground by shaft mining through the seams or in open pits. The top hard and brown coal producers in 2010 were : China, United States, India, Australia, Indonesia , Russia , South Africa , Poland , Kazakhstan , and Colombia .
Petroleum Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earths surface.
Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization. It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol (or gasoline) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Petroleum is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million barrels each day. The use of fossil fuels such as petroleum can have a negative impact on Earths biosphere, releasing pollutants and greenhouse gases into the air and damaging ecosystems through events such as oil spills.
Natural gas Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, with up to 20 % of other hydrocarbons as well as impurities in varying amounts such as carbon dioxide.
Natural gas is widely used as an important energy source in many applications including ; Heating buildings Providing heat and power to industry As fuel for vehicles As a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of products such as plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Energy generation
Natural gas is found in deep underground natural rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs, in coal beds, Petroleum is also another resource found near and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic.
Nuclear power Nuclear power is a type of nuclear technology involving the controlled use of nuclear fission to release energy for work including propulsion, heat, and the generation of electricity.
Nuclear energy is produced by a controlled nuclear chain reaction which creates heat—and which is used to boil water, produces steam, and drive a steam turbine. The turbine is used to generate electricity and/or to do mechanical work.
Renewable energy Energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required. They are available in plenty and by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. For e.g.: Energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. Similarly, energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used this form of energy to another form.
Solar energy Radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar potovoltaics, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture.
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity Photovoltaics(PV), Concentrated solar power (CSP).
Wind energy Wind energy is a clean energy occurs because of temperature differences around the world. Some places, especially those near the Southwest Coast of Thailand, there are found to be a resource of dynamic energy (Pumping and Generating Electricity).
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, sails to propel ships.
A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbine which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation .
As of 2010 wind energy production was over 2.5% of worldwide power, growing at more than 25% per annum. The monetary cost per unit of energy produced is similar to the cost for new coal and natural gas installations.
Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal gradient drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.
Global geothermal energy capacity will grow 89% between now and 2015, according to the most recent information available from GlobalData.
Hydro energy Power derived from the energy of falling water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Hydro energy is simply energy that is taken from water and converted to electricity (Hydroelectric dam) Since ancient times, hydropower has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes.
One downside to using hydro energy is that it can sometimes change the natural flow of the water which can make it possible to harm plants and animals in the water. It can also damage areas and wildlife, as when creating a hydro electric dam.
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010.
3 hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW3 gorges dam in China Itaipu dam in Brazil Guri dam in Venezuela
Tidal energy Tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation.
Recent technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, cross flow turbines). Total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels
Biomass energy A renewable energy source is biological material from living. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel. In the first sense, biomass is plant matter used to generate electricity with steam turbines & gasifiers or produce heat, usually by direct combustion.
In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil)
Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, all release methane gas—also called "landfill gas" or "biogas." Crops such as corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left- over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats
Livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments have the potential to convert the treatment of livestock waste from a liability or cost component into a proﬁt center that can: (1) generate annual revenues; (2) moderate the impacts of commodity prices; and (3) diversify farm income.
Two basic platforms exist for converting organic biomass – the biochemical (biological) and thermochemical platformsConversion platforms for livestock waste-to-bioenergy conversion
Within these platforms are treatment processes that can be designed to solve odor problems, reduce volume, recover inherent nutrients, decrease pollution potential, as well as recover energy from the manure.
When selecting a conversion process, economics and both the available feedstock’s quantity and characteristics are important factors. In most instances, the desired energy form of the final end-product is the overriding factor. The end-products from each conversion process can be placed into three main groups: heat and power generation; transportation fuels; and chemical intermediates.
Bio-energy or Bio-fuel, which is fuel derived from biological sources. In its broader sense it includes Biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel One of the advantages of biomass fuel is that it is often a by-product, residue or waste-product of other processes, such as farming ,livestock, animal husbandry and forestry.
Biomass is material derived from recently living organisms, which includes plants, animals and their byproducts. Manure, garden waste and crop residues are all sources of biomass. It is renewable energy source based on the carbon cycle Another source includes Animal waste, which is a persistent and unavoidable pollutant produced primarily by the animals housed in industrial-sized farms.
Biodegradable outputs from industry, agriculture, forestry and households can be used for biofuel production, using e.g. anaerobic digestion to produce biogas, gasification to produce syngas or by direct combustion. Examples of biodegradable wastes include straw, timber, manure, rice husks, sewage, and food waste.
The use of biomass fuels can therefore contribute to waste management as well as fuel security and help to prevent or slow down climate change.
Bioethanol Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions.
Biodiesel Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles.
Biogas is a mixture of mainly methane gas and carbon dioxide gas. Biogas is produced when bacteria convert organic matter to methane gas.
Organic matter is the food source for methane producing bacteria. The primary organic matter source for farm-based biogas production is manure. Biogas can be produced using manure as the only organic source, but the gas production can be greatly increased by adding certain types of food wastes with the manure