BIO-ENERGY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY314554 Trimester 1/2012 School of biotechnology Institute of Agriculture Technology Suranaree University of Technology Jiraphorn Lubsungnoen ID. M5430116
IntroductionWhat is energy ??Energy is ability to do work. The energycan take a wide variety of forms heat(thermal), light (radiant), mechanical,electrical, chemical, and nuclear energy.
• These sources are divided into two groups renewable (an energy source that we can use over and over again) and nonrenewable/conventional (an energy source that we are using up and cannot recreate in a short period of time).• Renewable energy sources include solar energy (which comes from the sun and can be turned into electricity and heat), wind energy, geothermal energy (from inside the earth), biomass from plants, and hydropower from water are also renewable energy sources.
• However, we get most of our energy from nonrenewable energy sources, which include the fossil fuels oil, natural gas, and coal.•
Energy Management• Energy management is a term that has a number of meanings, but were mainly concerned with the one that relates to saving energy.
• Energy management is key to helping organizations improve energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and drive down energy costs.• Energy management is defined as the techniques, processes and activity which drive more efficient energy use.
Use of energy efficiency• Energy consumption design and planning that suitable for use. Development of energy policy.• Consumers are understand for manage about energy consumption.• Key of the energy consumption is use energy to a minimum but achieve according to all requirement and include the recycling of excess energy
Energy consumption designand planning• 1 Energy Management• 2 Energy Optimization• 3 Optimum Energy Efficiency• 4 System Efficiency• 5 Passive Measures• 6 Dynamic Measures•
• Energy management allows for a reduction in costs, carbon emissions and risk, ensuring the efficient use of energy consumption.
Necessity of Energy Management• Energy management is the key to saving energy.• Much of the importance of energy saving stems from the global need to save energy - this global need affects energy prices and legislation, all of which lead to several compelling reasons why you should save energy.
• Energy Management is necessarily required because it influences a number of aspects of company operation and activities including the following:• - Energy costs which affect the company profitability• - Energy costs which affect the competitiveness in the world market
• National energy supply/demand balance• - National trade and financial balance• - Local and global environments• - Occupational safety and health• - Loss prevention and waste disposal reduction• - Productivity• - Quality
Energy conservation• Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption.• Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources.
• Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security, and human comfort.• Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economic security.
• Energy needs to be conserved to protect our environment from drastic changes, to save the depleting resources for our future generations.
Way of energy management• Demand side management• Supply side management
Concept of energy management• Certain policy• - Clear plan• - Define responsible Monitoring of operations Preparing for data collection Data collection of the result obtained Evaluate and compare with targets
Energy management system• Energy management systems – Requirements with guidance for use, is a voluntary International Standard developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization).• ISO 50001 gives organizations the requirements for energy management systems (EnMS).• ISO 50001 provides benefits for organizations large and small, in both public and private sectors, in manufacturing and services, in all regions of the world.• ISO 50001 will establish a framework for industrial plants ; commercial, institutional, and governmental facilities ; and entire organizations to manage energy. Targeting broad applicability across national economic sectors, it is estimated that the standard could influence up to 60 % of the world’s energy use.
ISO 50001 — What will it do ?• The standard is intended to accomplish the following :• Assist organizations in making better use of their existing energy consuming assets• Create transparency and facilitate communication on the management of energy resources• Promote energy management best practices and reinforce good energy management behaviors• Assist facilities in evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-efficient technologies• Provide a framework for promoting energy efficiency throughout the supply chain• Facilitate energy management improvements for greenhouse gas emission reduction projects• Allow integration with other organizational management systems such as environmental, and health and safety.
Benefit of energy management• Direct benefit Organizing benefit National benefit Global benefit• By product or Side effect Environment control Personal development Machinery efficiency maintaining Honk and society
Energy problematic in the future• The world demand for energy is rapidly increasing. We need energy to warm our homes, to cook our meals, to travel and communicate, and to power our factories.
• The world energy demand is increasing due to population growth and to rising living standards. World population in doubling about every thirty-five years, though the rate of growth is very different in different countries.• The world energy use is doubling every fourteen years and the need is increasing faster still. One of the main energy sources is oil and the rate of production is expected to peak in the next few years.
• World Energy Consumption• According to U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the demand for global energy is projected to grow 44% between 2005 and 2030, driven by robust economic growth and expanding populations in the worlds developing countries.
• It has also been reported that the dependence on coal has increased sharply by the developing countries in the last few years and will continue to increase unless these nations change their existing laws and strategies and particularly those related to greenhouse gas emissions.
• Global Energy Growth• British Petroleum (BP) recently released their highly respected annual Statistical Review of World Energy for 2011. Most of the news stories on the report have focused on the exceptionally strong growth in global energy consumption.
• The world’s energy continues to evolve• Energy developments• World primary energy consumption grew by 2.5% in 2011, roughly in line with the10-year average.• Consumption in OECD countries fell by 0.8%, the third decline in the past four years. Non-OECD consumption grew by 5.3%, in line with the 10-year average.
• Global consumption growth decelerated in 2011 for all fuels, as did total energy consumption for all regions.• Oil remains the world’s leading fuel, at 33.1% of global energy consumption.
Distribution of proved reserves oil in 1991, 2001 and 2011
• Global oil trade in 2011 grew by 2%, or 1.1 million b/d. At 54.6 million b/d, trade accounted for 62% of global consumption, up from 58% a decade ago.• China accounted for roughly two-thirds of the growth in trade last year, with net imports (6 million b/d) rising by 13%.• US net imports were 29% below their 2005 peak. Middle East countries accounted for 81% of the growth in exports last year. While crude oil accounted for 70% of global trade in 2011, refined products accounted for two- thirds of the growth in global trade last year.
• Global oil consumption grew by a below-average 0.6 million barrels per day (b/d), or 0.7%.• This was once again the weakest global growth rate among fossil fuels. OECD consumption declined by 1.2% (600,000 b/d).Outside the OECD, consumption grew by 1.2 million b/d, or 2.8%.
Distribution of proved reservesnatural gas in 1991, 2001 and 2011
• World natural gas consumption grew by 2.2%. Consumption growth was below average in all regions except North America, where low prices drove robust growth.
• Global natural gas production grew by 3.1%. The US (+7.7%) recorded the largest volumetric increase despite lower gas prices, and remained the world’s largest producer.• Output also grew rapidly in Qatar (+25.8%), Russia (+3.1%) and Turkmenistan (+40.6%), more than offsetting declines in Libya (-75.6%) and the UK (-20.8%). As was the case for consumption,• EU recorded the largest decline in gas production on record (-11.4%), due to a combination of mature fields, maintenance, and weak regional consumption.
Distribution of proved reserves coal in 1991, 2001 and 2011
• Coal consumption grew by 5.4% in 2011.• Coal now accounts for 30.3% of global energy consumption, the highest share since 1969. Consumption outside the OECD rose by an above-average 8.4%, led by Chinese consumption growth of 9.7%. OECD consumption declined by 1.1% with losses in the US and Japan offsetting growth in Europe.
• Global coal production grew by 6.1%, with non-OECD countries accounting for virtually all of the growth and China (+8.8%).
Final energy consumption by economic sector• For final energy consumption by economic sector, the greatest share of 36% was from energy consumed in industrial sector, followed by transportation sector, commercial sector and agriculture sector shared 35.7% ,15.5% ,7.6% and 5.2% respectively.
• The use of domestic alternative energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass, biogas, garbage, biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) and NGV, driven by the 15-Year Alternative Energy Development plan, increased 19.4% from the previous year and sharing 12.1% of the total final energy consumption.
Consumption of electricity energy, heat/thermal energy, biofuel(ethanol and biodiesel) produced from domestic alternativeenergy and NGV shared 11.6%, 53.0%, 11.5% and 23.9%respectively.
Demographics andeconomic expansiondrive energy demand
Demographics and economicexpansion drive energy demand• The world’s population will rise by more than 25 percent from 2010 to 2040, reaching nearly 9 billion people.• Population and economic growth are key factors behind increasing demand for energy
• Non OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) will see a steep rise in population, but demographics also shape energy demand• global energy demand rising by about 30 percent from 2010 to 2040. By 2040.• But population growth is slowing. In some places – many OECD countries, plus China – populations will change little by 2040.
• This global deceleration, coupled with gains in energy efficiency, will further the significant slowdown in energy demand growth that has been under way for decades.
• Non OECD economies will grow much faster, at almost 4.5 percent a year. This economic growth – and the improved living standards it enables – will require more energy.
Nonrenewable Energy Resources Depletion• Negative effects of economic growth. It may be that economic growth improves the quality of life up to a point, after which it doesnt improve the quality of life, but rather obstructs sustainable living.• Historically, sustained growth has reached its limits (and turned to catastrophic decline) when perturbations to the environmental system last long enough to destabilize the bases of a culture.
• Resource depletion is an economic term referring to the exhaustion of raw materials within a region.• Resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources.• Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion. Resource depletion is most commonly used in reference to farming, fishing, mining, and fossil fuels.
Energy prices will rise• Energy prices will rise, substitutes will be found, and prices will come back down again, perhaps settling at a somewhat higher equilibrium reflecting the cost of producing the substitute energy source.
• Most of the time, oil prices will end up in the uncomfortable middle--too high for the economy to buzz along, but too low to encourage much new oil production, or much new renewable production.• The result is likely to be continuing recession, getting worse over time, because of what will be generally viewed as inadequate demand for oil.