Biofuels

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Biofuels from a chemistry sense - revision slides

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Biofuels

  1. 1. WHAT ARE THEY
  2. 3. <ul><li>Biofuels are fuels made from plant material and recycled elements of the food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>These fuels are generally in the form of alcohols, esters, ethers, and other chemicals produced from biomass. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The principle fuel used as a petrol substitute for road transport vehicles is bioethanol. Bioethanol fuel is mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it can also be manufactured by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam. </li></ul><ul><li>The main sources of sugar required to produce ethanol come from fuel or energy crops. These crops are grown specifically for energy use and include corn, maize and wheat crops . </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol or ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is a clear colourless liquid, it is biodegradable, low in toxicity and causes little environmental pollution if spilt. Ethanol burns to produce carbon dioxide and water. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Biodiesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from straight vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. The process used to convert these oils to Biodiesel is called transesterification. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Advantages
  6. 7. Renewable Sugar beet Rape seed
  7. 8. Dramatically reduces emissions Carbon neutral
  8. 9. Biodegradable Non-toxic
  9. 10. Fuel and exhaust emissions are less unpleasant
  10. 11. Can be used directly in unmodified diesel engine
  11. 12. High flashpoint- safer to store and transport Simple to make
  12. 13. Used neat or blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel
  13. 14. So Its A Good Idea!
  14. 15. Disadvantages
  15. 16. <ul><li>Poorly made biodiesel can cause engine problems- gives out more nitrogen oxide emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel produced from </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural crops involve </li></ul><ul><li>additional land use </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation & storage requires special management. It can’t be transported in pipelines, it has to be transported by truck or rail, which increases the cost. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Biodiesel is less suitable </li></ul><ul><li>for use in low temperatures, </li></ul><ul><li>than petrodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Another disadvantage of </li></ul><ul><li>biodiesel is that it tends to </li></ul><ul><li>reduce fuel economy </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Poor availability- very few </li></ul><ul><li>outlets & manufacturers </li></ul>
  17. 18. Future Problems
  18. 19. <ul><li>Some countries have limited water resources </li></ul><ul><li>A suitable climate is needed to grow most crops </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Crops grown for biodiesel use land for food crops </li></ul><ul><li>There isn’t enough food waste to produce large amounts of biodiesel </li></ul>

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