Food Safety


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  • My target audience for this presentation is for University students who have an interest in food safety and food science. As well as persons who work in the area of food and nutrition services. Providing the customer the safe, quality, and nutritious food is essential and extremely important for most humans as it is the basis of wellness and and good health. This topic has also been on the increase in the US as food borne illness outbreaks in the US have also increased over the past decade.
  • FATTOM Food safety training program and personal hygiene of employees The audience will learn these outcomes by the end of this presentation.
  • National Restaurant association (2005) Servsafe Essentials (5 th ed) Chicago, IL Learning Objectives 1.- Recognize the importance of food safety 2. Recognize the risks associated with high risk populations. 3. Avoiding potential hazards to food safety 4. Understanding how food becomes unsafe 5. Understanding important prevention measures for keeping food safe.
  • CDC (2011) Food borne Active Surveillance Network, US 1996-2009. Retrieved from Food service mangers have the the responsibility to the operation, employees, and customers
  • CDC(2011) Food safety retrieved from safety Food borne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food
  • CDC(2011) Rates of lab confirmed infections. Retrieved from www Learning Objectives- Identify the types of pathogens that cause illness 2. What do pathogens need to grow? 3. The foods most likely to become unsafe. 4. The major food borne illnesses and their characteristics
  • Hazards to food can be biological, chemical, and physical. Prevention measures for keeping food safe are 1- controlling measures for keeping time and temp 2- prevent cross- contamination, practice personal hygiene, and purchase from approved suppliers Harmful microorganisms are called pathogens and microorganisms are called pathogens
  • CDC(2011) Food safety: Foodnet surveillance. Retrieved from
  • CDC(2011) Top five pathogens retrieved from
  • National Restaurant Association (2005) Servsafe Essentials Chicago, IL 4 types of pathogens- viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi
  • TSC food are better for pathogen growth Viruses are the leading cause of food borne illness as they can survive cooler and freezer temps. Key to prevent the spread of viruses.
  • CDC(2011) Food safety retrieved from Learning objectives- Preventing cross- contamination 2- Preventing time-temperature abuse. 3. Use of correct and accurate thermometers to take temperatures.
  • Conditions that pathogens need to grow FATTOM food, acidity, temp, time, oxygen, and moisture. Danger Zone- 41F- 135F or 5C – 57C
  • FDA(2011) Food safety Modernization Act retrieved from Learning Objectives 1- Purchase form approved reputable suppliers, Use criteria to accept or reject food during receiving 3- Labeling and dating of food 4. Proper Storing of food and nonfood items
  • 5 ways to control risks- knowledge, staff health controls, controlling hand sanitation, TM and temp parameters, consumer advising
  • National Restaurant Assoc(2005) Servsafe Essentials Chicago, IL Cross contamination- the food handler transfers the pathogen from one surface or food to another.
  • USDA standard internal temperatures for meats ,poultry, and pork Learning Objectives 1- Thawing food correctly 2- Preventing cross- contamination and time- temperature abuse 3- Cooking food to a minimum internal temperature 4 Cooling and reheating food to the right temperature in the right amount of time.
  • USDA (2011) Food safety & Inspection service: Recommended Internal cooking temperatures Retrieved from Danger Zone 41F – 135F
  • Moeller, D (2005) Environmental Health. Cambridge, MA Harvard University press
  • CDC(2011) Food safety retrieved from safety. CDC has identified the 5 most common risk factors that cause food borne illness
  • National Restaurant Association(2005) Sersafe Essentials(5 th ed) Chicago, IL FAT TOM
  • National Restaurant Association (2005) Sersafe Essentials (5 th ed) Chicago, IL
  • National Restaurant association(2005) Servsafe essentials (5 th ed) Chicago, IL Good personal hygiene such as hand washing, hand care, glove use and hair net. And bare hand contact
  • CDC(2011) Causes of food borne illness 2003-2008 retrieved from
  • Moeller, D (2005)Environmental Health 3 rd ed, Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press Separate equipment, clean and sanitize, prep food at different times, buy prepared food Pathogens grow faster at 70F to 125F
  • Moeller, D(2005) Environmental Health 3 rd ed, Cambridge, MA Harvard University press
  • Purchase from approved reputable suppliers GMP GAP, stamped by USDA
  • Moeller, D(2005) Environmental Health 3 rd ed, Cambridge, MA Harvard University press
  • National restaurant Association(2005) Servsafe essentials 5 th ed Chicago, IL
  • National restaurant Association (2005) Servsafe essentials 5 th ed Chicago, IL cross contact – allergens are not transferred from food containing an allergen to the food served to the customer
  • Partnership for Food safety Education(2011) Food safety retrieved from
  • National Restaurant Association(2005) Servsafe essentials 5 th ed Chicago, IL Learning Objectives 1- Food safety management system 2- Crisis- management plan
  • Learning Objectives 1- Who is involved in creating and enforcing food safety regulations 2- How regulatory and self- inspection works
  • Moeller, D (2005) Environmental Health 3 rd ed, Cambridge. MA Harvard University press Learning Objectives Kitchen layout can affect food safety 2- Select materials and equipment that are safe for use in food service 3. Maintaining equipment 3 How to avoid food safety hazards caused by utilities 4. How to maintain your facility
  • System used to control risks and hazards throughout the flow of food.
  • A plan is required when there is a variance such as pasteurized juice on site.
  • A written plan which identifies hazards at specific points throughout the flow of food.
  • Partnership for Food safety education( 2011) Food safety programs retrieved from Learning Objectives How to clean and sanitize surfaces 2- Methods of sanitizing 3- How to wash items in a dishwasher or three compartment sink 4- How to use and store cleaning tools and supplies 5 How to develop a cleaning program
  • Learning Objectives- Making sure staff is trained and on an ongoing basis 2- Identify specific training needs 3- Identify tools for food safety training 4- Maintaining food safety training records
  • CDC(2011) Food safety retrieved from Prep, response, and reconvert when have out breaks
  • CDC(2011) Future estimates in food borne illnesses retrieved from www.cdc.go Crisis management includes food borne illness , defense issues, product recalls, water interpretation, power outage, sewage backup and flooding plans
  • CDC(2011)Food net retrieved from
  • Water safe to drink- potable-
  • 3pts that a food defense program focus on to prevent threats to food- human element, building interior, building exterior
  • MSDS requirements for using chemicals in food . Cleaning program in place-master schedule, train employees and monitor program
  • Food Safety

    1. 1. FOOD SAFETY Suzette DeCastro, Ph.D student, MS, RD, LD Walden University PUBH 8165-01 Dr Robert Marino spring quarter 4/11/11
    2. 2. Purpose of this service based project <ul><li>Introduction to concepts and principles on how to serve safe food </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the food safety risks faced in food service establishments </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying risks in food service and finding ways to reduce them </li></ul><ul><li>maintaining quality food services in ones operation as well as keeping customers and employees safe. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Will Recognize the importance of food safety </li></ul><ul><li>Will Recognize the risks associated with high risk populations </li></ul><ul><li>Will Avoid potential hazards to food safety </li></ul><ul><li>Will Understand the process of how food becomes unsafe </li></ul><ul><li>Will understand prevention measures to keeping food safe </li></ul>
    4. 4. Food Borne Illnesses <ul><li>A disease transmitted to people by food. </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food. </li></ul><ul><li>Each year CDC estimates 1 in 6 or 48 million people will get sick from unsafe food. </li></ul><ul><li>128,000 are hospitalized and 3000 persons die from food borne illnesses (National Restaurant Assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Foodborne Active Surveillance Network, United States, 1996–2009 2                                                                                                                                                                                      
    6. 6. Costs of Food Borne Illnesses <ul><li>Illnesses cost the US billions of dollars each year. Associated costs are medical, lost productivity, and death. </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Health Issue according to the Economic Research Service of the USDA </li></ul><ul><li>Each year 6.9 billion in costs are associated with five bacterial pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and types of E. Coli. (CDC, 2011) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Rates of lab confirmed infections Figure 2. Changes in incidence of laboratory-confirmed bacterial infections, United States, 2009 1 compared with 1996–1998                                                                                                                                                             
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>FOODNET SURVEILLANCE in 1996, CDC has seen important declines in infections caused by six of the seven bacterial pathogens tracked— Yersinia, Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, Shigella, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella , the most commonly diagnosed and reported food borne illness, continues to be a challenge. The incidence of Salmonella infections has declined by only 10% since FoodNet surveillance began. (CDC, 2011) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Rates of infection were substantially higher for Vibrio in 2009 than in 1996–1998. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates of infection were at least 25% lower for Shigella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, and Listeria than they were a decade ago. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates of infection with STEC O157, which causes one of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most severe forms of foodborne illness, decreased by 25% in 2009 compared with the most recent 3 years, reaching the lowest level since 2004. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(CDC, 2011) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Table 2. TOP five pathogens contributing to domestically acquired foodborne illnesses Pathogen Estimated number of illnesses 90% Credible Interval % Norovirus 5,461,731 3,227,078–8,309,480 58 Salmonella , nontyphoidal 1,027,561 644,786–1,679,667 11 Clostridium perfringens 965,958 192,316–2,483,309 10 Campylobacter spp . 845,024 337,031–1,611,083 9 Staphylococcus aureus 241,148 72,341–529,417 3 Subtotal 91
    11. 11. Populations at High Risk for Food borne Illnesses <ul><li>The Elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Infants and pre-school age children </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with diagnosed medical condition that have a compromised immune system such as AIDS patients and cancer patients (National Restaurant Assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Safe Internal food temperatures <ul><ul><li>CLEAN Clean your hands with soap and warm water before handling food. Clean surfaces before preparing food on them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEPARATE Separate cooked foods from ready-to-eat foods. Do not use utensils on cooked foods that were previously used on raw foods and do not place cooked foods on plates where raw foods once were unless it has been cleaned thoroughly. (CDC, 2011) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Safe Internal Food temperatures <ul><ul><li>CHILL Chill foods promptly after serving and when transporting from one place to another. Keep your refrigerator at 40°F or below. Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COOK Cook foods to a safe internal temperature (see chart). Use a meat thermometer to make sure foods are cooked to a safe temperature. Color is not an indicator of doneness. ( CDC, 2011) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Safe food temperatures <ul><ul><li>If a public health official contacts you to find out more about an illness you had, your cooperation is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In public health investigations, it can be as important to talk to healthy people as to ill people. Your cooperation may be needed even if you are not ill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For more information on preventing food borne illnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visit   , the federal gateway for food safety information. (CDC, 2011) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><ul><li>SAFE FOOD TEMPERATURES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REPORT : Report suspected food borne illnesses to your local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health department . The local public health department is an important part of the food safety system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often calls from concerned citizens are how outbreaks are first detected. ( CDC, 2011) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. THE FDA FOOD CODE is issued by the FOOD and Drug Administration. It outlines the federal governments recommendations for food safety regulations for the food service industry. Health inspectors from state health departments conduct food service inspections of food service establishments. Self- Inspections- A well managed food service operation have frequent self inspections to keep food safe. (CDC, 2011)
    17. 17. FOOD Safety Regulations & Standards The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law by President Obama on January 4th, 2011. It aims to ensure the U.S. food supply is safe by shifting the focus of federal regulators from responding to contamination to preventing it. (FDA, 2011)
    18. 18. Preventing Food Borne Illnesses <ul><li>Practicing Good Personal Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling the time and temperature of foods </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding cross contamination of foods </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing from approved reputable suppliers (National Restaurant Assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Costs of Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness is much more than the “stomach flu”, and it is a serious health issue and economic burden for consumers. According to the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the USDA, each year $6.9 billion in costs are associated with five bacterial pathogens, Campylobacter , Salmonella , Listeria monocytogenes , E. coli O157:H7, and E. coli non-O157:H7 STEC (2000). These costs are associated with medical expenses, lost productivity, and even death. The Costs of Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness is much more than the “stomach flu”, and it is a serious health issue and economic burden for consumers. According to the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the USDA, each year $6.9 billion in costs are associated with five bacterial pathogens, Campylobacter , Salmonella , Listeria monocytogenes , E. coli O157:H7, and E. coli non-O157:H7 STEC (2000). These costs are associated with medical expenses, lost productivity, and even death.
    20. 20.                                                                                                                          
    21. 21. Potential Hazards to Food Safety <ul><li>Biological- pathogens such as viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>These harmful microorganisms may produce poisons or toxins in the food or the host. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical- cleaners and sanitizers </li></ul><ul><li>Physical- foreign objects can get into food. Moeller, 2005) </li></ul>
    22. 22. How Food Becomes Unsafe? <ul><li>Purchasing food from unsafe sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to cook food adequately. </li></ul><ul><li>Holding food at the incorrect temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Using contaminated equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing poor personal hygiene (CDC, 2011) </li></ul>
    23. 23. What Pathogens need to grow? <ul><li>Food or an energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>Acidity- Pathogens grow best in food that contains no or little acid (ph of 4-7) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature- Pathogens grow well in food in the range known as the temperature danger zone (41F- 135F) </li></ul><ul><li>Time- Pathogens need time to grow especially after four hours.( National Restaurant Assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Cont.. What conditions do Pathogens need to grow?? <ul><li>Oxygen- Some pathogens need oxygen to grow. While others can grow in anaerobic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture- Pathogens need moisture in food to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses are leading cause of food borne illness, such as with hepatitis A and the Norovirus. These illnesses are linked with ready to eat food and shellfish (National Restaurant Assoc, 2005). </li></ul>
    25. 25. Bacteria and food borne illness <ul><li>Bacteria can change into different forms called spores that keep them from dying when they don’t have enough food </li></ul><ul><li>Other types of bacteria can produce toxins in food or in the host. </li></ul><ul><li>National Restaurant Assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Causes of illness in 1,565 single food commodity outbreaks, 2003–2008
    27. 27. Foods identified in Food borne illnesses <ul><li>Bacillus cereus- cooked rice dishes </li></ul><ul><li>Listeriosis- raw meat and deli meats </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrohagic colitsis- ground beef </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium perfringens-meat and poultry (Moeller, 2005) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Cont. Foods identified in Food borne illnesses <ul><li>Shigellosis- salads </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylcoccal- deli meats and salads </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrio vulnificus- oysters from contaminated waters </li></ul><ul><li>( Moeller, 2005) </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Foods contaminated with Parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Anisakiasis - raw and undercooked fish </li></ul><ul><li>such as cod, mackerel and salmon </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptosporidiosis - produce and </li></ul><ul><li>contaminated water </li></ul><ul><li>Giardiasis - produce and contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>water (National Restaurant assoc, </li></ul><ul><li>2005) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Foods identified in food borne illness <ul><li>Fungi, molds, and yeasts in produce, jams and jellies. </li></ul><ul><li>Some molds produce toxins such as aflatoxins </li></ul><ul><li>poisonous Mushrooms and plant toxins </li></ul><ul><li>( Moeller, 2005) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Seafood and shellfish poisoning <ul><li>PSP-paralytic shellfish poison, NSP- neurotoxic shellfish, ASP- amnesic shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>Clams, oysters, and scallops </li></ul>Seafood toxins- Scombroid poisoning-tuna fish also known as histamine poisoning Ciguatera- jacks and red snapper (Moeller, 2005)
    32. 32. Chemical Contaminants <ul><li>Some utensils and equipment contain toxic metals that contaminate acidic food. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who eats this food can get toxic-metal poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Illness is caused by storing or prepping food with equipment contaminating heavy metals such as Lead, Copper, and Zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, and machine lubricants should be kept ot stored away form food. </li></ul><ul><li>( Moeller, 2005) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Common Food Allergens <ul><li>Milk and Dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Soy products </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts (National Restaurant assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Food Allergens <ul><li>The number of people in the US is increasing who have allergies to food. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the body’s negative reaction to a food protein. </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms such as hives, rashes, breathing difficulties, swelling of face, abdominal cramps, and death with severe reactions (National Restaurant assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    35. 35. Prevent Food Contamination <ul><li>Avoid cross contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid time –temperature abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the correct types of thermometers in food preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Use of proper personal hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing from approved reputable suppliers (Partnership for Food Safety Education, 2011) </li></ul>
    36. 36. Food Safety Management Systems <ul><li>Develop and implement a personal hygiene program </li></ul><ul><li>Establish supplier selection and a specification program </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a sanitation and pest and rodent control program (National Restaurant assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    37. 37. Food service management <ul><li>Establish facility design and equipment maintenance program </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a food safety training program </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a food defense program in times of emergency or crisis </li></ul><ul><li>(National Restaurant association, 2005) </li></ul>
    38. 38. Taking an active managerial control approach <ul><li>Mangers need to consider risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>Mangers need to create policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Mangers need to monitor policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Employees and mangers need to verify the system (National Restaurant Association, 2005) </li></ul>
    39. 39. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) <ul><li>A system used to control risks and hazards throughout the flow of food. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on identifying significant biological, chemical and physical hazards at specific points within a products flow. </li></ul><ul><li>( Moeller, 2005) </li></ul>
    40. 40. HACCP continued <ul><li>Created by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Once hazards are identified they can prevent, eliminate, and reduce them to safe levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be based on a written plan.(National Restaurant Assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    41. 41. HACCP Principles <ul><li>Conduct a hazard analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine critical control points (CCP’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Establish critical limits </li></ul><ul><li>Establish monitoring procedures </li></ul><ul><li>National Restaurant Association, 2005) </li></ul>
    42. 42. HACCP Principles continued <ul><li>Identify corrective actions </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that the system works </li></ul><ul><li>Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation </li></ul><ul><li>( National Restaurant Association, 2005) </li></ul>
    43. 43. Implement a Food Safety Program for Employees <ul><li>Topics to be provided and reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>personal hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>safe food preparation </li></ul><ul><li>proper cleaning and sanitizing of kitchen and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>(Partnership for Food safety Education, 2011) </li></ul>
    44. 44. Preparing for a Food Borne Illness Outbreak <ul><li>Implementation of a food safety program for all staff </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a food borne illness incident report form </li></ul><ul><li>Train staff to fill out incident forms </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare an emergency contact list </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement a crisis- communication plan </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>CURRENT FOOD SAFETY CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><li>CHALLENGES TO FOOD SAFETY WILL CONTINUE TO ARISE LARGELY DUE TO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in our food production and supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the environment leading to food contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising number of multistate outbreaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New and emerging germs , toxins, and antibiotic resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New and different contaminated foods, such as prepackaged raw cookie dough, bagged spinach, and peanut butter, causing illnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( CDC, 2011) </li></ul>
    46. 46. Future Estimates/Implications in Food Borne Illnesses <ul><li>Need for improvements and new innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Future investments and innovations in surveillance and data analysis could help increase the accuracy of estimates. </li></ul><ul><li>Future efforts can also be directed toward quantifying the illnesses caused by long-term effects of food borne infections and toxins and to estimate the economic costs associated with food borne illness. ( CDC, 2011) </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Research in Food Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for more detailed information on norovirus will better inform future estimates due to the availability of improved surveillance and special studies conducted in the United States. Most of the data underlying the norovirus estimates is from other countries.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A need for improved information on the cases of acute gastroenteritis that are reported during FoodNet survey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone interviews will be needed to help discern whether they might be caused by noninfectious conditions.  (CDC, 2011) </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Food safety and Terrorism <ul><ul><li>Accounting for illnesses caused by some of the unspecified agents that do not result in acute gastrointestinal illness, as such illnesses were not included in the current estimates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refining estimates of the degree of underreporting of hospitalizations and deaths. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking water and food supplies is a means to dispersing biological agents such as Clostridium botulinum toxin and Staphylococcus enterotoxin B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. ( Moeller, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Food Safety and Terrorism <ul><li>The American Medical Association has developed a CD-Rom that provides state of the art medical and clinical information for dealing with both biological and chemical attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases that have been linked to biological agents in food are Q fever(Coxiella burnetti), Brucellosis from brucellla species, Burkholderia mallei(glanders), ricin toxin (Ricinus communis or castor beans) , epsilon toxin from Clostridium perfingens species (Moeller, 2005) </li></ul>
    50. 50. Deliberate contamination of Food <ul><li>People may try to tamper with food using biological, chemical, or physical contaminants. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to protect food is to make it hard for someone to tamper with it. </li></ul><ul><li>A food defense program should deal with the points in your operation where food is at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>(National restaurant assoc, 2005) </li></ul>
    51. 51. References <ul><li>CDC(2011) Food Safety retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>FDA(2011). Food Safety Modernization Act retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>National Restaurant Association (2008). Servsafe Essentials (5 th ed) Chicago, IL </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership for Food Safety Education (2011) Food safety campaigns. Retrieved from </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>USDA (2011) Food Safety & Inspection Service. Trends in Food Borne Illnesses retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Moeller, Dade (2005)Environmental Health (3 rd ed) Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press </li></ul>References continued
    53. 53. Sources for further reading <ul><li>Loaharan, P(2003) Irradiated foods(5 th ed) American Council on Science & Health, NY, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Metcalfe, D (2003) “Intro:What are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of gentically modified foods” Environmental Health perspectives 111(8) 1110-1113 </li></ul>
    54. 54. Suggested readings <ul><li>Red Tide Research Group(2002) “The current of Red Tide research” Environmental Health perspectives. 110(3)A 132-A133 </li></ul><ul><li>FDA (1995) Food Code. Springfield, VA National Technical Information service </li></ul><ul><li>Food Net retrieved from </li></ul>
    55. 55. Further readings <ul><li>Food Safety retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>HACCP Overview retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>US EPA Pesticides & Food retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Arizona Department of Health Services( 2011) Ricin:Bioterrorism agent profile for Health acre workers retrieved from </li></ul>
    56. 56. Sources for Further Reading <ul><li>Bad Bud Book retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan, F(2002) Reflections on a career in Public health:Evolving food borne pathogens, environmental health, & food safety programs. Journal of Environmental Health 65(5) 14-25 </li></ul><ul><li>WHO Food Safety retrieved at http:www.whoint/food safety/en </li></ul>