Energy
The ozone layer
By Rashika
Contents
What is energy………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....3
Renewable energy....................................
What is energy?
Energy is a vital aspect to us. It is all around us. Just about everything you can see or touch is
energy ...
HYDRO
Hydroelectric power is a sustainable source of energy. Hydroelectric power can make
electricity without burning fuel...
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is made from resources Mother Nature can replace like wind, water and
sun. Renewable ene...
Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels are a substance made from carbon dioxide and poisons. Fossil fuels are Non-
renewable energy. Wh...
The ozone layer
The ozone layer is a thin layer 15-35 km above earth. It protects humans and other
organisms by filtering ...
My statistical investigation
We use too much fossil fuel and not enough renewable sources. We should be thinking
about bet...
Conclusion
I have learnt the importance of using renewable energy instead of fossil fuel. New Zealand is
rich in renewable...
References
Sciencekids.co.nz
Hilaroad.com
Monkeysee.com
AEkids.com
Bimassenergycentre.org.uk
Reenergyholdings.com
Teara.go...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Rashi t2 inquiry

644 views

Published on

Rashika

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
644
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
445
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rashi t2 inquiry

  1. 1. Energy The ozone layer By Rashika
  2. 2. Contents What is energy………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....3 Renewable energy.....................................................................................................................5 Fossil fuel..................................................................................................................................6 The ozone layer.........................................................................................................................7 My statistical investigation........................................................................................................8 Conclusion.................................................................................................................................9 References...............................................................................................................................10
  3. 3. What is energy? Energy is a vital aspect to us. It is all around us. Just about everything you can see or touch is energy or used energy to make it. Without energy who knows where we’d all be. We use energy without thinking. We use it several times a day. Even our bodies are made up out of energy. There are many different types of energy like solar, wind, kinetic, hydro, geothermal, biomass and tidal. SOLAR Solar panels are a smart and efficient way to produce energy. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight to energy, either directly using photovoltaics or indirectly using concentrated solar power. Photovoltaics converts light by using the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect is based on an idea called electromagnet radiation which is made from a series of photons. When a photon hits an electron on metal, the electron can be sent out. Concentrated solar power uses lenses, mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Solar is so much cleaner than coal or natural gas. Solar energy doesn’t produce greenhouse gases. If the sun shone down on earth for one hour that could meet the worlds energy demand for one year. WIND Wind energy is another clever way to produce energy. By using wind turbines people have found a way to turn wind into a money saving, energy efficient idea. When the wind blows onto the moving blades the turbine rotor starts moving. That turns a shaft that turns a t about 15-20 rpm which carries power to the gear box. In the gear box the cogs (wheels with teeth around the edges) increases their rate which turns a second shaft. The second shaft carries power to the generator. This machine spins magnets inside bundles of copper wire which makes electrical energy. Modern wind turbines can produce electricity from wind speeds ranging from 15-90 kmph. Wind speeds more than 90 kmph can cause serious damage. Large turbines can have blades that are over 50 meters long. Wind turbines convert kinetic energy from the wind. KINETIC Kinetic energy is the energy that moving objects have. Kinetic energy is also called the energy of movement, because it refers to any object that is moving at that present time. Kinetic energy can be transformed into other sorts of energy like heat, potential energy or even light. Heat, light, mechanical energy and electrical are also types of kinetic energy. 3
  4. 4. HYDRO Hydroelectric power is a sustainable source of energy. Hydroelectric power can make electricity without burning fuel. Hydroelectric power is less expensive than electricity generated from fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Hydroelectricity is electricity made by the movement of water. It is usually made with dams that block a river to make a reservoir or collect water that is pumped there. When water is let go the pressure behind the dam forces the water down pipes which go to a turbine. This causes a turbine to turn. That turns a generator and that makes electricity. One of the advantages of having a hydroelectric dam is its ability to handles seasonal and high peak loads. Hydro also supplies 19% of the world’s electricity demand. GEOTHERMAL Geothermal energy is another clean and sustainable source of energy. Geothermal energy comes from the heat of the earth’s crust. This heat doesn’t come from the sun. The energy from the earth’s crust comes from 20% of the original formation and 80% of radioactive decay of minerals. Geothermal energy is things like hot lava from volcanos or hot steam from geysers both of which come from underground. Sources of geothermal energy range from a few miles below ground to magma (molten rock). Geothermal energy has been used for bathing but is now used for making electricity. Geothermal energy is a maturing technology. BIOMASS Biomass is a renewable source of energy. Biomass energy uses natural materials like trees and plants to make energy. Biomass takes carbon out of the atmosphere while it is growing, and returns it as it is burned. When the crops and everything are burned the energy in biomass is released as heat. In biomass power plants wood waste or other waste is burned to make steam which runs a turbine to make electricity. Biomass power plants constantly have new technologies coming out to help produce more biomass energy. TIDAL Tidal energy is another renewable source of energy. Twice a day the water on earth moves between low and high tide. That amount of moving water can generate lots of energy. Tidal energy is very predictable because the tides have a daily cycle. Tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity. Although tidal energy is not used worldwide it has the potential to be used in the future lots. Tide mills have been used both in Europe and North America. The incoming water is held in large storage ponds and as the tide goes out, it turns a water wheel that used mechanical power. 4
  5. 5. Renewable energy Renewable energy is made from resources Mother Nature can replace like wind, water and sun. Renewable energy doesn’t pollute air or water. Renewable energy sources are sustainable and we can rely on them because they will never run out. Renewable energy is what we will use in the future. 16% of the world’s energy consumption comes from renewable sources. 37% of energy in New Zealand comes from renewable energy sources. This is expected to rise over the next twenty years with wind energy being a major contributor to that increase. Renewable electricity in New Zealand is mainly from hydropower. In 2011 77% of the electricity generated in New Zealand came from renewable sources. New Zealand is trying to reach a national target set by Helen Clark to get 90% renewable electricity by 2025. Renewable energy comes from sources that are coming as fast as they are being used. New Zealand is rich in renewable energy resources, we have more than many other countries. Wind generation is increasing faster and faster. In the future scientist are planning on using waves and currents from the sea to convert into energy. 5
  6. 6. Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are a substance made from carbon dioxide and poisons. Fossil fuels are Non- renewable energy. When fossil fuels are burned they produce carbon dioxide which makes greenhouse gases which makes global warming. Fossil fuels are energy’s like coal, natural gas and oil. Greenhouse gases reflect radiation from the earth and stops it from getting lost in space. That causes the earth’s temperature to be lower than without greenhouse gases. That is called the greenhouse effect. Most greenhouse gases are natural. Water vapour is the most common and cause most of the greenhouse effect on earth. Some greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrousoxide and chlorofluorocarbon. Fossil fuels like gas, oil and coal are running low. Coal is a non-renewable source of energy but it is still used to power most of the world. Oil is another non-renewable source of energy but yet we still use it to power our cars. C02 just adds to global warming. Global warming is climate change. It is when a weather pattern or temperature changes rapidly or unpredictably. Climate change is cause by growing concentration of heat trapping gases in the atmosphere. 6
  7. 7. The ozone layer The ozone layer is a thin layer 15-35 km above earth. It protects humans and other organisms by filtering solar ultraviolet radiation. This layer can absorb between 93-99% of the ultraviolet radiation. There is usually a higher ultraviolet radiation levels to countries closer to the equator. Australia happens to have high ultraviolet radiation due to its geographical position. The Southern Hemisphere has a cleaner atmosphere and cleaner air. Ultraviolet radiation causes about 1800 deaths per year. Because of the hole in the ozone layer there has been a 14% increase in melanoma. The ozone layer was first discovered in 1980. The Southern Hemisphere is more affected by the ozone depletion because of geographical and atmospheric factors which led to the hole over Antarctica. The ozone’s main depletion sources are chlorofluorocarbon, halons, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride and hydro fluorocarbons. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is a gas containing carbon, chlorine, fluorine and maybe hydrogen. In 1978 Sweden was the first country to ban chlorofluorocarbon. Chlorofluorocarbon is also a greenhouse gas; they create a natural-made greenhouse effect. Methyl chloroform (111-trinchloroethane) is a solvent which is a liquid that becomes a solution by dissolving a solid, liquid or gaseous solute. A solute is something that is dissolved into another substance. Carbon tetrachloride (carbon Tet) is a chemical compound. There is a hole in the ozone layer located just over Antarctica and New Zealand. This hole reached biggest size yet on September 22 2012. The size of the hole is 8.2 mil square meters. That is the same size as America, Canada and Mexico combined! According to scientist the hole over New Zealand is closing up but that could cause Antarctica to warm up. The hole should be closing during 2050-2100. This is the first time the hole is closing up in 30 years. But climate change in Antarctica isn’t good for New Zealand because the ice will be melting which will cause the sea levels to rise. 7
  8. 8. My statistical investigation We use too much fossil fuel and not enough renewable sources. We should be thinking about better options. Smarter and more efficient options the graph bellow shows the global wind power capacity since 1996. It shows how much the capacity of the wind has grown. Although it has grown significantly in the last 10 years we still use too much fossil fuel. 70% of the world steel production depends on coal. 25% of the worlds energy needs are supplied by coal. 8
  9. 9. Conclusion I have learnt the importance of using renewable energy instead of fossil fuel. New Zealand is rich in renewable energy sources. We should make the most of it. We should stop using fossil fuels and start saving energy and our planet. If we ever want to achieve our country’s goal of 90% renewable by 2025 we need to start working. Germany is another country that is great with renewable energy. New Zealand produced 15 million barrels of oil in 2012. That is 15 million barrels of fossil fuels. New Zealand is 3rd in the world for renewable in primary energy supply. But I reckon we could get to first if we tried. Start saving energy! 9
  10. 10. References Sciencekids.co.nz Hilaroad.com Monkeysee.com AEkids.com Bimassenergycentre.org.uk Reenergyholdings.com Teara.govt.nz Energiewende.com Bcairquality.ca Splashmonitoring.com Briteideaenergy.com Stuff.co.nz I0.wp.com 1blog.org Cleantechnia.com Online.esolar.net Wikipedia.com Coolantarctica.com Nmsea.org Yahoo.com Ask.com Med.govt.nz Ewin.com Eschooltoday.com News.nationalgeographic.com Wikianswers.com Answer.ask.com 10

×