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Cold War - Superpowers

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  • 1. History revision
    THE COLD WAR
  • 2. Timeline
    1945
    February 4-11: Yalta Conference 'Big Three’
    July17- August 1: Potsdam Conference
    1947
    March 12 : Truman Doctrine June : Marshall Plan is announced  
    1948
    February 25 : Communist takeover in Czechoslovakia
    June 24 : Berlin Blockade begins lasting 11 months
    1949
    April 4 : NATO ratified
    May 12 : Berlin Blockade ends.
    1952A-bombs developed by Britain 1953 March 17-June 4 Nuclear Arms Race atomic test series of 11 explosions at Nevada Test Site April 15: RAND report on the "Vulnerability of U. S. Strategic Air Power"
    July : Korean War ends
    December 8: Ike's Atoms for Peace speech 
    1954 March 1: H-bomb Castle-Bravo test March : KGB establishedCIA helps overthrow unfriendly regimes in Iran and Guatemala July : Vietnam split at 17th parallel 
    1955 May : Warsaw Pact formed 1956 June 29: USSR sent tanks into Poznan, Poland, to suppress demonstrations by workers September 4: USSR sent military aid to Afghanistan
    October - November : Rebellion put down in Communist Hungary.
    October 29: Suez Crisis began with Israeli attack led by Moshe Dayan against Egyptian forces in the Sinai
    Egypt took control of Suez Canal 
    1957 August 26: Vostok rocket launched 1st ICBM October 4 : Sputnik launched into orbit
    November 3: Sputnik II launched - Laika died in space 
    1958 January 31: Explorer I launched July : NASA began Mercury project using Atlas rocket
    November : Khrushchev demands withdrawal of troops from Berlin 
    1959 January : Cuba taken over by Fidel CastroSeptember : Khrushchev visits United States; The Kitchen Debate  1960 A-bombs developed by France May : Soviet Union reveals that U.S. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territoryNovember : John F. Kennedy elected President of USA
    December 19: Cuba openly aligns itself with the Soviet Union and their policies. 
    1961 April : Bay of Pigs invasion see Cuban Missile Crisis TimelineAugust 13 : Berlin border is closedAugust 17 : Construction of Berlin Wall begins  1962 U.S. involvement in Vietnam increases see Vietnam War Timeline October : Cuban Missile Crisis see Cuban Missile Crisis Timeline 
    1963 1963: July : Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified1963: November : President Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas  1964 August : Gulf of Tonkin incident - see Vietnam War Timeline October: A-bombs developed by China 
    1965 April : U.S. Marines sent to Dominican Republic to fight CommunismJuly : Announcement of dispatching of 200,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam  1966 B-52s Bomb North Vietnam 1967 The US Secretary of Defence Robert McNamara admits that the US bombing raids had failed to meet their objectives  1968 January : North Korea captured U.S.S. Pueblo President Johnson does not run for the presidency and Richard Nixon Elected President of the USAAugust : Soviet Red Army crush Czechoslovakian revolt 
    1969 July 20 : Apollo 11 lands on the moon 1970 April : President Nixon extends Vietnam War to Cambodia 1971 Publication of the Pentagon Papers 1972 February: President Richard Nixon visits China July : SALT I signed 
    1973 January : Cease fire in Vietnam between North Vietnam and United StatesSeptember : U.S. supported coup overthrows Chilean governmentOctober : Egypt and Syria attack Israel; Egypt requests Soviet aid  1974 1974: August : President Nixon resigns 1975 April 17 : North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam which falls to Communist forces 1976 February: Soviet and Cuban forces help to install Communist government in Angola. 1979 January: U.S. and China establish diplomatic relations. July : SALT II signedNovember : Shah of Iran overthrown; Iranian Hostage Crisis
    December: Soviet forces invade Afghanistan  
    1980 August: Polish shipyard workers strike Solidarity Union formed. Strike leader Lech Walesa is elected as the head of Solidarity  1983 President Reagan proposes Strategic Defence Initiative1983: October : U.S. troops invades and overthrows regime in Grenada
      1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of the Soviet Union initiating a campaign of openness called "glasnost" and restructuring called "perestroika“
      1986
    October : President Reagan and Gorbachev resolve to remove all intermediate nuclear missiles from Europe
    1987
    October : Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all medium and short-range nuclear missiles
    1989
    June : Poland becomes independent
    September : Hungary becomes independent
    November : Berlin Wall is demolished and East Germany allows unrestricted migration to West Germany
    December : Communist governments fall in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Rumania Decline of the Soviet empire
    1990
    October 3 : Germany reunited
      1991
    August : End of Soviet Union and the Cold War Ends
  • 3. Communism and Capitalism
    communism
    capitalism
    Communists believe that wealth should be divided equally between the population, regardless of skill level, egg a doctor and a factory worker would be equally paid, even though the doctor has a greater knowledge.
    Censorship was implemented in the press, and the radio stations. There were secret police to prevent people expressing opinions and religious views.
    Communism was ruled by a 1 party state, and the leader was not elected by the people, they had no influence so the leadership did not care about public opinion
    Communist were interested in production of heavy duty goods, and industry, they set high targets to generate wealth, but had little time for the production of consumer goods.
    Capitalist believed that we should be paid in accordance with our skill level, and effort. The harder you work richer you become , and if you don't work you are not paid. For example a doctor is more educated than a factory worker so they are paid more.
    People could say and believe what they wanted, and capitalists believed that people could publish whatever they wanted and hold any religious view.
    Capitalists elect new leaders regularly, and the leader is elected to put forward the views of the public so they had to listen to the public or not be re-elected
    Capitalists produced a range of products, and thrived on the sale of consumer goods, there were many opportunities to make a business, and there were many competing companies.
    The USA was a capitalist country and the USSR was a communist country so there was much disagreement in policy, so mistrust grew between them. The USA feared communism, as it went against their policy of competition in business, and freedom of speech. The USSR also mistrusted the USA as they felt that the USA wanted to destroy them . These conflicting ideologies were key in the decent into the cold war.
  • 4. Background to the Cold War
    Superpowers
    After ww2 the USA and the USSR emerged as the only two superpowers, this was due to geographical size, population, and military power.
    They were easily the most powerful countries in the world.
    They had the capabilities for nuclear war.
    They had different ideologies and ended up leading opposing sets of countries against each other.
    during the second world war the USA and the USSR were allies against Nazi Germany however tensions between them were already rising.
    Stalin’s distrust of the west
    • The USSR suffered greatly in the war, losing 26 million soldiers in fighting. And he believed that this was down to the west.
    • 5. He suspected that the west had been encouraging the Hitler in the 1930s to destroy the USSR
    • 6. Brittan and France had turned down alliance in 1938
    • 7. The west had waited until 1938 when the Nazis invaded France, before they helped fight off the Nazis.
    • 8. Stalin suspected that the west would have been happy if the USSR had destroyed themselves in the fighting.
  • Yalta 1945
    In February 1945 the war in europe was almost over, and there were peace talks held in Yalta to decide how to divide Germany, and end the war.
    The leaders were –
    • UK – Churchill
    • 9. USA – Roosevelt
    • 10. USSR – Stalin
    At Yalta relationships were reasonable and they had been able to reach many decisions, without distrust and paranoia getting in the way.
    Agreements
    Germany was to be divided into four zones, between Brittan, France, the USA, and the USSR.
    Berlin was to be divided similarly, as is in the east of Germany, and was deemed too important to be ruled by only one power.
    Stalin promised free elections in the eastern European countries that the soviet union had enter to liberate them from the Nazis.
    The war still continued in Japan, and the USSR promised to declare war on them within three months of Germanys defeat.
    The borders of Germany, and Poland would be rearranged.
    Disagreements
    The reparations which were to be paid. The USSR wanted them to be high, and to totally cripple the economy, as their army had suffered greatly in the fighting, and many lives had been lost. The USA disagreed, as they believed that this high sum would only anger the Germans, as the treaty of Versailles had.
    There were also disagreements over Poland, as Stalin wanted to alter the elections, but the USA persuaded him to allow free elections.
    The borders of Poland were also caused disagreement, so were postponed until the next conference.
  • 11. Potsdam 1945
    There was another conference late in 1949 held at Potsdam and there had been many changes in leadership
    The leaders were –
    • UK – Atlee There had been a general election and a new prime minister was elected.
    • 12. USA – Truman President Roosevelt had been ill and between conferences had passed away and his vice president took over.
    • 13. USSR – Stalin
    Relationship changes
    At Yalta relationships had been reasonable and they had been able to reach many decisions.
    Roosevelt had been sympathetic to communism so there had been some trust.
    At Potsdam the relations had fallen considerably however they were still able to cooperate on many decisions.
    Stalin had gone against his promise to offer free elections in eastern europe, misinterpreting what was meant by sphere of influence .
    Truman was much more hostile against communism than Roosevelt had been, raising the suspicion between the powers.
    The USSR was angry, as the USA had developed the Atomic bomb and not told Stalin about it.
    Agreements
    They still agreed on the division of Germany and Berlin into four sections between the USA, USSR, UK and France .
    The Nazi party was to be dissolved, and war criminals to be arrested and tried for their crimes.
    Germany would have free elections, freedom of speech, and free religion, like a capitalist country.
    Poland would have free elections
    Germany was to pay reparations, most of this was to the USSR, as they suffered worse In the fighting of world war two.
    They all agreed to join the united nations so they could help retain the fragile state of peace.
  • 14. Eastern Europe 1945-48
    Stalin took over most of the eastern European countries between 1945-48 the methods he used were.
    • Coalition governments were formed with communists and non communists.
    • 15. Communists took control of the media and police.
    • 16. Opposition leaders disposed of.
    • 17. Fixed elections were held.
  • Truman Doctrine 1947
    The Truman doctrine was a promise from the USA to help countries threatened by communism from outside or within.
    Greece
    It was in response to the situation in Greece. In Greece there was a civil war, between the royalists who were supported by the British, and the communists. By 1947 the British no longer had to support the Royalists in Greece, so turned to the USA for help. The USA had previously had an isolationist policy, to help in Greece would be to change their whole policy, this was when the Truman doctrine was announced, to change from isolationist to interventionist.
    Other reasons
    He wanted to help European countries to recover from the devastation of ww2.
    He wanted to stop the spread of communism.
    He hoped that some eastern European countries would be tempted to break away
    NB the Truman doctrine did not specifically mention the soviet union, rather implied a warning to Stalin about taking over europe.
  • 18. Martial Aid 1947
    Martial aid
    Thiswas the economic plan which allowed the Truman doctrine to be implemented.
    It was aid made available to Europe by the USA
    It was designed to help build the economy of European countries who subscribed to it, to help them recover from the effects of WW2.
    It was intended to help eastern europe, however after Stalin found out that it would involve revealing finances he withdrew, as he did not want to expose weaknesses in the Ussr's economy.
    17 countries subscribed, and received in total $13,750,000,000 helping o regain their pre war strength.
    Stalin was threatened by martial aid, as he saw it as a US attempt to turn countries against communism.
    To keep up with the USA the USSR launched comecon, a system of aid for communist countries to recover.
    Stalin’s Reaction to Martial aid
    • Stalin felt that martial aid was an attempt to draw countries out of communism.
    • 19. He forced all eastern European countries to withdraw their interest in it (especially Czechoslovakia)
    • 20. Stalin set up comecon in retaliation
    • 21. Part of the reason for the Berlin blockade.
    • 22. Increased tension between the USA and USSR
    • 23. The USSR thought that the USA wanted more influence in Europe
  • Berlin Blockade 1948-49
    Why it happened?
    The USA UK and France were rebuilding their sectors of Germany and Berlin, to become a wealthy capitalist state, but Stalin was stripping east Germany of all its wealth, and this difference could be clearly seen in Berlin.
    Brittan and the USA joined their sectors to create Bizonia in 1947.
    France joined their sector of Germany with Brittan and the USA to create Trizonia in 1948.
    The USA wanted to introduce a new currency into their part of Germany and Berlin.
    Martial aid was implemented in west Germany.
    Stalin didn’t like the fact that west Germany was being rebuilt as he felt it was a threat.
    West Berlin was an advert for how much more comfortable life in a capitalist state could be, and people were fleeing.
    Airlift
    Stalin believed that to blockade Berlin would remove the capitalist presence
    The Soviet blockade lasted from 24 June 1948 to 11 May 1949, but the airlift continued for several more months
    However, Truman as well as his colleagues realized the importance of Berlin as a symbol of Western resistance to Communism.
    In order to supply the two million citizens of Berlin, American and British pilots flew day and night to land over 8000 tons of food, coal, and other necessities every day.
    A plane landed every thirty seconds and over 320 000 flights were made and 79 pilots died.
    Stalin had hoped for a cold winter to ground the flights bit it didn’t come, so he gave up in may 1949.
    • This was the first serious threat of conflict in the cold war
    • 24. Stalin felt threatened before he introduced it and he felt more so after failing.
    • 25. This prompted the start of NATO and the Warsaw pact
    • 26. This started
  • NATO/ The Warsaw Pact
    NATO 1949
    The Warsaw pact
    North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
    This was set up in response to the Berlin blockade.
    NATO was a military alliance between western countries led by the USA .
    Initially there were thirteen countries that joined
    It stated that any country involved in the treaty would be defended from attack by the others.
    The USA dispersed its weapons around western europe
    Pact of Mutual Assistance and Unified Command
    The Warsaw pact was set up in 1955.
    It was a defensive alliance similar to NATO designed to give the USSR more security.
    The members were the USSR, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Albania and East Germany.
    It created a joint command of the armed forces of the alliance.
    It sets up a political committee to coordinate the members
    • NATO was seen as a threat by the USSR, as it meant that US troops were stationed around europe.
    • 27. The fact that both sides had military alliances showed neither side could see cooperation in the near future.
    • 28. There were soviet troops surrounding eastern europe.
  • Khrushchev & Arms Race 1953
    Stalin died in 1953 and was replaced with Khrushchev
    He believed that coexistence with the west was necessary, so he travelled the world meeting leaders.
    Competing with the west was very important.
    Poured money into sport for the Olympics.
    The space race, they put the first satellite into space, sputnik in 1957 and then the first man, Yuri Gagarin in 1961.
    Begun the arms race.
    Tried to win over African and Asian countries to communism by offering aid.
    He wanted to defend the existing communist world.
    Arms race
    Khrushchev had a mixed effect on relations with the USA
    IMPROVE
    • He believed in peaceful coexistence.
    • 29. He said he didn't want to convert any more countries to communism.
    WORSEN
    • He wanted to compete in sport, the arms race, and the space race.
    • 30. He set up the Warsaw pact to defend communist countries from capitalism, but this was seen as a threat by the USA
  • Hungarian Uprising 1956
    What Happened
    The death of Stalin led many Hungarians to hope that Hungary would change
    During October 1956, students, workers and, soldiers in Hungary attacked the AVH and Russian soldiers, and smashed a statue of Stalin.
    On 24 October 1956 Nagy (non-communist) took over as prime minister.
    Nagy asked Khrushchev to move the Russian troops out and on 28 October 1956, the Russian army pulled out of Budapest.
    For five days, there was freedom in Hungary. They introduced democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion , and that Hungary was going to leave the Warsaw Pact
    At dawn on 4 November 1956, 1,000 Russian tanks rolled into Budapest. The sheer force of numbers crushed the uprising.
    Khrushchev put in Russian supporter, Janos Kadar, as prime minister
    Causes of the Hungarian Revolution
    Khrushchev's more relaxed policy caused problems in many Eastern European countries, where people hated the hard-line Stalinist regimes.
    There was also trouble in Poland in 1956, and Khrushchev had to send in Russian troops.
    The Hungarians were patriotic, and they hated Russian control, especially:
    The secret police called the AVH in Hungary.
    Russian control of the economy, which had made Hungary poor.
    Russian control of what the schools taught.
    Censorship and lack of freedom.
    The Hungarians were religious, but the Communist Party had banned religion, and imprisoned Cardinal Mindzenty.
    Hungarians thought that the United Nations or the new US president, Eisenhower, would help them.
  • 31. Berlin Wall 1961
    Why was the wall built?
    In August 1961 Khrushchev ordered the building of the Berlin wall.
    Before the wall was put up in September 1960 Khrushchev restricted the way people moved between east and west.
    Nearly 2,000 refugees a day were fleeing to the West through west Berlin hardly proof of the Soviet claim that the Communist way of life was better than capitalism.
    Many of those leaving were skilled and qualified workers, such as doctors, teachers, and mechanics, people that the east really needed.
    He thought that he could get away with it as the US president Kennedy was weak and young, and had been made to look bad by the bay of pigs, and the u2 spy plane.
    Why were people leaving?
    • Life was dominated by the communists, and there was no political freedom in elections.
    • 32. There was a controlled media, so east Berliners had no way of finding out what was happening on the other side of the iron curtain.
    • 33. There was a secret police force (the Stasi) who controlled peoples actions.
    • 34. The was limited access to consumer goods, and they were often of a poor quality.
    What were the results?
    • The wall further increased tensions, and turned the metaphorical iron curtain into a physical representation.
    • 35. It reflected badly ob the USSR, as it showed that they had to physically force people to stay within their state if they wanted them to stay, and that many people would choose capitalism over communism.
    • 36. It became a symbol of what people hated about the USSR.
    • 37. Kennedy made the famous speech “Ich bin ein Berliner”
  • Cuba Bay of pigs 1959
    Until 1959 the Cuban leader was Batista.
    The American’s owned many of the Cuban businesses, and land.
    Batista became more brutal in his leadership, so the USA supported a takeover by Castro.
    Relations began to deteriorate between Cuba and the USA
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
  • 42. Detente 1963-79
  • 43. End of detente 1979
  • 44. Afghanistan 1979
  • 45. Ronald Reagan 1981
  • 46. Gorbachev 1985
  • 47. End of the Cold War 1985-90