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The Cold War-Episode 1 - Vorbeck

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HISTORY - IGCSE

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The Cold War-Episode 1 - Vorbeck

  1. 1. Note taking: End of World War II ● At potsdam the big three met to settle the post-war order. Winston Churchill represented Britain,Joseph Stalin represented The Soviet Union and Harry Truman represented the United States. ● Truman was unprepared to settle the post-war order. Cold War ● After the WW1 in a clash of ideologies, communist and capitalist, that the Cold War began. ● Stalin and Lenin knew that the west countries would do anything to destroy communism. Russian Civil War ● The reds defeated the whites ● A lot of people were suffering from starvation after war. ● Russia turned away from the outside world to rebuild the economy. Roosevelt Presidency ● Roosevelt promised a New Deal for Americans. ● Roosevelt would manage capitalism for the public good and would recognize the Soviet Union. For 16 years there had been no relationship between the two governments. Stalin ● Stalin’s industrial drive attracted American experts. Soviets still did the heavy industrial labor and Americas were the engineers and could leave the country when they finished their job, but not the Soviets. ● Stalin was a tyrant, and threatened with torture and murder those who disagreed with him or failed to do what he wanted. ● Private fields became collective and peasants were murdered in the process. The result was famine. ● Stalin felt he has to convince the people and party that there was a conspiracy against the Soviet Union by the capitalist countries. He accused comrades of betrayal and forced them to confess of doing espionage through torture and threats.
  2. 2. ● These trials revealed that the Soviet Union was a police state and not a workers’ paradise. But there were still a lot of supporters outside of the Soviet Union. Fascism vs. Communism ● In the 1930’s Stalin called for a popular front of the left against Hitler and Fascism. Lots of people followed it because a great cause for socialists and communists, and doubts about Stalin were repressed. ● Franco of Spain launched a fascist rebellion and lots of people joined the Popular Front of the Left to fight against it. Franco was financed by Hitler and Mussolini. In Germany, Hitler was rearming, and did not hide his ambition to conquer Europe and the World. ● Roosevelt wanted to keep out of any European war, and Britain’s Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, trusted that Hitler would listen to reason. ● In 1939, Britain, France and Italy allowed Germany to invade Czechoslovakia. They betrayed their ally. ● Stalin drew the conclusion that to Western democracies would do nothing to stop Hitler, so he signed a Nazi-Soviet Pact with Germany. It is believed that Stalin did this to have time, because he thought the Soviet Union needed two years to defend itself against Germany. War ● In September 1939, Hitler invade Poland. Germany and Russia had conspired against her. Britain and France declared war on Germany. ● The Nazi-Soviet Pact had allowed the Soviet Union to invade Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Stalin had already invaded Finland. ● In 1940, Germany moved west. By mid 1941, France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Yugoslavia, Greece had been conquered. ● On June 22, 1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. It was a day that changed History. Hitler meant to gain a colony, but the move allowed the Soviet Union to move into the heart of Europe only four
  3. 3. years later. The future outlines of the Cold War began to form with the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ● Abroad the Soviet Union won support, and even Britain welcomed Stalin’s Russia as an ally. ● On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked USA’s Pearl Harbor. The US declared war on Japan, and days later Germany declared war on the US. In this way, archenemies, The Soviet Union and the US became allies. ● The German thrust at Moscow was blocked. Stalin met British diplomats at Moscow and Stalin already wanted to discuss post-war boundaries. He wanted the Baltic States and part of Poland. ● The US supported it’s allies with guns and trucks, but Stalin needed someone to fight Germany on the western front. ● The suffering of the Soviet people was extreme. ● For six months battle raged in Stalingrad, outside Moscow. Finally the Germans were trapped and forced to surrender. ● Germany tried to split the alliance against them. They exposed Stalin’s atrocities in Poland. ● In 1943, the big three met at the Russian Embassy in Tehran, which was bugged. Stalin received reports every day of what Roosevelt and Churchill said. Roosevelt and Churchill had begun to like Stalin. ● At this conference, they agreed that post-war eastern Europe would be a Soviet zone of influence. Stalin would annex eastern Poland, and as compensation Poland would get a part of eastern Germany. Poland was offered no choice. ● On June 6, 1944, the biggest seaborne invasion in history, D-day, happened. It was the second front invasion from the west that Stalin wanted. ● On the eastern front, the Soviet army continues to advance. ● Polish resistance seized the city of Warsaw from the Germans. The Red Army arrived near Warsaw but stopped across the river, so the Germans attacked again. The Red Army did not help and
  4. 4. the Polish had to fight alone. The Polish blamed the Soviets for Warsaw’s destruction. ● Churchill and Stalin tried to divide up Europe among themselves and the Americans: Rumania 90% under Soviet influence, 10% the others, Greece 90% British, Yugoslavia and Hungary 50/50, Bulgaria 75% Soviet. ● In February 1945, they met again. They had to decide the post war arrangements for Germany, and the future of Poland. But by then the Soviets already held most of Poland, the Balkan States, much of Czechoslovakia and Hungary. On paper, through diplomacy, they decided that these countries had to be ruled through elections and under free democracy. Germany would be governed jointly by the allies. ● The Americans advanced into Germany without resistance. As they advanced,they discovered the full horrors of FAscism. The main target had been the Jews, but all nations had suffered. ● By allied agreement, the capture of Berlin was left to the Soviets. ● As Hitler’s Reich fell apart, countries gathered in San Francisco to create the United Nations. ● On May 8 1945, the Germans surrendered. As a result of the War, Europe was cut in two, from the Baltic to the Adriatic. On one side democracies, on the other, countries under soviet rule. ● The war in the Pacific continued. The third allied summit happened in Potsdam. There were a lot of differences at Potsdam. There, Truman announced America had a very powerful weapon. ● Three days after the summit ended. American forces dropped an atomic bomb in Hiroshima and three days later in Nagasaki. ● The nuclear shadow was present at every cold war crisis to come. How did the Soviets feel about American experts having more freedom than them? Why did Roosevelt and Churchill support Stalin and agree to give him influence in eastern Europe, when they knew he was a tyrant and cruel.
  5. 5. What happened in France and Italy? Did they take part in any negotiations? Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? Exit ticket 3 things I learned: I learned the story of the Second World War. I didn’t know anything about it. I learned that Stalin was a tyrant and his government was a police state. He was very cruel with his people, and the people he conquered. I learned that Britain and the US, who in theory defended democracy and freedom, were willing to make pacts with Stalin to invade countries and let him control them under his rules. Two things I found interesting are that: When Russia was in civil war people were so desperate that they made sausages with human flesh. That Stalin seemed to have the best secret service, and knew everything about his allies. A question I still have I still have the question above :-) One more is: why did the Americans throw the atomic bombs, when they could have won the war with Soviet help.

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