Cold War = an intense rivalry for global power between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. following World War II that lasted for more than 40 years.
Communism – all property is publicly owned (controlled by the government), government controls all aspects of society Capitalism – an economic system based on private ownership of farms and businesses. Containment – U.S. policy of fighting the spread of communism by limiting it to countries where it already existed
-aid European countries in rebuilding their economies with $12 billion to avoid another global depression and possible WW III Marshall Plan (June 1947) Truman Doctrine (March 1947) <ul><ul><ul><li>-US pledges to help nations threatened by communist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expansion with $400 million in military and economic aid </li></ul></ul></ul>
-Stalin closed all roads, railways, and river routes leading into West Berlin (June 1948) Berlin Blockade -June 24, 1948 – May 12, 1949
After WW II Germany divided into 4 zones Soviet British American & French zones
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization N.A.T.O -June 1949 - military alliance of western democratic countries to defend Europe against Communism Warsaw Pact -U.S.S.R. and communist nations in Eastern Europe unite to counter the threat from N.A.T.O.
-for almost a year allies flew 5,000 tons of supplies to West Berlin on a daily basis, planes took off every 3 minutes Berlin Airlift
August 1961- November 1989 -built to prevent East Germans from escaping to the West -171 people killed trying to cross Berlin Wall
Despite this prediction, Truman wins the election of 1948 and continues his policy of CONTAINMENT .
June 1953 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg-active communists were executed in 1953 for providing the U.S.S.R. with nuclear secrets during WW II allowing them to build an atomic bomb. Americans worry about other spies.
-By 1950 a vast percentage of Europe and Asia are communist Spread of Communism in Asia -Will communism ever stop spreading?
<ul><li>1950 Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed 205 Communists were in U.S. government! </li></ul>McCarthyism - strengthened fear of communism - thousands of Americans questioned by House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) - publicly disgraced in 1954 after accusing members of the U.S. Army of being Communists
McCarthy is trying to dictate US domestic and foreign policy. He has a lot of power in DC politics.
Senate Hearings are very undemocratic and directly threaten many constitutional rights HUAC
McCarthy discredited and lost his influence in HUAC and the Senate
Arms Race - June 1949 USSR explodes an atomic bomb - October 1957 USSR launches Sputnik the 1st artificial satellite - the U.S. and U.S.S.R. compete to build more missiles than the other
Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) - June 1949 USSR explodes an atomic bomb - October 1957 USSR launches Sputnik the 1st artificial satellite - the U.S. and U.S.S.R. compete to build more missiles than the other
October 1957 Soviet Union Launches “Sputnik” Satellite
Yuri Gagarin: Soviet Cosmonaut, first human in space, and first to orbit the earth.
The U.S. creates the Federal Civil Defense Administration to educate Americans about what to do in a nuclear attack.
Millions of Americans live in fear of nuclear war.
Home Fallout Shelter: Many American families in the 1950s built bomb shelters in their homes.
Home Fallout Shelter: You may survive the initial blast… but then what?
<ul><li>When superpowers indirectly fight one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam War </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan </li></ul>Proxy War
- June 1950 Communist North Korea invades South Korea. United Nations’ forces push them back to North Korea beyond 38th parallel. War in Korea - July 1953 cease-fire issued. Fighting ends, but formal peace never declared. - over 53,000 Americans killed.
Korean War Memorial Symbolism There are 19 US Soldiers But when reflected in the nearby wall, there are now 38 Symbolism: Importance of the 38 th Parallel
December 1959 Fidel Castro leads a successful communist takeover of democratic, but corrupt government in Cuba, only 90 miles from Florida.
World’s newest communist country is only 90 miles off the U.S. coast.
Jan. 1961: President John F. Kennedy takes oath of office. “The torch has been passed to a new generation.”
-no U.S. air support given Bay of Pigs Invasion -C.I.A. trained exiled Cubans attempt to invade Cuba and assassinate Fidel Castro -invasion fails - all 1,400 Cuban rebels captured or killed -embarrassing for Kennedy
-Kennedy orders a blockade of Cuba -can hit anywhere in the U.S. Cuban Missile Crisis -spy planes take pictures of nuclear missiles in Cuba -USSR removes missiles
American Navy Ships Patrolling Cuban Waters With Orders To Shoot At Any Soviet Ship That Crosses “Quarantine” Line
May 1961: Believing in the “Domino Theory” (the idea that if a country falls to communism, its neighbor will too) Pres. Kennedy sends advisors to South Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident, August 1964 North Vietnamese gun ships fire on US ship, the USS Maddox
July1965: LBJ sends 150,000 US troops to Vietnam
-South Vietnam falls in 1975 -U.S. involvement: 1964-1973 Vietnam War -Americans worried that democratic South Vietnam could become communist (domino theory- if one country falls to communism its neighbor will too) -2.6 million Americans served, over 58,000 Americans died, 304,000 were wounded
<ul><li>US Soldiers interrogate a “VC”: Problems for US troops: </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the enemy? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the enemy? </li></ul><ul><li>New terrain / climate </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear objective </li></ul>
November 1968: Richard Nixon elected President
Ho Chi Minh Trail North Vietnamese supply trail to South Vietnam goes through Laos and Cambodia to avoid US military intervention. US can’t stop supplies from getting through.
April 1970 Nixon extends the Vietnam war into Cambodia to disrupt Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Vietnam War Ends-1973 Cease-Fire Achieved in Vietnam. All bombing stops. The last US troops leave Vietnam in March.
-Nixon visited China and the U.S.S.R. in 1972 End of the Cold War Detente = an easing of tension between the U.S. and communist China and the U.S.S.R. -trade between the countries increased -Strategic Arms Reductions
February 1972 Richard Nixon becomes the first president to visit China
July 1972 Nixon visits the Soviet Union, starts the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. July 1979- SALT II
In the 70s and 80s the USSR and the USA start to focus on different aspects of space exploration. They are no longer “racing” each other. détente = an easing of tensions USSR Space Station USA Space Shuttles
President Ronald Reagan : Makes defense a main priority. Drastically increases defense spending.
COLD WAR CAUSE AND EFFECT: 6. Soviet citizens may feel safe, but they aren’t happy and can’t afford basics. 1. Reagan increases US defense budget. 2. USSR increases defense budget. 3. US is rich and can afford increases. 4. USSR can’t afford increases. 5. US citizens feel safe, secure, & happy.
Result: Soviet citizens grow angry. USSR will have hard time controlling millions of unsatisfied people.
Polish worker Lech Walesa leads the “Solidarity” movement in Poland. “Solidarity” starts as a shipyard strike. Later it brings down the USSR when Gorbachev is unwilling to use force. August 1980
Mikhail Gorbachev becomes new Soviet Premier. Ushers in many sweeping reforms. Reaches out to the west. glasnost – more open government (free speech) March 1985
June 12, 1987 President Reagan visits the Berlin Wall and pressures Gorbachev to tear it down.
November 1989 The Soviet Union allows the Berlin Wall to be destroyed. It is a sign that the Cold War is coming to and end.
Communism Collapses -By the end of 1991 the Soviet Union crumbles. Soviet “satellites” declare their independence from the Soviet empire.
The Cold War – What was it? McCarthyism – What was it? Why did the Cold War end? What two countries had been allies during WW II, but were now rivals? Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?
Cuban Missile Crisis– What was it? Compare the American Revolution with the Vietnam War. Compare the Korean War with the Vietnam War.
Following World War II segregation remains legal in the general public Returning Soldiers Face Segregation
1948 President Truman Ends Segregation in the Armed Forces
-1947 Jackie Robinson becomes first Black major league baseball player Working to End Segregation -bravely faces death threats, boos, and taunts from fans and white ballplayers
-1954 Supreme Court ruled that separate schools could never be equal, thus striking down Plessy v. Ferguson -Linda Brown’s parents sued the Topeka Board of Education which denied her the right to attend a Topeka school -schools are ordered to desegregate
-December 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama and she is arrested and jailed - Dr. Martin Luther King , Jr. a Baptist Minister, helps lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott and becomes a national Civil Rights leader. Montgomery Bus Boycott
Nine African American students (Little Rock Nine) were escorted to school each day by the 101 st U.S. Army Airborne Division and the nationalized Arkansas National Guard for the 1957-1958 school year. The board of education of Little Rock cancelled the entire 1958-1959 school year.
Birmingham, Alabama -one of the most racially divided cities in America -civil rights activists organize nonviolent protests (sit ins, marches), which lead to mass arrests draw media attention and force integration
Children’s Marches -6,000 children age 6-16 -police used hoses, dogs and clubs -over 900 were arrested -reported in the media all over the world
-following WW II the economy boomed Baby Boom -3,548,000 babies born in 1950 -U.S. population grew by 29,000,000 in the 1950’s
-new housing built to accommodate growing families -identical houses mass produced in subdivisions -improved economy allows people to move out of cities Suburbs
-workers lived farther away from jobs Highways -highways built to cut down on travel time, helped industries transport raw materials and consumer goods, escape nuclear attack -shopping centers, strip malls, supermarkets sprang up
-7 million T.V.s sold each year Television -news, comedies, kid shows, dramas, music programs, sporting events televised
-rock and roll music influenced American teenagers Music -music industry becomes big business
Big Band - Swing Glenn Miller Bluegrass Bill Monroe Blues - Rock & Roll Mamma Thornton Joe Turner The Chords Chuck Berry Rock & Roll Bill Haley The Crew Cuts Elvis Presley
-1960s movement that rejected racism, the war in Vietnam, traditional authority, materialism The Counterculture
-programs created to provide equal opportunities in employment and college admission to groups that have traditionally been discriminated against Affirmative Action
-American Indian Movement (AIM) worked to gain equal rights for Native Americans living in poverty on reservations Women & Native Americans -National Organization for Women (NOW) worked to secure equality in pay, in the workplace and in education
Political Cartoon making fun of the missing portion of tape.
Vice-President Gerald Ford takes over after Nixon’s resignation. One of Ford’s first acts as president is to pardon Nixon.
President Jimmy Carter defeats Ford in 1976 election, becoming president during a period of relative calm in the Cold War. The Superpowers continue “détente.”
- Arab nations fight Israel in three wars (1948, 1967, 1973) Middle East Peace - State of Israel created in Palestine 1948 - Israel wins territory - Carter helps Israel and Egypt agree on a peace treaty in 1979
<ul><li>Reaganomics </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce government spending on social programs, increase defense spending </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce government regulation of the economy </li></ul><ul><li>-saw a record rise in the national budget deficits </li></ul>
-J.F.K.’s dream realized 6 years after his death Moon Landing - July 1969: U.S. lands a man on the moon - a feat the U.S.S.R. never matched
New Frontier We stand on the edge of a New Frontier—the frontier of unfulfilled hopes and dreams, a frontier of unknown opportunities and beliefs in peril. Beyond that frontier are uncharted areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered problems of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus.
-nuclear test ban treaty -raise minimum wage ($1-$1.25) New Frontier - Peace Corps sent young people to poorer nations to help with education, farming, health, etc. -commitment to the space program
-food stamps -medical care for the poor and elderly The Great Society -to end poverty and racial injustice -civil rights laws enacted
-sit-ins and marches -many protested, especially on college campuses War Protests (page 8) -nightly news programs showed scenes of the war (1st televised war) -some young men went to Canada to avoid the draft
August 1968: Democratic National Convention in Chicago Protests over Vietnam
Violent interactions between police and protesters
Kent State Massacre - National Guard troops are called in to maintain order after students vandalize campus while protesting the invasion of Cambodia. National Guard troops kill four students and injure 9 others. May 4, 1970
Ohio National Guardsmen are called in to restore order. They have no formal training in crowd control.
National Guard troops kill four students and injure 9 others.
-U.S.S.R. invades Afghanistan 1979 to support pro-Soviet government Foreign Policy Setbacks - 53 Americans taken hostage from U.S. embassy in Iran for over a year -U.S. boycotts Olympic Games in Moscow