Variety and unity of india xii
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Variety and unity of india xii

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Variety and unity of india xii Variety and unity of india xii Document Transcript

  • Subject-English ClassXII Topic-The Variety And Unity Of India Word: 2074 Anchor Welcome students! Would you like to see a movie? Look at the screen. Here we go. (Show an animation about the diversity of India: Kashmir, Himachal Punjab, Tamil, Kerala etc their dresses and dances and festivals). Anchor I hope you must have enjoyed watching a short movie. So what have you noticed? Of course! India is the country of variety of people differing in colour, caste, creed, languages, food, dress, physical features, habits and traits. So today, we will read an essay on ‘The Variety and Unity of India’ written by Jawahar Lal Nehru, Our first prime minister. So first of all let me tell you about the learning objectives of the lesson. Learning Objectives of the Lesson: At the end of the lesson you will be able to 1. Describe the differences between the people of various states of India 2. Answer the short answer questions as asked in the examination. Anchor Let’s move further on this lesson. What does the writer say in his essay? Look at the screen ( Show an animation about the variety of India; as shown in the red areas)
  • VO The diversity of India is tremendous; it lies on the surface. Anybody can see it. It concerns itself with physical appearances as well as with certain mental habits and traits. Look ! There is little in common, to outward seeming, between the Pathan of the North-west and the Tamil in the far South. Their racial stocks are not the same, though there may be common strands running through them; they differ in face and figure, food and clothing, and of course, language. Anchor Yet, with all these differences there is no mistaking the impress of India on the Pathan, as this is obvious on the Tamil.. Now let’s have a look on North-Western Frontier Provinces. (Animation about the similarities between the people of the border areas custom as in Kashmir, reminds one of the countries on the other side of the Himalayas. Pathan popular dances are singularly like Russian cossakck dancing.) VO In the North-Western Frontier Province there in already the breath of Central Asia, and many a custom there, as in Kashmir, reminds one of the countries on the other side of the Himalayas. Pathan popular dances are singularly like Russian cossakck dancing. Anchor Hello students! I hope you must have enjoyed watching a short movie. What have you noticed in it? You must have surprised to see such resemblances between the different countries and India. This is not surprising, because these border lands, and indeed Afghanistan also, were united with India for thousands of years.
  • VO The old Turkish and other races, who inhabited Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia before the advent of Islam were largely Buddhist, and earlier still, during the period of Epics, Hindus. The frontier area was one of the principal centers of old Indian culture and it abounds still with ruins of monuments and monasteries and, especially of the great University of Taxila, which was at the height of its fame two thousand years ago, attracting students from all over India as well as different parts of Asia. Anchor So children! You have seen that Changes of religions made a difference but could not change entirely the mental backgrounds which the people of those areas had developed. Differences, big or small can always be noticed even within a national group, however closely bound together it may be. The essential unity of that group becomes apparent when it is compared to another national group, though often the differences between two adjoining groups fade out or intermingle near the frontiers, and modern developments are tending to produce certain uniformity everywhere. Now look at the screen and notice the difference between the concept of ancient and medieval times as compare to the modern age. VO On screen In ancient and medieval times, the idea of the modern nation was non-existent and feudal, religious, racial, or cultural bonds had more importance, yet I think that at almost any time in recorded history an
  • Indian would have felt more or less at home in any other country. He would certainly have felt less of a stranger in countries which had partly adopted his culture or religion. Those who professed a religion of non-Indian origin on coming to India settled down there, became distinctively Indian in the course of a few generations, such as Christians,l Jews, parsees, Moslems. Indian converts to some of these religions never ceased to be Indians on account of a change of their faith. They were looked upon in other countires as Indians and foreigners, even though there might have been a community of faith between them. Today, when the conception of nationalism has developed much more, Indians in foreign countries inevitably form a national group and hang together for various purposes, in spite of their internal differences. 0 An Indian Christian is looked upon as Indian in Turkey or Arabia or Iran, or any other country where Islam is the dominant religion. VO (If it can be of Nehru’s) (Show animation of India as marked under red) All of us, I suppose have varying pictures of our native land and no two persons will think exactly alike. When I think of India, I think of many things: of broad fields dotted with innumerable small villages; of towns and cities I have visited ; of the magic of the rainy season which pours like into the dry parched-up land and converts it suddenly into a glistening expanse of beauty and greenery of great rivers and following water; of the Khyber Pass in all its bleak surroundings, of the southern tip of India; of people individually and in
  • the mass; and, above all, of the Himalayas. Snowcapped, of some mountain valley in Kashmir in the spring, covered with new flowers and with a brook bubbling and gurgling through it. We make and preserve the pictures of our choice, and so I have chosen this mountain background rather than the more normal pictures of a hot, sub-tropical country. Both pictures would be correct, for India stretches from the tropics rights up to the temperate regions, from near the equator to the cold heart of Asia. ANCHOR I hope you have understood theme of the essay. So let me test your skill. Try to answer the following questions in short. (The answers will appear after a gap) Q1. What outward differences between the Tamil and the Pathan can be mentioned to show the diversity of India? Ans. A Pathan is very tall, broad and fair in complexion while a Tamil is short, and darker in complexion. Q2. What common bond bearing the impress of India can still be seen between the Tamil and the Pathan? Ans. Yet, with all these differences they have been distinctively Indian with the same national heritage and the same set of moral and mental qualities. Q3. (a) Besides Pathans and Tamil which other have remained essentially Indian? Ans. Besides Pathans and Tamil, the Bengalis, the Marathas, the Gujratis, the Andhras, the Oriyas, the Assamese, the Canarese, the Malayalis, the Sindhis the Punjabis, the Kashmiris, the Rajputs and the great central block comprising the Hindustani-speaking people, have retained their peculiar characteristics for hundreds of years. (b) What common things have they retained?
  • Ans. They have retained their peculiar characteristics for hundreds of years. They have still more or less the same virtues, and failings of which old tradition or record tells us, and yet have been throughout these ages distinctively Indian with the same national heritage and the same set of moral and mental qualities. Q.4 What relation of nearness does the frontier area bear with India? Ans. Many customs as in Kashmir, reminds one of the countries on the other side of the Himalayas and Pathan popular dances are singularly like Russian cossakck dancing. Q.5 (a) Does Nehru admit the existence of differences within a national group? Ans. Yes, Nehru in his essay ‘Variety and Unity of India’ admits the fact of differences in physical appearance, cast, creed, food, language, dress, and religion of different states of India. Q5.(b) How does he call them insignificant? Ans. The existence of differences within a national group is Insignificant as feudal, religious, racial, or cultural bonds had more importance. Q.6 What kind of unity Nehru sees among the people of India? Ans. All the Indians, immaterial of their states have retained their peculiar characteristics for hundreds of years. They have still more or less the same virtues, and failings of which old tradition or record tells us, and yet have been throughout these ages distinctively Indian with the same national heritage and the same set of moral and mental qualities
  • Q.7 How does Nehru compare the ancient and medieval times with the modern times? Which bond has more importance in the modern time? Ans. In ancient and medieval times, the idea of the modern nation was non-existent and feudal, religious, racial, or cultural bonds had more importance. In the modern time the conception of nationalism has developed much more, Indians in foreign countries inevitably form a national group and hang together for various purposes, in spite of their internal differences. Q.8 for a long time how has an Indian felt: (a) In other parts of country Ans. Indian would have felt more or less at home in an other parts of our country. (b) in other countries ; Ans. An Indian would have felt stranger and been uncomfortable in an other country. (c) in countries bearing kinship with his culture of religion. Ans. He would certainly have felt less of a stranger in countries which had partly adopted his culture or religion. Q.9 How have people of other countries look upon the visiting Indians? Ans. An Indian Christian is looked upon as Indian in Turkey or Arabia or Iran, or any other country where Islam is the dominant religion. They were looked upon in other countries as Indians and foreigners, even though there might have been a community of faith between them. Q.10 Mention some of the many things that Nehru thinks of when he thinks of India? Ans. Nehru thinks of many things: of broad fields dotted with
  • innumerable small villages, towns and cities he had visited; of the magic of the rainy season which pours like into the dry parched-up land and converts it suddenly into a glistening expanse of beauty and greenery of great rivers and following water; of the Khyber Pass and snow covered peaks of mountains.