Languages of India


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Languages of India

  1. 1. LANGUAGES OF INDIA María Todorova June 12th 2009
  2. 2. National Languages and Linguistic Diversity English (associate official) Hindi (in the Devanagiri script) The Indian Constitution also officially recognizes 22 regional languages. But around 33 different languages and 2000 dialects have been identified in India.
  3. 3. Linguistic Families Indo-European (hindi) Dravidian (tamil) Austroasiatic (Austric) Sino-Tibetan
  4. 4. Languages Official Language of Spoken by Bengali Tripura & West Bengal 67 million Dogri Jammu and Kashmir Dadra and Nagar Haeli, Daman and Diu Gujarati 43 million & Gujrat Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Hindi Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, 180 million Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh & Uttaranchal Kannada Karnataka 35 million Konkani Goa Maithili Bihar 22 million Malayalam Kerala & Lakshadweep 34 million Marathi Maharashtra 65 million Nepali Sikkim Oriya Orissa 30 million Punjabi Punjab 26 million Tamil Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry 66 million Telugu Andhra Pradesh 70 million Urdu Jammu and Kashmir 46 million
  5. 5. Indo-European  Sanskrit, the classical language of India, represents the highest achievement of the Indo-Aryan Languages.  The beginning of Sanskrit literature may be traced back to Rig Vedic period.   It is the oldest literary language of India, which is more than 5,000 years old and the basis of many modern Indian languages including Hindi and Urdu.
  6. 6. Devanagari alphabet  The Nāgarī or Devanāgarī alphabet descendeds from the Brahmi script sometime around the 11th century AD. It was originally developed to write Sanskrit but was later adapted to write many other languages.  The name Devanāgarī is made up of two Sanskrit words: deva, which means god, brahman or celestial, and nāgarī, which means city. The name is variously translated as quot;script of the cityquot;, quot;heavenly/sacred script of the city“.
  7. 7. Devanagari alphabet Notable Features  Type of writing system: alphasyllabary  Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines.  Consonant letters carry an inherent vowel which can be altered or muted by means of diacritics or matra.  Vowels can be written as independent letters, or by using a variety of diacritical marks which are written above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to. This feature is common to most of the alphabets of South and South East Asia.
  8. 8. Listen… Om Asatoma Satgamaya Tamasoma Jyotir Gamaya Mrityorma Amritam Gamaya Lead us from Deception to Truth, from Darkness to Light, from Death to Blissful Immortality
  9. 9. References Sanskrit, Tamil and Pahlavi Dictionaries