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PRESENTED BY
ADAMYA SHYAM
Food Habits of India
      & U.K.
INDIAN CUISINE




INDIAN
CUISINE
INDIAN CUISINE

INDIAN CUISINE CONSISTS OF THOUSANDS OF REGIONAL CUISINES WHICH
DATE BACK TO THOUSANDS OF YEARS, IT WAS ALSO INFLUENCED BY THE
U.K.WHEN THEY WERE RULING INDIA DURING THE PRE-INDEPENDENCE
PERIOD, THE DISHES OF INDIA ARE CHARACTERIZED BY THE EXTENSIVE
USE OF VARIOUS INDIAN SPICES, HERBS, VEGETABLE AND FRUIT. IT IS
ALSO KNOWN FOR THE WIDESPREAD PRACTICE OF VEGETARIANISM IN
INDIAN SOCIETY. EACH FAMILY OF INDIAN CUISINE INCLUDES A WIDE
ASSORTMENT OF DISHES AND COOKING TECHNIQUES. AS A
CONSEQUENCE, IT VARIES FROM REGION TO REGION, REFLECTING THE
VARIED DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE ETHNICALLY-DIVERSE SUBCONTINENT.
EATING HABITS




People in India consider a healthy breakfast, or nashta, important. They generally
prefer to drink tea or coffee with the first meal of the day. North Indian people prefer
roti, parathas, and a vegetable dish, accompanied by achar (pickles) and some curd;
people of western India, dhokla and milk; South Indians, idlis and dosas, generally
accompanied by various chutneys. Lunch in India usually consists of a main dish of
rice in the south and east and rotis made from whole wheat in the northern and
western parts of India. It typically includes two or three kinds of vegetables. Lunch
may be accompanied by items such as kulcha, nan, or parathas. Curd and two or three
sweets are also included in the main course. Paan (betel leaves), which aid
digestion, are often eaten after lunch in parts of India. India families will gather for
"evening breakfast" to talk, drink tea, and eat snacks.Dinner is considered the main
meal of the day, and the whole family gathers for the occasion.
Cuisine differs across India's diverse
regions as a result of variation in local
    cultures, geographical locations
 (e.g., whether a region is close to the
  sea, desert or the mountains), and
 economics. Indian cuisine also varies
seasonally, depending on what fruits
        and vegetables are ripe.
Andaman and Nicobar
     Islands
Andhra Pradesh

Cuisine of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is referred
to as Telugu cuisine. Rice is the staple starch and is usually
consumed with a variety of curries and lentil soups or
broths. Although many people here are vegetarian, people
living in the coastal areas are known for their seafood
dishes. Food of Andhra Pradesh is known for its heavy use of
spices and chillies. One of the most important parts of the
Andhra cuisine are the various pickles, such as avakaya, a
pickle made from green mango, and gongura, a pickle made
from the leaves of the gongura plant. Curds are a common
addition to meals to neutralize the spiciness of the food.
Another popular Telugu dish is Hyderabadi biryani, a mixture
of rice, yogurt, onions, meat and spices. Hyderabadi Biryani
is popular for its exquisite taste and is derived from Persian
style of slow cooking. While a small chunk of the populace
are vegetarians, vegetarian food is still quite popular.
Vegetarian food is generally served for breakfast and lunch.
Breakfast items like Dosa, Vada have origins in
Udipi, Karnataka but are influenced by spices native to
Andhra Pradesh.
The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh is rice along with
fish, meat and green vegetables. Different varieties of rice
are available. Lettuce is the most common
vegetable, prepared by boiling with ginger, coriander and
green chilies. Boiled rice cakes wrapped in leaves is a
popular snack. Thukpa is a kind of noodle soup common
among the Monpa tribe of Arunachal.
Assam

Assamese cuisine, from Assam, a state in North-East India is
a mixture of different indigenous styles with considerable
regional variations and some external influences. Although it
is characterized by the limited use of spices, the flavors are
still strong due to the use of endemic exotic herbs, fruits and
vegetables that are either fresh, dried or fermented. Fish is
widely used, and so are birds like duck or pigeon.
Preparations are rarely elaborate; the practice of bhuna, the
gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main
ingredients so common in Indian cooking, is absent in the
cuisine of Assam. A traditional meal in Assam begins with a
khar, a class of dishes named after the main ingredient, and
ends with a tenga, a sour dish. The food is usually served in
bell metal utensils. Pann, the practice of chewing betel
nut, generally concludes the meal.
Bihar


The      cuisine     of    Bihar     is     similar   to    North      Indian      cuisine,      the
food culture in Hindi Belt, and with Oriya cuisine. Bihari society is not strictly vegetarian, but
people avoid eating non-vegetarian food daily. Religious people avoid eating non-vegetarian
food on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Bihari people typically eat boiled rice and daal with
cooked vegetables for lunch, and roti with cooked vegetables for dinner. Roti and boiled rice are
not usually eaten together. Due to this area's strong Hindu-Muslim heritage, river fish, chicken
and goat are popular meats. Mutton is considered offensive by many people. Meat-based dishes
are eaten mainly with boiled rice. Fish curry is made using mustard paste, a similar technique to
the Oriya way of cooking fish. Dairy products, such as yoghurt, buttermilk , butter, ghee (clarified
butter), and lassi, are consumed throughout the year. Watery foods such as watermelon and
sherbet made of pulp of the wood-apple fruit are consumed mainly in the summer months, and
dry foods and preparations made of sesame or poppy seeds mainly in the winter months.
People generally eat roti soaked in milk. There is a custom of eating poha with yoghurt and
sugar. Bihar is famous for Sattu Parathas, which are parathas stuffed with fried chickpea
flour, Chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), Fish curry, Litti, Bihari Kebab, and Postaa-dana kaa
halwaa. Another common dish is alu-bhujia (not to be confused with Bikaneri Bhujia, also
known as rajasthani bhujia, made from potatoes cut like French-fries and cooked in mustard oil
and mild spices, and eaten with roti or rice-daal.
GOA
Seafood, coconut milk, rice and paste are main
ingredients of Goan delicacies. The area is
located in a tropical climate, and spices and
flavors are intense. Use of Kokum is a distinct
feature. Goan cuisine is mostly seafood based;
the staple foods are rice and fish. Kingfish
(Vison or Visvan) is the most common
delicacy, others include pomfret, shark, tuna
and mackerel. Among the shellfish are
crabs, prawns, tiger prawns, lobster, squid and
mussels. The cuisine of Goa is influenced by its
Hindu origins, four hundred years of
Portuguese      colonialism,    and      modern
techniques. The state is frequented by tourists
visiting its beaches and historic sites, so its
food has an international aspect. Goan
Saraswat Brahmin and Daivajna Brahmins can
be considered facultative vegetarians, as they
eat fish and chicken most days, reverting to
vegetarianism     occasionally   for    religious
reasons, although Brahmins belonging to
Pancha Dravida are strictly vegetarian.
Gujarati cuisine is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati Thali consists of Roti (a
  flat bread made from wheat flour, and called Rotli in Gujarati), dal or kadhi, rice, and
 sabzi/shaak (a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices, which
         may be stir fried, spicy or sweet). Cuisine can vary widely in flavor and
   heat, depending on a given family's tastes as well as the region of Gujarat they are
    from. North Gujarat, Kathiawad, Kachchh, and South Gujarat are the four major
   regions of Gujarati cuisine. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty, and
       spicy at the same time. The cuisine changes with the seasonal availability of
  vegetables. In mango season, for example, Keri no ras (fresh mango pulp) is often an
integral part of the meal. The spices used also change depending on the season. Garam
 Masala and its constituent spices are used less in summer. Regular fasting, with diets
             limited to milk and dried fruits, and nuts, is a common practice.
Cattle are common in Haryana, so dairy is a
common component of cuisine in this area.
Specific dishes include Kadhi Pakora, Besan
Masala           Roti,       Bajra       Aloo
Roti, Churma, Kheer, Bathua Raita, Methi
Gajar, Singri ki Sabzi and Tamatar Chutney.
JAMMU & KASHMIR
Kashmiri cuisine has evolved over hundreds of years. The first major
influence was the food of the Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists The cuisine
was then influenced by the cultures which arrived with the invasion of
Kashmir by Timur from the region of modern Uzbekistan. Subsequently, it
has been strongly influenced by the cuisines of Central Asian, Persia, and
the North Indian plains. The most notable ingredient in Kashmir cuisine is
mutton (lamb), of which there are over 30 varieties.
Kashmiri Pandit food is also very elaborate, and is an important part of the
Pandits' ethnic identity. One of the key differences between Kashmiri
cuisine and Punjabi cuisine is that the staple in Kashmiri cuisine is
rice, whereas that in Punjabi cuisine is Chapatti also known as Roti. The
Kashmiri Pandit cuisine usually uses yogurt, oils and spices as such
turmeric, Red Chilly powder, Cumin powder, Ginger powder and Fennel
Powder (which is unique to Kashmiri cuisine), but avoids onion, garlic, and
chicken. The Kashmiri Pandit cuisine has some dishes that are similar to
the Kashmiri Muslim cuisine, though there are differences as well.
The cuisine of Karnataka includes many vegetarian and non-vegetarian
cuisines. The varieties reflect influences from the food habits of the three
neighboring South Indian states, as well as the state of Maharashtra and Goa to
its north. Some typical dishes include Bisi bele bath, Jolada rotti, Chapati, Ragi
rotti, Akki rotti, Saaru, Huli, Vangi Bath, Khara Bath, Kesari Bath, Davanagere
Benne Dosa, Ragi mudde, and Uppittu. Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi
cuisine. Plain and Rave Idli, Mysore Masala Dosa and Maddur Vade are
popular in South Karnataka. Coorg district is famous for spicy pork curries
while coastal Karnataka has seafood specialities. Among sweets, Mysore
Pak, Dharwad pedha, Chiroti are well known. Although the ingredients differ
regionally, a typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadiga meal) includes the following
dishes in the order specified and is served on a banana leaf:
Uppu(salt), Kosambari, Pickle, Palya, Gojju, Raita, Dessert, Thovve, Chitranna,
Rice and Ghee.
Poha, a popular breakfast dish in Madhya Pradesh. The cuisine in
Madhya Pradesh varies from region to region, with the north and
west of the state being mainly based around wheat and meat, and
the wetter south and east being dominated by rice and fish.
Gwalior and Indore abound in milk and milk-based preparations.
The street food of Indore is renowned, with shops which have been
selling the fare for generations.
One other popular dish in the region is the Dal bafla. Bafla is a
steamed and grilled wheat cake dunked in rich ghee which is eaten
with daal (a pungent lentil broth). It is followed by sweet ladoos.
Another popular dish in Malwa region (central M.P) is poha
(flattened rice), it is mostly a breakfast item served with Jalebi.



                              Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtrian cuisine covers a range from being
mild        to       very       spicy       dishes.
Bajri, Wheat, rice, jowar, vegetables, lentils and
fruit form important components of Maharashtrian
diet. Popular dishes include puran poli, ukdiche
Modak and batata wada. The staple dishes of
Maharashtrian cuisine are based on Bajri, Jowar
and Rice(Tandul). The cuisine of Maharashtra has
its own distinctive flavors and tastes. It can be
divided into two major sections–the coastal and
the interior. A part of Maharashtra, which lies on
the coast of the Arabian Sea, is loosely called the
Konkan and boasts of its own Konkani
cuisine, which is a homogeneous combination of
Malvani, Gaud Saraswat Brahmin, and Goan
cuisines.
Kerala cuisine is a blend of indigenous dishes and foreign dishes adapted to
Kerala tastes. Coconuts grow in abundance in Kerala, and consequently, grated
coconut and coconut milk are widely used in dishes and curries as a thickener and
flavoring ingredient. Kerala's long coastline, numerous rivers and backwater
networks, and strong fishing industry have contributed to many sea- and river-
food based dishes. Rice is grown in abundance, and could be said, along with
tapioca (manioc/cassava), to be the main starch ingredient used in Kerala food.
Having been a major production area of spices for thousands of years, black
pepper, cardamom, cloves, ginger, and cinnamon play a large part in its food.
Most of Kerala's Hindus eat fish except the Brahmin community and because
Kerala has large minorities of Muslims and Christians that are predominantly
non-vegetarians, Kerala cuisine has a multitude of both vegetarian and dishes
prepared using fish, poultry and meat. Rice and fish along with some vegetables
is the staple diet in most Kerala households. Kerala also has a variety of breakfast
dishes like idli, dosa, appam, idiyappam, puttu, and pathiri.
Nagaland




Naga cuisine, of the Naga people is known for exotic meats cooked with simple
and flavorful ingredients like the extremely hot bhut jolokia or ghost chili,
fermented bamboo shoots and soya beans. The Nagamese use oil minimally,
they prefer to ferment, dry and smoke their meats and fishes so their food is
healthy and light. Traditional homes have external kitchens like smoke houses.
Orissa
                                                      Oriyas are   very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is
                                                     considered    complete without some dessert at the end.
                                                     Vegeterian    foods also include foods prepared without
                                                     onion and     garlic as in temple prasadam and bramhin
                                                     cuisine.




Oriya cuisine is rich and varied, while relying heavily on
local ingredients. The flavors are usually subtle and
delicately spiced, quite unlike the fiery curries typically
associated with Indian cuisine. Fish and other seafood
such as crab and shrimp are very popular. Chicken and
mutton are also consumed. Panch phutana, a mix of
cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is
widely used for tempering vegetables and dals, while
garam masala (curry powder) and haladi (turmeric) are
commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, a
dish made of rice, water, and yoghurt, that is fermented
overnight, is very popular in summer, particularly in the
rural areas.
Punjab


Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or
completely vegetarian. One of the main
features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse
range of dishes. Home cooked and
restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary
significantly, with restaurant style using
large amounts of ghee, with liberal
amounts of butter and cream with home
cooked concentrating on mainly upon
preparations with whole wheat, rice and
other ingredients flavored with masalas.
Tamil Nadu



Tamil food is characterized by the use of rice, legumes and lentils, its distinct aroma and flavour
achieved        by         the        blending          of       spices        including      curry
leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, nu
tmeg, coconut and rosewater. The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil word 'kari' which
means "an additive to the main course or a side dish" Rice and legumes play an important role
in Tamil cuisine. Lentils are also consumed extensively, either accompanying rice
preparations, or in the form of independent dishes. Vegetables and dairy products are essential
accompaniments. Tamil Nadu is famous for its spicy non vegetarian dishes. The southern regions
in Tamil Nadu, namely; Madurai, Kaaraikudi or Chettinaadu are famous for their spicy non
vegetarian dishes.
UTTARAKHAND


The food from Uttarakhand is known to be wholesome to suit the high-energy
necessities of the mountainous and wintry region. It is traditionally cooked over wood
fire. The cuisine mainly consists of food from two different sub regions Garhwal and
Kumaon, though the basic ingredients of both Garhwali and Kumaoni cuisine are the
same, there are some basic differences that tell apart the two. The distinctive trait of the
Kumauni cuisine is the tightfisted use of especially milk and milk-based products as
cows from hilly areas do not yield high-quality or amount of milk. The similarity between
both of them is the liberal use of Ghee and charcoal cooking. Both Garhwalis and
Kumaunis are fond of lentil or pulses and ‘Bhaatt’ or rice. To combat the extreme winters
and possible exhausting of food, they also use Badi (sun-dried Urad Dal balls) and
Mangodi (sun-dried Moong Dal balls) as substitute for vegetables at times. Main dishes
from Uttarakhand include Chainsoo, Kafuli, Jholi, Thechwani, Baadi, etc.
The dishes prepared by the people of Uttarakhan are similar to Uttar Pradesh. They eat
rice, pulses, chapatis, vegetable. Tomatoes, onions and spices are used to make the
food delicious.
The Tripuri people are the original inhabitants of the state of
Tripura in North East India. The indigenous Tripuri people
comprises              the              communities               of
Tipra, Reang, Jamatia, Noatia, Uchoi and others. The Tripuri
people have their own culture and cuisine. The Tripuris are non-
vegetarian, though there is a minority modern vaishnavite Hindu
vegetarian following. The major ingredient of Tripuris cuisine for
non-vegetarian                     food                     includes
pork, chicken, mutton, turtle, fish, prawns, crabs, and frogs.
Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in
the eastern India which includes states of Tripura, Barak
Valley of Assam and West Bengal. With an emphasis on fish
and lentils served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali
cuisine is known for its subtle flavours, its confectioneries
and desserts, and has perhaps the only multi-course
tradition from India that is analogous with French and
Italian cuisine in structure. The nature and variety of
dishes found in Bengali cooking are unique even in India.
Fish cookery is one of its better-known features and
distinguishes it from the cooking of the landlocked
regions. Bengal's many rivers, ponds and lakes teem with
many kinds of freshwater fish that closely resemble
catfish, bass, shad or mullet. Bengalis prepare fish in
innumerable ways – steamed or braised, or stewed with
greens or other vegetables and with sauces that are
mustard-based or thickened with poppy seeds.
The Uttar Pradeshi cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-
vegetarian dishes but a vast majority of the state enjoys sober
vegetarian meals with Dal, roti, sabzi and rice constituting the
essentials of daily food habits. Pooris and kachoris are relished on
special occasions. Uttar Pradesh has also been greatly influenced
by Mughal (Mughlai cuisine) cooking techniques which is very
popular worldwide. The samosa and pakora, among the most
popular snacks in all of India, are also originally from Uttar
Pradesh. Awadhi is a type of West-Central Uttar Pradeshi cuisine
found         in       the       state's      Awadh          Region.
Sikkim has its own unique dietary culture with specific cuisine and food
recipes. In the Sikkim Himalayas traditional foods are an integral part of
  the dietary culture of the various ethnic groups of people consisting of
   the Nepalese, Bhutias and Lepchas. Rice is the staple food. Meat and
    dairy products are also consumed depending on availability. Besides
      these, various traditional fermented foods and beverages, which
   constitute of about 20 per cent of the basic diet for long centuries are
   prepared and consumed. The dietary-culture of this region is mostly
ref lected in the pattern of food production. Depending on the altitudinal
                               variation, finger
  millet, wheat, buckwheat, barley, vegetable, potato, soybeans, etc. are
  grown. Some of the common traditional cuisine with their food recipes
    has been presented for introduction of dietary culture of the Sikkim
Etiquette

Several customs are associated with food consumption.
Traditionally, meals were eaten while seated either on the floor or
on very low stools or cushions. Food is most often eaten without
cutlery, using instead the fingers of the right hand. Often roti (flat
bread) is used to scoop the curry without allowing it to touch the
hands. Other etiquette includes eating with one hand only,
preferably the right hand. Along the coast to the south, where the
staple is parboiled rice, rural dwellers raise a hand full of rice[to eat
while urban folks tend to only use the fingers and thumb. In the
wheat growing/consuming north, a piece of roti is gripped with the
thumb and middle finger and ripped off while holding the roti down
with the index finger. Traditional serving styles vary from region to
region in India.
One universal aspect of presentation is the Thali, a large plate with
samplings of different regional dishes accompanied by Raita, breads
such as nan, pure, or roti, and rice. Most South Indian meals end
with plain curd and rice. In South India, cleaned banana leaves,
which could be disposed of after the meal, were traditionally used
as an alternative to plates. When hot food is served on banana
leaves, the leaves add aroma and taste to the food. Leaf plates are
still utilized on auspicious and festive occasions but are much less
common otherwise.
Traditional ways of dining are being influenced by eating styles from
other parts of the world. Among the middle class throughout India,
spoons and forks are now commonly used, although knives are not.
Indian sweets, known as mythoi, are a type
of confectionery. Many are made with
sugar, milk and condensed milk, and cooked
by frying. The bases of the sweets and other
ingredients vary by region. In the Eastern
part of India, for example, milk is a staple,
and most sweets from this region are based
on milk products.
Beverage



Lassi is a popular and traditional yogurt-based drink of India.
It is made by blending yogurt with water or milk and Indian
spices. Salted lassi is more common in villages of Punjab &
Indian Porbandar, Gujarat. It is prepared by blending yogurt
with water and adding salt and other spices to taste. The
resulting beverage is known as salted lassi. Traditional lassi
is sometimes flavored with ground roasted cumin. Sweet
lassi is a form of lassi flavored with sugar, rosewater and/or
lemon, strawberry or other fruit juices. Saffron lassis, which
are particularly rich, are also very popular.
Calorie chart of some Indian foods
Aam Ras (1 mk) - 168                Sabudana Vada (1) - 176
Aloo Chat (1 mk) - 148              Sada Dosa (1) - 155
Baked Stuffed Potato (1) - 123      Sweet and Sour Prawn (1 bk) - 234
Banana (1 sk) - 116                 Sweet and Sour Soup (1 bowl) - 235
Boiled Egg (1) - 85                 Sweet Lassi (1 glass) - 150
Brinjal & Potato (1 mk) 133         Tandoori Chicken (1 pcs) - 273
Brinjal (1 mk) - -103               Tandoori Roti W/o ghee (1) - 102
Brinjal Bharta (1 mk) - 160         Tea (1 cup) – 98
Bun Bread (1) - 150                 Veg Kababs (1) - 48.6
Bundi Ladoo (1) - 185               Veg Kolhapuri (1 mk) - 305
Burfi (1) - 124.5                   Veg Korma (1 mk) - 290
Cutlet (1) - 160                    Veg Malai Kofta (1 mk) - 338
Egg Omlette (1) - 130
Falooda (1 big glass) - 300
Fanta (1 bottle) - 141
Fish Fingers (1 plate) - 184
Fish Molee (1 mk) - 478
Fish Stew (1 mk) - 503
Fruit Bread (1) - 70
Roomali Roti W/o ghee (1) - 200
Rum (1 peg) - 105
QUIZ TIME
   In Vedic times, What does a normal diet contains?
     In Vedic times, a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, grain, dairy
    products, honey.
   What is the staple food of Arunachal Pradesh?
     The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh is rice along with fish, meat and
    green vegetables.
   What is the word used for cuisine of southern state?
     Cuisine of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is referred to as Telugu
    cuisine.
   The cuisine of Bihar is similar to which cuisine of India?
     The cuisine of Bihar is similar to North Indian cuisine.
   Poha is popular breakfast dish of which Indian state?
     Poha is popular breakfast dish of Madhya Pradesh.
QUIZ TIME
   Salted Lassi is common in which Indian states?
    Salted lassi is common in Punjab & Gujarat.
   Hyderabadi Biryani is derived from which style?
     Hyderabadi Biryani is derived from Persian style.
   Name the famous Beverage of India?
     Lassi.
   Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh was influenced by whom?
      By Mughals.
   What is Thukpa?
     Thukpa is a kind of noodle soup .
U.K. CUISINE
We have a wide and varied cuisine in U.K. today, no more do
we suffer under the image of grey boiled meat. After years of
disparagement by various countries (especially the French) U.K.
now has an enviable culinary reputation. In fact some of the
great chefs now come from U.K..
However U.K.'s culinary expertise is not new. In the past U.K.
cooking was amongst the best in the world
Traditional U.K.cuisine is substantial, yet simple and
wholesome. We have long believed in four meals a day. Our
fare has been influenced by the traditions and tastes from
different parts of the U.K.empire: teas from Ceylon and
chutney, kedgeree, and mulligatawny soup from India.
Eating Habits
Many of these dietary changes reflect current nutritional advice. Since the 60s we've been
consuming fewer calories from household food (this doesn't include eating out).
However, there are an increasing number of people who are overweight or obese. The
reasons for this are not clear. But there are a few possible explanations, such as:
We are now much less active than we used to be so we need less energy from our food.
We're preparing less food at home, so as well as the food we buy for eating at home, we're
also eating takeaways and eating out.
We may be eating more snacks and sweets than we are admitting to in surveys Most of our
energy comes from carbohydrates (starchy foods and sugary foods) as it did in the 1950s.
The proportion of energy in our diets coming from fat is about the same as in the 1950s. In
the 1960s and 1970s the energy from fat in our diets increased but since the late 1980s we
have been consuming less total fat and we've also cut down on saturated fat, which takes
us nearer the target levels (35% food energy from total fat, 11% food energy from
saturated fat).
This may be due to the general switch from whole milk, butter, margarine and lard to semi-
skimmed and skimmed milk, vegetable oils and low/ reduced-fat spreads.
There have been considerable changes in the types of foods we're eating. This means that
the main sources of nutrients in our diets has been changing.
The wartime diet was not popular. However, rationing in the 1950s was able to provide a
generally healthy diet. This is despite the fact that its energy content was comparatively
high and the fat was almost entirely saturated. It was also higher in salt, but it didn't
contain the innumerable convenience foods we have today, and women were expected to
prepare most foods in their own home. It was also low in fruit, especially in the winter.
Eating Habits
Eating Habits
 A period of full employment in the 1960s entailed a
steady increase in married women employed outside
the home, and, later, an increase in mothers of young
children doing likewise. Household incomes have
risen, yet women continue to be responsible for
organising the shopping and doing the cooking. The
double burden of work inside and outside the home
made a readily defined mass market for the sale of
electrically powered kitchen technologies, sold in the
name of labour saving to ‘busy wives and mothers’ and
for frozen dinners, ready-prepared vegetables, cook-in
sauces and more. It also created a market in which
manufactured foods could aptly be re-named
‘convenience’ foods.
Diet Barometer
Consumption of semi-skimmed milk overtook whole milk
in 1993.
Bananas overtook apples as the fresh fruit market leader
in 1996.
Over the past ten years we've started buying more non-
traditional types of bread, such as French, nan and pitta
bread, ciabatta and bagels.
We're drinking 12 times as much bottled mineral water at
home compared to the mid-1980s.
In the 1980s we made our move from butter to soft
margarines and today, reduced-fat spreads are the
preferred option.
A brief history

U.K.cuisine has always been multicultural, a pot pourri of eclectic styles. In ancient times influenced
by the Romans and in medieval times the French. When the Frankish Normans invaded, they
brought with them the spices of the east: cinnamon, saffron, mace, nutmeg, pepper, ginger. Sugar
came to England at that time, and was considered a spice -- rare and expensive. Before the arrival of
cane sugars, honey and fruit juices were the only sweeteners. The few Medieval cookery books that
remain record dishes that use every spice in the larder, and chefs across Europe saw their task to be
the almost alchemical transformation of raw ingredients into something entirely new (for centuries the
English aristocracy ate French food) which they felt distinguished them from the peasants.
During Victorian times good old U.K.stodge mixed with exotic spices from all over the Empire. And
today despite being part of Europe we've kept up our links with the countries of the former
U.K.empire, now united under the Commonwealth.
One of the benefits of having an empire is that we did learn quite a bit from the colonies. From East
Asia (China) we adopted tea (and exported the habit to India), and from India we adopted curry-style
spicing, we even developed a line of spicy sauces including ketchup, mint sauce, Worcestershire
sauce and deviled sauce to indulge these tastes. Today it would be fair to say that curry has become
a national dish.
Among English cakes and pastries, many are tied to the various religious holidays of the year. Hot
Cross Buns are eaten on Good Friday, Simnel Cake is for Mothering Sunday, Plum Pudding for
Christmas, and Twelfth Night Cake for Epiphany.
Unfortunately a great deal of damage was done to U.K.cuisine during the two world wars. U.K. is an
island and supplies of many goods became short. The war effort used up goods and services and so
less were left over for private people to consume. Ships importing food stuffs had to travel in convoys
and so they could make fewer journeys. During the second world war food rationing began in
January 1940 and was lifted only gradually after the war.
The U.K.tradition of stews, pies and breads, according to the taste buds of the rest of the world, went
into terminal decline. What was best in England was only that which showed the influence of
Beefsteak, Oyster, and Kidney Pudding:
Oysters may seem unlikely in this meat pudding, but their great abundance in the
Victorian age and earlier eras inspired cooks to find ways to incorporate them creatively in
many different recipes. This steamed pudding combines the meats with
mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, and Worcestershire, then wraps the whole in a suet pastry.
Eggless Cake :
Puff pastry stuffed with a spicy currant filling.
Hasty Pudding: A simple and quick (thus the name) steamed pudding of
milk, flour, butter, eggs, and cinnamon.
Irish Stew:
An Irish stew always has a common base of lamb, potatoes, and onion. It could contain
any number of other ingredients, depending on the cook.
Welsh Faggots:
Pig's liver is made into meatballs with onion, beef suet, bread crumbs, and sometimes a
chopped apple. Faggots used to be made to use up the odd parts of a pig after it had been
slaughtered.
Welsh Rabbit (or Rarebit):
Cheese is grated and melted with milk or ale. Pepper, salt, butter, and mustard are then
added. The mix is spread over toast and baked until "the cheese bubbles and becomes
brown in appetizing-looking splashes".
Pies and puddings are related phenomena in U.K. culinary history.
Originally, both solved the problem of preparing dinners made with
less expensive meats. Pies covered a stew or other ingredients with a
crust; puddings were made from butcher's scraps tucked into a sheep's
stomach, then steamed or boiled. Pies have remained pies, although, in
addition to savory pies, there now exist sweet variations, which tend to
have two crusts or a bottom crust only.
Pie crusts can be made from a short dough or puff pastry. Snacks and
bar food (U.K.'s fifth food group) are often in pie form: pasties
(pronounced with a short "a" like "had") are filled turnovers.
Over time, however, in a confusing development, pudding has become
a more general term for a sweet or savory steamed mixture -- as well as
a word that describes desserts in general. For example, black pudding is
actually made with pig's blood. Whereas plum pudding is a Christmas
treat consisting of a steamed cake of beef suet (the white fat around the
kidney and loins) and dried and candied fruits soaked in brandy.
And, of course, one can't forget rice pudding.
Amongst cakes, buns and pastries local delicacies include Bath
Buns, Chelsea Buns, Eccles Cakes, and Ban bury Cakes.
Bangers and
                               Mash

YOU MIGHT SEE THIS ON OFFER IN A PUB OR CAFE.
SIMPLY PUT, BANGERS ARE SAUSAGES, AND MASH IS
POTATO THAT'S BEEN BOILED AND THEN MASHED UP
(USUALLY WITH BUTTER). THE SAUSAGE USED IN
BANGERS AND MASH CAN BE MADE OF PORK OR BEEF
WITH    APPLE OR  TOMATO   SEASONING;  OFTEN   A
LINCOLNSHIRE, OR CUMBERLAND SAUSAGE IS USED.
THE DISH IS USUALLY SERVED WITH A RICH ONION
GRAVY. ALTHOUGH SOMETIMES STATED THAT THE
TERM "BANGERS" HAS ITS ORIGINS IN WORLD WAR
II, THE TERM WAS ACTUALLY IN USE AT LEAST AS FAR
BACK AS 1919.
Bubble and squeak (sometimes just called bubble) is a
traditional English dish made with the shallow-fried
leftover vegetables from a Sunday roast dinner. The
chief ingredients are potato and cabbage, but
carrots, peas, Brussels sprouts, and other vegetables
can be added. It is usually served with cold meat from
the Sunday roast, and pickles, but you can eat it on its
own. Traditionally the meat was added to the bubble
and squeak itself, although nowadays the vegetarian
version is more common. The cold chopped vegetables
(and cold chopped meat if used) are fried in a pan
together with mashed potato until the mixture is well-
cooked and browned.
Fish and Chips
Fish and chips is the traditional take-away food of England, long
before McDonalds we had the fish and chip shop. Fresh cod is the
most common fish for our traditional fish and chips, other types of
fish used include haddock, huss, and plaice.
The fresh fish is dipped in flour and then dipped in batter and deep
fried, it is then served with chips (fresh not frozen) and usually you
will be asked if you want salt and vinegar added. Sometimes people
will order curry sauce (yellow sauce that tastes nothing like real
curry), mushy peas (well it's green anyway) or pickled eggs (yes
pickled).
Traditionally fish and chips were served up wrapped in old
newspaper. Nowadays (thanks to hygiene laws) they are wrapped in
greaseproof paper and sometimes paper that has been specially
printed to look like newspaper. You often get a small wooden or
plastic fork to eat them with too, although it is quite ok to use your
fingers.
U.K. Cheese

Cheese is made from the curdled milk of various animals: most commonly cows but
often goats, sheep and even reindeer, and buffalo. Rennet is often used to induce milk
to coagulate, although some cheeses are curdled with acids like vinegar or lemon juice
or with extracts of vegetable rennet.
U.K. started producing cheese thousands of years ago. However, it was in Roman times
that the cheese-making process was originally honed and the techniques developed. In
the Middle Ages, the gauntlet was passed to the monasteries that flourished following
the Norman invasion. It is to these innovative monks that we are indebted for so many
of the now classic types of cheese that are produced in U.K..
The tradition of making cheese nearly died out during WWII, when due to rationing
only one type of cheese could be manufactured - the unappealingly named 'National
Cheese'. The discovery and revival of old recipes and the development of new types of
cheese has seen the U.K. cheese industry flourish in recent years and diversify in a way
not seen since the 17th century.
Calorie in some U.K. food
    Calories in a Baileys Irish Cream - 87
            Calories in wine - 182
       Calories in a pint of beer - 129
           Calories in a biscuit - 74
        Calories in a doughnut - 140
      Calories in a hot cross bun - 205
         Bran Flakes, Kellogg's- 144
         Corn Flakes, Kellogg's - 167
    Calories in Chinese bean sprouts - 92
     Calories in Beef in black bean - 432
    Calories in chocolate ice cream - 159
           Calories in Kit Kat - 106
       Calories in a can of coke - 139
              Calories in tea - 29
          Calories in eggs, size - 384
 Sandwich the well known breakfast meal has been given by which
  country?
   England
 What is the colloquial name of English Sausages?
   Bangers
 Cumberland and Lincolnshire are the variety of which food?
   English Sausages
 ‘Cheddar Cheese’ is a most common type of Cheese. What is
  ‘Cheddar’ in this name?
   Name of a village
 Who did take the tea habit to Great Britain and when?
   Around 1660, Catherine of Braganza, W/O Charles II.
 Name few varieties of fish, which England takes in its food?
   Cod, Haddock, Huss, Skate
 ‘Pub’ is a well known place for what purpose?
    Serving food and drinking establishment with mobile vendors.
 How many variety of Sausage the UK has?
    Around 400 varieties.
Britishers usually take builder’s tea. What is builder’s tea?
  A mug of strong tea, served with lots of milk & sugar.
Kipper, bloaters, ham & bacon are what?
  Variety of preserved meat to fish.
What difference Britishers found after use of Microwave Oven to
 freeze in their meal?
  Quality dropped but variety increased.
Coffee houses of London are famous for what?
  Meeting place for Literary, Commercial & Political person.
Britishers take hot chocolate or Cocoa at which suitable time?
  At late night typically.
What is ‘Punch’?
  Mixed drink made of fruits, water to spirits.
Which Indian dish is today known as the Britain’s true national dish?
  Chicken tikka masala.
THANK YOU

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Food habits of india & u.k.

  • 2. Food Habits of India & U.K.
  • 4. INDIAN CUISINE INDIAN CUISINE CONSISTS OF THOUSANDS OF REGIONAL CUISINES WHICH DATE BACK TO THOUSANDS OF YEARS, IT WAS ALSO INFLUENCED BY THE U.K.WHEN THEY WERE RULING INDIA DURING THE PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD, THE DISHES OF INDIA ARE CHARACTERIZED BY THE EXTENSIVE USE OF VARIOUS INDIAN SPICES, HERBS, VEGETABLE AND FRUIT. IT IS ALSO KNOWN FOR THE WIDESPREAD PRACTICE OF VEGETARIANISM IN INDIAN SOCIETY. EACH FAMILY OF INDIAN CUISINE INCLUDES A WIDE ASSORTMENT OF DISHES AND COOKING TECHNIQUES. AS A CONSEQUENCE, IT VARIES FROM REGION TO REGION, REFLECTING THE VARIED DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE ETHNICALLY-DIVERSE SUBCONTINENT.
  • 5. EATING HABITS People in India consider a healthy breakfast, or nashta, important. They generally prefer to drink tea or coffee with the first meal of the day. North Indian people prefer roti, parathas, and a vegetable dish, accompanied by achar (pickles) and some curd; people of western India, dhokla and milk; South Indians, idlis and dosas, generally accompanied by various chutneys. Lunch in India usually consists of a main dish of rice in the south and east and rotis made from whole wheat in the northern and western parts of India. It typically includes two or three kinds of vegetables. Lunch may be accompanied by items such as kulcha, nan, or parathas. Curd and two or three sweets are also included in the main course. Paan (betel leaves), which aid digestion, are often eaten after lunch in parts of India. India families will gather for "evening breakfast" to talk, drink tea, and eat snacks.Dinner is considered the main meal of the day, and the whole family gathers for the occasion.
  • 6.
  • 7. Cuisine differs across India's diverse regions as a result of variation in local cultures, geographical locations (e.g., whether a region is close to the sea, desert or the mountains), and economics. Indian cuisine also varies seasonally, depending on what fruits and vegetables are ripe.
  • 9. Andhra Pradesh Cuisine of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is referred to as Telugu cuisine. Rice is the staple starch and is usually consumed with a variety of curries and lentil soups or broths. Although many people here are vegetarian, people living in the coastal areas are known for their seafood dishes. Food of Andhra Pradesh is known for its heavy use of spices and chillies. One of the most important parts of the Andhra cuisine are the various pickles, such as avakaya, a pickle made from green mango, and gongura, a pickle made from the leaves of the gongura plant. Curds are a common addition to meals to neutralize the spiciness of the food. Another popular Telugu dish is Hyderabadi biryani, a mixture of rice, yogurt, onions, meat and spices. Hyderabadi Biryani is popular for its exquisite taste and is derived from Persian style of slow cooking. While a small chunk of the populace are vegetarians, vegetarian food is still quite popular. Vegetarian food is generally served for breakfast and lunch. Breakfast items like Dosa, Vada have origins in Udipi, Karnataka but are influenced by spices native to Andhra Pradesh.
  • 10. The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh is rice along with fish, meat and green vegetables. Different varieties of rice are available. Lettuce is the most common vegetable, prepared by boiling with ginger, coriander and green chilies. Boiled rice cakes wrapped in leaves is a popular snack. Thukpa is a kind of noodle soup common among the Monpa tribe of Arunachal.
  • 11. Assam Assamese cuisine, from Assam, a state in North-East India is a mixture of different indigenous styles with considerable regional variations and some external influences. Although it is characterized by the limited use of spices, the flavors are still strong due to the use of endemic exotic herbs, fruits and vegetables that are either fresh, dried or fermented. Fish is widely used, and so are birds like duck or pigeon. Preparations are rarely elaborate; the practice of bhuna, the gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main ingredients so common in Indian cooking, is absent in the cuisine of Assam. A traditional meal in Assam begins with a khar, a class of dishes named after the main ingredient, and ends with a tenga, a sour dish. The food is usually served in bell metal utensils. Pann, the practice of chewing betel nut, generally concludes the meal.
  • 12. Bihar The cuisine of Bihar is similar to North Indian cuisine, the food culture in Hindi Belt, and with Oriya cuisine. Bihari society is not strictly vegetarian, but people avoid eating non-vegetarian food daily. Religious people avoid eating non-vegetarian food on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Bihari people typically eat boiled rice and daal with cooked vegetables for lunch, and roti with cooked vegetables for dinner. Roti and boiled rice are not usually eaten together. Due to this area's strong Hindu-Muslim heritage, river fish, chicken and goat are popular meats. Mutton is considered offensive by many people. Meat-based dishes are eaten mainly with boiled rice. Fish curry is made using mustard paste, a similar technique to the Oriya way of cooking fish. Dairy products, such as yoghurt, buttermilk , butter, ghee (clarified butter), and lassi, are consumed throughout the year. Watery foods such as watermelon and sherbet made of pulp of the wood-apple fruit are consumed mainly in the summer months, and dry foods and preparations made of sesame or poppy seeds mainly in the winter months. People generally eat roti soaked in milk. There is a custom of eating poha with yoghurt and sugar. Bihar is famous for Sattu Parathas, which are parathas stuffed with fried chickpea flour, Chokha (spicy mashed potatoes), Fish curry, Litti, Bihari Kebab, and Postaa-dana kaa halwaa. Another common dish is alu-bhujia (not to be confused with Bikaneri Bhujia, also known as rajasthani bhujia, made from potatoes cut like French-fries and cooked in mustard oil and mild spices, and eaten with roti or rice-daal.
  • 13. GOA Seafood, coconut milk, rice and paste are main ingredients of Goan delicacies. The area is located in a tropical climate, and spices and flavors are intense. Use of Kokum is a distinct feature. Goan cuisine is mostly seafood based; the staple foods are rice and fish. Kingfish (Vison or Visvan) is the most common delicacy, others include pomfret, shark, tuna and mackerel. Among the shellfish are crabs, prawns, tiger prawns, lobster, squid and mussels. The cuisine of Goa is influenced by its Hindu origins, four hundred years of Portuguese colonialism, and modern techniques. The state is frequented by tourists visiting its beaches and historic sites, so its food has an international aspect. Goan Saraswat Brahmin and Daivajna Brahmins can be considered facultative vegetarians, as they eat fish and chicken most days, reverting to vegetarianism occasionally for religious reasons, although Brahmins belonging to Pancha Dravida are strictly vegetarian.
  • 14. Gujarati cuisine is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati Thali consists of Roti (a flat bread made from wheat flour, and called Rotli in Gujarati), dal or kadhi, rice, and sabzi/shaak (a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices, which may be stir fried, spicy or sweet). Cuisine can vary widely in flavor and heat, depending on a given family's tastes as well as the region of Gujarat they are from. North Gujarat, Kathiawad, Kachchh, and South Gujarat are the four major regions of Gujarati cuisine. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty, and spicy at the same time. The cuisine changes with the seasonal availability of vegetables. In mango season, for example, Keri no ras (fresh mango pulp) is often an integral part of the meal. The spices used also change depending on the season. Garam Masala and its constituent spices are used less in summer. Regular fasting, with diets limited to milk and dried fruits, and nuts, is a common practice.
  • 15. Cattle are common in Haryana, so dairy is a common component of cuisine in this area. Specific dishes include Kadhi Pakora, Besan Masala Roti, Bajra Aloo Roti, Churma, Kheer, Bathua Raita, Methi Gajar, Singri ki Sabzi and Tamatar Chutney.
  • 16. JAMMU & KASHMIR Kashmiri cuisine has evolved over hundreds of years. The first major influence was the food of the Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists The cuisine was then influenced by the cultures which arrived with the invasion of Kashmir by Timur from the region of modern Uzbekistan. Subsequently, it has been strongly influenced by the cuisines of Central Asian, Persia, and the North Indian plains. The most notable ingredient in Kashmir cuisine is mutton (lamb), of which there are over 30 varieties. Kashmiri Pandit food is also very elaborate, and is an important part of the Pandits' ethnic identity. One of the key differences between Kashmiri cuisine and Punjabi cuisine is that the staple in Kashmiri cuisine is rice, whereas that in Punjabi cuisine is Chapatti also known as Roti. The Kashmiri Pandit cuisine usually uses yogurt, oils and spices as such turmeric, Red Chilly powder, Cumin powder, Ginger powder and Fennel Powder (which is unique to Kashmiri cuisine), but avoids onion, garlic, and chicken. The Kashmiri Pandit cuisine has some dishes that are similar to the Kashmiri Muslim cuisine, though there are differences as well.
  • 17. The cuisine of Karnataka includes many vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisines. The varieties reflect influences from the food habits of the three neighboring South Indian states, as well as the state of Maharashtra and Goa to its north. Some typical dishes include Bisi bele bath, Jolada rotti, Chapati, Ragi rotti, Akki rotti, Saaru, Huli, Vangi Bath, Khara Bath, Kesari Bath, Davanagere Benne Dosa, Ragi mudde, and Uppittu. Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine. Plain and Rave Idli, Mysore Masala Dosa and Maddur Vade are popular in South Karnataka. Coorg district is famous for spicy pork curries while coastal Karnataka has seafood specialities. Among sweets, Mysore Pak, Dharwad pedha, Chiroti are well known. Although the ingredients differ regionally, a typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadiga meal) includes the following dishes in the order specified and is served on a banana leaf: Uppu(salt), Kosambari, Pickle, Palya, Gojju, Raita, Dessert, Thovve, Chitranna, Rice and Ghee.
  • 18. Poha, a popular breakfast dish in Madhya Pradesh. The cuisine in Madhya Pradesh varies from region to region, with the north and west of the state being mainly based around wheat and meat, and the wetter south and east being dominated by rice and fish. Gwalior and Indore abound in milk and milk-based preparations. The street food of Indore is renowned, with shops which have been selling the fare for generations. One other popular dish in the region is the Dal bafla. Bafla is a steamed and grilled wheat cake dunked in rich ghee which is eaten with daal (a pungent lentil broth). It is followed by sweet ladoos. Another popular dish in Malwa region (central M.P) is poha (flattened rice), it is mostly a breakfast item served with Jalebi. Madhya Pradesh
  • 19. Maharashtrian cuisine covers a range from being mild to very spicy dishes. Bajri, Wheat, rice, jowar, vegetables, lentils and fruit form important components of Maharashtrian diet. Popular dishes include puran poli, ukdiche Modak and batata wada. The staple dishes of Maharashtrian cuisine are based on Bajri, Jowar and Rice(Tandul). The cuisine of Maharashtra has its own distinctive flavors and tastes. It can be divided into two major sections–the coastal and the interior. A part of Maharashtra, which lies on the coast of the Arabian Sea, is loosely called the Konkan and boasts of its own Konkani cuisine, which is a homogeneous combination of Malvani, Gaud Saraswat Brahmin, and Goan cuisines.
  • 20. Kerala cuisine is a blend of indigenous dishes and foreign dishes adapted to Kerala tastes. Coconuts grow in abundance in Kerala, and consequently, grated coconut and coconut milk are widely used in dishes and curries as a thickener and flavoring ingredient. Kerala's long coastline, numerous rivers and backwater networks, and strong fishing industry have contributed to many sea- and river- food based dishes. Rice is grown in abundance, and could be said, along with tapioca (manioc/cassava), to be the main starch ingredient used in Kerala food. Having been a major production area of spices for thousands of years, black pepper, cardamom, cloves, ginger, and cinnamon play a large part in its food. Most of Kerala's Hindus eat fish except the Brahmin community and because Kerala has large minorities of Muslims and Christians that are predominantly non-vegetarians, Kerala cuisine has a multitude of both vegetarian and dishes prepared using fish, poultry and meat. Rice and fish along with some vegetables is the staple diet in most Kerala households. Kerala also has a variety of breakfast dishes like idli, dosa, appam, idiyappam, puttu, and pathiri.
  • 21. Nagaland Naga cuisine, of the Naga people is known for exotic meats cooked with simple and flavorful ingredients like the extremely hot bhut jolokia or ghost chili, fermented bamboo shoots and soya beans. The Nagamese use oil minimally, they prefer to ferment, dry and smoke their meats and fishes so their food is healthy and light. Traditional homes have external kitchens like smoke houses.
  • 22. Orissa Oriyas are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is considered complete without some dessert at the end. Vegeterian foods also include foods prepared without onion and garlic as in temple prasadam and bramhin cuisine. Oriya cuisine is rich and varied, while relying heavily on local ingredients. The flavors are usually subtle and delicately spiced, quite unlike the fiery curries typically associated with Indian cuisine. Fish and other seafood such as crab and shrimp are very popular. Chicken and mutton are also consumed. Panch phutana, a mix of cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for tempering vegetables and dals, while garam masala (curry powder) and haladi (turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, a dish made of rice, water, and yoghurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer, particularly in the rural areas.
  • 23. Punjab Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly, with restaurant style using large amounts of ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooked concentrating on mainly upon preparations with whole wheat, rice and other ingredients flavored with masalas.
  • 24. Tamil Nadu Tamil food is characterized by the use of rice, legumes and lentils, its distinct aroma and flavour achieved by the blending of spices including curry leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, nu tmeg, coconut and rosewater. The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil word 'kari' which means "an additive to the main course or a side dish" Rice and legumes play an important role in Tamil cuisine. Lentils are also consumed extensively, either accompanying rice preparations, or in the form of independent dishes. Vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments. Tamil Nadu is famous for its spicy non vegetarian dishes. The southern regions in Tamil Nadu, namely; Madurai, Kaaraikudi or Chettinaadu are famous for their spicy non vegetarian dishes.
  • 25. UTTARAKHAND The food from Uttarakhand is known to be wholesome to suit the high-energy necessities of the mountainous and wintry region. It is traditionally cooked over wood fire. The cuisine mainly consists of food from two different sub regions Garhwal and Kumaon, though the basic ingredients of both Garhwali and Kumaoni cuisine are the same, there are some basic differences that tell apart the two. The distinctive trait of the Kumauni cuisine is the tightfisted use of especially milk and milk-based products as cows from hilly areas do not yield high-quality or amount of milk. The similarity between both of them is the liberal use of Ghee and charcoal cooking. Both Garhwalis and Kumaunis are fond of lentil or pulses and ‘Bhaatt’ or rice. To combat the extreme winters and possible exhausting of food, they also use Badi (sun-dried Urad Dal balls) and Mangodi (sun-dried Moong Dal balls) as substitute for vegetables at times. Main dishes from Uttarakhand include Chainsoo, Kafuli, Jholi, Thechwani, Baadi, etc. The dishes prepared by the people of Uttarakhan are similar to Uttar Pradesh. They eat rice, pulses, chapatis, vegetable. Tomatoes, onions and spices are used to make the food delicious.
  • 26. The Tripuri people are the original inhabitants of the state of Tripura in North East India. The indigenous Tripuri people comprises the communities of Tipra, Reang, Jamatia, Noatia, Uchoi and others. The Tripuri people have their own culture and cuisine. The Tripuris are non- vegetarian, though there is a minority modern vaishnavite Hindu vegetarian following. The major ingredient of Tripuris cuisine for non-vegetarian food includes pork, chicken, mutton, turtle, fish, prawns, crabs, and frogs.
  • 27. Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in the eastern India which includes states of Tripura, Barak Valley of Assam and West Bengal. With an emphasis on fish and lentils served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali cuisine is known for its subtle flavours, its confectioneries and desserts, and has perhaps the only multi-course tradition from India that is analogous with French and Italian cuisine in structure. The nature and variety of dishes found in Bengali cooking are unique even in India. Fish cookery is one of its better-known features and distinguishes it from the cooking of the landlocked regions. Bengal's many rivers, ponds and lakes teem with many kinds of freshwater fish that closely resemble catfish, bass, shad or mullet. Bengalis prepare fish in innumerable ways – steamed or braised, or stewed with greens or other vegetables and with sauces that are mustard-based or thickened with poppy seeds.
  • 28. The Uttar Pradeshi cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non- vegetarian dishes but a vast majority of the state enjoys sober vegetarian meals with Dal, roti, sabzi and rice constituting the essentials of daily food habits. Pooris and kachoris are relished on special occasions. Uttar Pradesh has also been greatly influenced by Mughal (Mughlai cuisine) cooking techniques which is very popular worldwide. The samosa and pakora, among the most popular snacks in all of India, are also originally from Uttar Pradesh. Awadhi is a type of West-Central Uttar Pradeshi cuisine found in the state's Awadh Region.
  • 29. Sikkim has its own unique dietary culture with specific cuisine and food recipes. In the Sikkim Himalayas traditional foods are an integral part of the dietary culture of the various ethnic groups of people consisting of the Nepalese, Bhutias and Lepchas. Rice is the staple food. Meat and dairy products are also consumed depending on availability. Besides these, various traditional fermented foods and beverages, which constitute of about 20 per cent of the basic diet for long centuries are prepared and consumed. The dietary-culture of this region is mostly ref lected in the pattern of food production. Depending on the altitudinal variation, finger millet, wheat, buckwheat, barley, vegetable, potato, soybeans, etc. are grown. Some of the common traditional cuisine with their food recipes has been presented for introduction of dietary culture of the Sikkim
  • 30. Etiquette Several customs are associated with food consumption. Traditionally, meals were eaten while seated either on the floor or on very low stools or cushions. Food is most often eaten without cutlery, using instead the fingers of the right hand. Often roti (flat bread) is used to scoop the curry without allowing it to touch the hands. Other etiquette includes eating with one hand only, preferably the right hand. Along the coast to the south, where the staple is parboiled rice, rural dwellers raise a hand full of rice[to eat while urban folks tend to only use the fingers and thumb. In the wheat growing/consuming north, a piece of roti is gripped with the thumb and middle finger and ripped off while holding the roti down with the index finger. Traditional serving styles vary from region to region in India. One universal aspect of presentation is the Thali, a large plate with samplings of different regional dishes accompanied by Raita, breads such as nan, pure, or roti, and rice. Most South Indian meals end with plain curd and rice. In South India, cleaned banana leaves, which could be disposed of after the meal, were traditionally used as an alternative to plates. When hot food is served on banana leaves, the leaves add aroma and taste to the food. Leaf plates are still utilized on auspicious and festive occasions but are much less common otherwise. Traditional ways of dining are being influenced by eating styles from other parts of the world. Among the middle class throughout India, spoons and forks are now commonly used, although knives are not.
  • 31. Indian sweets, known as mythoi, are a type of confectionery. Many are made with sugar, milk and condensed milk, and cooked by frying. The bases of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. In the Eastern part of India, for example, milk is a staple, and most sweets from this region are based on milk products.
  • 32. Beverage Lassi is a popular and traditional yogurt-based drink of India. It is made by blending yogurt with water or milk and Indian spices. Salted lassi is more common in villages of Punjab & Indian Porbandar, Gujarat. It is prepared by blending yogurt with water and adding salt and other spices to taste. The resulting beverage is known as salted lassi. Traditional lassi is sometimes flavored with ground roasted cumin. Sweet lassi is a form of lassi flavored with sugar, rosewater and/or lemon, strawberry or other fruit juices. Saffron lassis, which are particularly rich, are also very popular.
  • 33. Calorie chart of some Indian foods Aam Ras (1 mk) - 168 Sabudana Vada (1) - 176 Aloo Chat (1 mk) - 148 Sada Dosa (1) - 155 Baked Stuffed Potato (1) - 123 Sweet and Sour Prawn (1 bk) - 234 Banana (1 sk) - 116 Sweet and Sour Soup (1 bowl) - 235 Boiled Egg (1) - 85 Sweet Lassi (1 glass) - 150 Brinjal & Potato (1 mk) 133 Tandoori Chicken (1 pcs) - 273 Brinjal (1 mk) - -103 Tandoori Roti W/o ghee (1) - 102 Brinjal Bharta (1 mk) - 160 Tea (1 cup) – 98 Bun Bread (1) - 150 Veg Kababs (1) - 48.6 Bundi Ladoo (1) - 185 Veg Kolhapuri (1 mk) - 305 Burfi (1) - 124.5 Veg Korma (1 mk) - 290 Cutlet (1) - 160 Veg Malai Kofta (1 mk) - 338 Egg Omlette (1) - 130 Falooda (1 big glass) - 300 Fanta (1 bottle) - 141 Fish Fingers (1 plate) - 184 Fish Molee (1 mk) - 478 Fish Stew (1 mk) - 503 Fruit Bread (1) - 70 Roomali Roti W/o ghee (1) - 200 Rum (1 peg) - 105
  • 34. QUIZ TIME  In Vedic times, What does a normal diet contains? In Vedic times, a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, grain, dairy products, honey.  What is the staple food of Arunachal Pradesh? The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh is rice along with fish, meat and green vegetables.  What is the word used for cuisine of southern state? Cuisine of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is referred to as Telugu cuisine.  The cuisine of Bihar is similar to which cuisine of India? The cuisine of Bihar is similar to North Indian cuisine.  Poha is popular breakfast dish of which Indian state? Poha is popular breakfast dish of Madhya Pradesh.
  • 35. QUIZ TIME  Salted Lassi is common in which Indian states? Salted lassi is common in Punjab & Gujarat.  Hyderabadi Biryani is derived from which style? Hyderabadi Biryani is derived from Persian style.  Name the famous Beverage of India? Lassi.  Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh was influenced by whom? By Mughals.  What is Thukpa? Thukpa is a kind of noodle soup .
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  • 44. We have a wide and varied cuisine in U.K. today, no more do we suffer under the image of grey boiled meat. After years of disparagement by various countries (especially the French) U.K. now has an enviable culinary reputation. In fact some of the great chefs now come from U.K.. However U.K.'s culinary expertise is not new. In the past U.K. cooking was amongst the best in the world Traditional U.K.cuisine is substantial, yet simple and wholesome. We have long believed in four meals a day. Our fare has been influenced by the traditions and tastes from different parts of the U.K.empire: teas from Ceylon and chutney, kedgeree, and mulligatawny soup from India.
  • 45. Eating Habits Many of these dietary changes reflect current nutritional advice. Since the 60s we've been consuming fewer calories from household food (this doesn't include eating out). However, there are an increasing number of people who are overweight or obese. The reasons for this are not clear. But there are a few possible explanations, such as: We are now much less active than we used to be so we need less energy from our food. We're preparing less food at home, so as well as the food we buy for eating at home, we're also eating takeaways and eating out. We may be eating more snacks and sweets than we are admitting to in surveys Most of our energy comes from carbohydrates (starchy foods and sugary foods) as it did in the 1950s. The proportion of energy in our diets coming from fat is about the same as in the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s the energy from fat in our diets increased but since the late 1980s we have been consuming less total fat and we've also cut down on saturated fat, which takes us nearer the target levels (35% food energy from total fat, 11% food energy from saturated fat). This may be due to the general switch from whole milk, butter, margarine and lard to semi- skimmed and skimmed milk, vegetable oils and low/ reduced-fat spreads. There have been considerable changes in the types of foods we're eating. This means that the main sources of nutrients in our diets has been changing. The wartime diet was not popular. However, rationing in the 1950s was able to provide a generally healthy diet. This is despite the fact that its energy content was comparatively high and the fat was almost entirely saturated. It was also higher in salt, but it didn't contain the innumerable convenience foods we have today, and women were expected to prepare most foods in their own home. It was also low in fruit, especially in the winter.
  • 47. Eating Habits A period of full employment in the 1960s entailed a steady increase in married women employed outside the home, and, later, an increase in mothers of young children doing likewise. Household incomes have risen, yet women continue to be responsible for organising the shopping and doing the cooking. The double burden of work inside and outside the home made a readily defined mass market for the sale of electrically powered kitchen technologies, sold in the name of labour saving to ‘busy wives and mothers’ and for frozen dinners, ready-prepared vegetables, cook-in sauces and more. It also created a market in which manufactured foods could aptly be re-named ‘convenience’ foods.
  • 48.
  • 49. Diet Barometer Consumption of semi-skimmed milk overtook whole milk in 1993. Bananas overtook apples as the fresh fruit market leader in 1996. Over the past ten years we've started buying more non- traditional types of bread, such as French, nan and pitta bread, ciabatta and bagels. We're drinking 12 times as much bottled mineral water at home compared to the mid-1980s. In the 1980s we made our move from butter to soft margarines and today, reduced-fat spreads are the preferred option.
  • 50. A brief history U.K.cuisine has always been multicultural, a pot pourri of eclectic styles. In ancient times influenced by the Romans and in medieval times the French. When the Frankish Normans invaded, they brought with them the spices of the east: cinnamon, saffron, mace, nutmeg, pepper, ginger. Sugar came to England at that time, and was considered a spice -- rare and expensive. Before the arrival of cane sugars, honey and fruit juices were the only sweeteners. The few Medieval cookery books that remain record dishes that use every spice in the larder, and chefs across Europe saw their task to be the almost alchemical transformation of raw ingredients into something entirely new (for centuries the English aristocracy ate French food) which they felt distinguished them from the peasants. During Victorian times good old U.K.stodge mixed with exotic spices from all over the Empire. And today despite being part of Europe we've kept up our links with the countries of the former U.K.empire, now united under the Commonwealth. One of the benefits of having an empire is that we did learn quite a bit from the colonies. From East Asia (China) we adopted tea (and exported the habit to India), and from India we adopted curry-style spicing, we even developed a line of spicy sauces including ketchup, mint sauce, Worcestershire sauce and deviled sauce to indulge these tastes. Today it would be fair to say that curry has become a national dish. Among English cakes and pastries, many are tied to the various religious holidays of the year. Hot Cross Buns are eaten on Good Friday, Simnel Cake is for Mothering Sunday, Plum Pudding for Christmas, and Twelfth Night Cake for Epiphany. Unfortunately a great deal of damage was done to U.K.cuisine during the two world wars. U.K. is an island and supplies of many goods became short. The war effort used up goods and services and so less were left over for private people to consume. Ships importing food stuffs had to travel in convoys and so they could make fewer journeys. During the second world war food rationing began in January 1940 and was lifted only gradually after the war. The U.K.tradition of stews, pies and breads, according to the taste buds of the rest of the world, went into terminal decline. What was best in England was only that which showed the influence of
  • 51. Beefsteak, Oyster, and Kidney Pudding: Oysters may seem unlikely in this meat pudding, but their great abundance in the Victorian age and earlier eras inspired cooks to find ways to incorporate them creatively in many different recipes. This steamed pudding combines the meats with mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, and Worcestershire, then wraps the whole in a suet pastry. Eggless Cake : Puff pastry stuffed with a spicy currant filling. Hasty Pudding: A simple and quick (thus the name) steamed pudding of milk, flour, butter, eggs, and cinnamon. Irish Stew: An Irish stew always has a common base of lamb, potatoes, and onion. It could contain any number of other ingredients, depending on the cook. Welsh Faggots: Pig's liver is made into meatballs with onion, beef suet, bread crumbs, and sometimes a chopped apple. Faggots used to be made to use up the odd parts of a pig after it had been slaughtered. Welsh Rabbit (or Rarebit): Cheese is grated and melted with milk or ale. Pepper, salt, butter, and mustard are then added. The mix is spread over toast and baked until "the cheese bubbles and becomes brown in appetizing-looking splashes".
  • 52. Pies and puddings are related phenomena in U.K. culinary history. Originally, both solved the problem of preparing dinners made with less expensive meats. Pies covered a stew or other ingredients with a crust; puddings were made from butcher's scraps tucked into a sheep's stomach, then steamed or boiled. Pies have remained pies, although, in addition to savory pies, there now exist sweet variations, which tend to have two crusts or a bottom crust only. Pie crusts can be made from a short dough or puff pastry. Snacks and bar food (U.K.'s fifth food group) are often in pie form: pasties (pronounced with a short "a" like "had") are filled turnovers. Over time, however, in a confusing development, pudding has become a more general term for a sweet or savory steamed mixture -- as well as a word that describes desserts in general. For example, black pudding is actually made with pig's blood. Whereas plum pudding is a Christmas treat consisting of a steamed cake of beef suet (the white fat around the kidney and loins) and dried and candied fruits soaked in brandy. And, of course, one can't forget rice pudding. Amongst cakes, buns and pastries local delicacies include Bath Buns, Chelsea Buns, Eccles Cakes, and Ban bury Cakes.
  • 53. Bangers and Mash YOU MIGHT SEE THIS ON OFFER IN A PUB OR CAFE. SIMPLY PUT, BANGERS ARE SAUSAGES, AND MASH IS POTATO THAT'S BEEN BOILED AND THEN MASHED UP (USUALLY WITH BUTTER). THE SAUSAGE USED IN BANGERS AND MASH CAN BE MADE OF PORK OR BEEF WITH APPLE OR TOMATO SEASONING; OFTEN A LINCOLNSHIRE, OR CUMBERLAND SAUSAGE IS USED. THE DISH IS USUALLY SERVED WITH A RICH ONION GRAVY. ALTHOUGH SOMETIMES STATED THAT THE TERM "BANGERS" HAS ITS ORIGINS IN WORLD WAR II, THE TERM WAS ACTUALLY IN USE AT LEAST AS FAR BACK AS 1919.
  • 54. Bubble and squeak (sometimes just called bubble) is a traditional English dish made with the shallow-fried leftover vegetables from a Sunday roast dinner. The chief ingredients are potato and cabbage, but carrots, peas, Brussels sprouts, and other vegetables can be added. It is usually served with cold meat from the Sunday roast, and pickles, but you can eat it on its own. Traditionally the meat was added to the bubble and squeak itself, although nowadays the vegetarian version is more common. The cold chopped vegetables (and cold chopped meat if used) are fried in a pan together with mashed potato until the mixture is well- cooked and browned.
  • 55. Fish and Chips Fish and chips is the traditional take-away food of England, long before McDonalds we had the fish and chip shop. Fresh cod is the most common fish for our traditional fish and chips, other types of fish used include haddock, huss, and plaice. The fresh fish is dipped in flour and then dipped in batter and deep fried, it is then served with chips (fresh not frozen) and usually you will be asked if you want salt and vinegar added. Sometimes people will order curry sauce (yellow sauce that tastes nothing like real curry), mushy peas (well it's green anyway) or pickled eggs (yes pickled). Traditionally fish and chips were served up wrapped in old newspaper. Nowadays (thanks to hygiene laws) they are wrapped in greaseproof paper and sometimes paper that has been specially printed to look like newspaper. You often get a small wooden or plastic fork to eat them with too, although it is quite ok to use your fingers.
  • 56. U.K. Cheese Cheese is made from the curdled milk of various animals: most commonly cows but often goats, sheep and even reindeer, and buffalo. Rennet is often used to induce milk to coagulate, although some cheeses are curdled with acids like vinegar or lemon juice or with extracts of vegetable rennet. U.K. started producing cheese thousands of years ago. However, it was in Roman times that the cheese-making process was originally honed and the techniques developed. In the Middle Ages, the gauntlet was passed to the monasteries that flourished following the Norman invasion. It is to these innovative monks that we are indebted for so many of the now classic types of cheese that are produced in U.K.. The tradition of making cheese nearly died out during WWII, when due to rationing only one type of cheese could be manufactured - the unappealingly named 'National Cheese'. The discovery and revival of old recipes and the development of new types of cheese has seen the U.K. cheese industry flourish in recent years and diversify in a way not seen since the 17th century.
  • 57. Calorie in some U.K. food Calories in a Baileys Irish Cream - 87 Calories in wine - 182 Calories in a pint of beer - 129 Calories in a biscuit - 74 Calories in a doughnut - 140 Calories in a hot cross bun - 205 Bran Flakes, Kellogg's- 144 Corn Flakes, Kellogg's - 167 Calories in Chinese bean sprouts - 92 Calories in Beef in black bean - 432 Calories in chocolate ice cream - 159 Calories in Kit Kat - 106 Calories in a can of coke - 139 Calories in tea - 29 Calories in eggs, size - 384
  • 58.  Sandwich the well known breakfast meal has been given by which country? England  What is the colloquial name of English Sausages? Bangers  Cumberland and Lincolnshire are the variety of which food? English Sausages  ‘Cheddar Cheese’ is a most common type of Cheese. What is ‘Cheddar’ in this name? Name of a village  Who did take the tea habit to Great Britain and when? Around 1660, Catherine of Braganza, W/O Charles II.  Name few varieties of fish, which England takes in its food? Cod, Haddock, Huss, Skate  ‘Pub’ is a well known place for what purpose? Serving food and drinking establishment with mobile vendors.  How many variety of Sausage the UK has? Around 400 varieties.
  • 59. Britishers usually take builder’s tea. What is builder’s tea? A mug of strong tea, served with lots of milk & sugar. Kipper, bloaters, ham & bacon are what? Variety of preserved meat to fish. What difference Britishers found after use of Microwave Oven to freeze in their meal? Quality dropped but variety increased. Coffee houses of London are famous for what? Meeting place for Literary, Commercial & Political person. Britishers take hot chocolate or Cocoa at which suitable time? At late night typically. What is ‘Punch’? Mixed drink made of fruits, water to spirits. Which Indian dish is today known as the Britain’s true national dish? Chicken tikka masala.
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