Development of portable eeg for treatment & diagnosis of disorders


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The development of inexpensive mobile EEG (a type of neuroimaging) devices for the treatment and diagnosis of mental and neurological disorders. Potential uses: 1) long-term brain-activity based tracking of mood, anxiety, and concentration levels, 2) prediction of seizures and strokes; 3) portable 'neurofeedback' therapies: exercises that provide methods to change internal states for the positive, based on EEG readings of neural activity; 4) improving sleep via monitoring; 5) research on "real-world" brain data; 6)etc...

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  • I’m going to note before anything else that this is going to be an unusual presentation. It’s acting as one of my journal club presentations, but it isn’t a presentation of a single paper
  • Specifically the surface, because the electrodes can only pick up activity directly below them. Despite this, analytic techniques exist to use the recordings to estimate what areas in lower parts of the brain are active as well.Electrical activity corresponds to neural excitation, and generally to action potentials
  • You’ve probably seen this many times before, but an action potential occurs when a neuron’s level of excitation goes over a certain limit, causing a massive spike in the neuron’s cellular membrane voltage, then a rapid drop. Since this is a such a large, and rapid change in electrical activity, and involves the pumping out of so many ions at once from the cellular membrane, it has a larger impact on the EEG readout.
  • Neurons always produce electrical activity. That is, they always have an electric charge at some level or another, unless they are dead.When excited by a neighbouring cell, a neuron’s membrane transport proteins pump ions through the cellular membrane into the extracellular fluid. When the neuron reaches action potential, this happens to a very large degree. This effect is thus largest when a neuron is actually firing – thus making the electrical change easier to detect when a neuron is firing as opposed to simply being excited.3) These released ions then push on nearby ions in the extracellular field through their electromagnetic charge, which then push on ions near them with their charge, and so on. This is known as volume conduction. This effect produces waves of ions, which eventually reach the scalp, where they can be detected by electrodes.3.2) These waves eventually reach the scalp, where they can be detected by the electrodes. This detection occurs when the ions push the electrons in the metal of the electrodes, resulting in a change of electrode voltage. The voltage of the electrodes is continuously measured with a voltmeter. The oscillating wave outputs of EEG is the changes in the voltage of the electrodes over time.
  • This is used to help diagnose numerous disorders1.1) In particular epilepsy. Not only can seizures be readily seen on an EEG output, but epileptic patients very often have different EEG activity even between seizures. 1.2) Brain death testing is another major application – brain dead patients display a completely flat EEG. However, it must be used alongside other measures for brain death to be 100% confirmed.1.3) This is generally done in a sleep lab, where patients stay overnight for continuous monitoring. It can be used to detect restless legs syndrome, sleep latency onset disorder, 1.4) On top of this, it can be used to test for numerous other conditions, including photosensitivity, ADHD, narcolepsy, various brain cancers, and encephalitis. However, this isn’t
  • 2.1) Seizures can be monitored for in hospital intensive care units, where subjects can be continuously connected to an immobile EEG device. If a seizure is detected, seizure-stopping drugs can be immediately administered. 3) help determine if a patient is at a low enough level of consciousness for surgery to safely proceed without causing pain or distress, or having them awaken during the procedure. This can also aid in determining adjustments to levels of anaesthetic drugs, although it is rarely used for that particular purpose.4) EEG can determine areas where white matter is damaged, as delta waves will emerge in these regions in the EEG output. Also, it can determine areas that have become isolated from surrounding areas of the brain due to damage, by the appearance of areas that lack coherence – meaning these areas fire out of sync with the regions around them. These two techniques – and several others - can help determine where brain damage is, and to what extent it has occurred.
  • [note: just read this] Another is neurofeedback -a therapeutic technique wherein subjects are trained to directly alter their EEG outputs in a way that will be helpful for their particular disorder. There has been a huge amount of promising research in the area, and some fairly reasonably good evidence for its effectiveness in certain conditions, but it’s still essentially experimental. There are a number of conditions it has been applied to to a small degree: epilepsy, depression, addictions, and anxiety-related disorders. However, ADHD is the primary focus of most research on neurofeedback, and neurofeedback’s main clinical application, due to the close relationship beta waves have to attention, which gives researchers a biological marker for improvement. Neurofeedback training for ADHD thus primarily centres around activities intended to appropriately increase beta wave activity in a variety of ways.
  • Children won’t respond or be able to understand something describing the raw wave outputs, so the waveforms are generally translated into simple games for the children to play. In the above example, the child is attempting to get the blue worm – representing beta waves - to the finish line first, by performing some sort of attention-focusing task.
  • 1.1) It has very high temporal resolution – meaning it takes rapid, almost continuous recordings of brain activity. fMRI only takes rapid snapshots that are seconds apart, whereas EEG can take a measurement every millisecond. This allows for study of the stages of brain processing, rather than just the activity that results at the end of a task as with fMRI.1.2) Such as those in a coma. fMRI can do this as well, but it gives somewhat different information from EEG1.3) fMRI is a poor tool for this, as subjects have to stay almost completely still within the machine, and are placed in a position not particularly conducive to sleep. While it has been done before, it’s certainly not conducive to routine use, or necessary for most studies related to sleep1.4) For example, research on subjects in intensive care, in which recordings are taken continuously for several days would be infeasible in an fMRI machine.1.5) fMRI is almost completely non-portable due to its huge size and weight, and the need for safety precautions around the large magnet. While EEG isn’t yet portable in the sense that one can go about their regular day wearing one, it is lightweight and requires minimal equipment outside the cap, and can thus be installed in a wide variety of places inaccessible to fMRI. IE: one could be placed on the head of someone driving a car, or of someone having sex. This is inarguably the area one area in which it soars over all other forms of neuroimaging, and is in fact, the area of focus for most research on improving the EEG devices themselves. This advantage is such
  • Magnetoencephalography1-2 - As the cost of this fairly new technology goes down, it eventually will, for the most part, replace EEG for all of these things.
  • 1-1: For example, anything requiring a location other than a laboratory or clinic will likely never be possible with MEG1-2-2 – in fact, personal EEG already exists in a rudimentary form
  • Regular EEG devices are generally thousands of dollars, and thus limited only to medical and research use. However, several companies have come out with designs that cost a fraction of that. While these devices are currently considerably lower quality than professional EEG, they are only early designs and almost prototypical products, and even still can perform certain tasks previously limited to medical-grade equipment with a reasonable degree of accuracy. This lower-quality is currently a necessity, due to the number of corners that need to be cut to lower price, and the required simplicity of such products to make them accessible to laymen.There are several companies developing these products. For example, the Jedi Mind Control Trainer, which allows you to lift a ball by producing high-frequency beta waves. It essentially just capitalizes on the novelty of controlling things directly with thought.Another one is Mindflex, (flip screen now) which actually looks like it would be fun – it’s a game where you guide a floating ball through hoops using an eeg device that controls how strongly various fans on the game surface blow, and you have time limits, goals, and required order hoops have to be passed through.
  • 1 – in other words, they’re mainly made for controlling video games and computer programs. However, they’re interesting, in that anyone can write software and build things that can be controlled by them. In fact, both previously mentioned products use Neurosky as their basis.1-1-2 – therefore, it doesn’t detect very much, but just enough to register larger phenomena like general brainwave frequency – for example, it can easily distinguish between alpha and beta waves. This is taken advantage of in using it to control software – almost entirely by changing your levels of “concentration” and “meditation” (aka beta waves and alpha waves). Despite its almost excessive simplicity, it’s the most popular basic EEG controller for game and toy developers because of the ease of developing programs and devices that interface with it.
  • 1-2: brain-computer interface1-3: it instead reads biopotentials – meaning a combination of skin, nerve and muscle activity on the scalp.The only advantage it really has, is that it’s inconspicuous compared to the other commercial devices – it simply looks like a headband.
  • It’s being used to play a gameAgain, fairly inconspicuous. While a weak device in every other way, the fact that it could potentially be worn in public is a very important addition. As Apple has proven, regardless of whether your device is actually the best or not, people will buy it – and pay more for it – if it looks good and has an easy to use interface.
  • 2-2 – Due to the considerably greater level of sensitivity it has over Neurosky, it can detect significantly more complex mental phenomena, to the point that it could potentially have some very basic therapeutic uses. For example, an Emotiv-based device already exists that allows quadriplegics to move a motorized wheelchair using thought alone.I can actually show you the device, and give you a short demonstration of it, using our gorgeous volunteer here.I’d take volunteers from the class, but the device has to be calibrated for each individual user before anything interesting can be done with it, and this is a process that varies in length from person-to-person. If we have some time at the end, maybe a couple of you can try it.[Emotiv demo here]
  • 1: All current devices are incredibly finicky when it comes to staying connected. They need to be readjusted constantly during use, and can take a long time to get an initial connection.2: You’re still tied down to a single location. While they’re certainly more portable than the lab and medical EEG devices, one must still be sitting in front of their computer to track their brainwaves. You can’t use it walking around throughout your day. This is further compounded by their finicky connections – even attempting to walk almost immediately jostles them loose.3: With the exception of Emotiv, all have too few electrodes to gain any real information about the brain. Emotiv has a reasonable number – 16 – but all others stay in the single digit range, and therefore generate results that are almost indistinguishable from random patterns. This is not the case with Emotiv, which proves that higher power personal EEG is possible – but it is the sole exception in a sea of weak products.4: Most importantly, all current devices treat EEG devices as basically souped-up Wii controllers. Everyone has focused on the ability of thought to control the software or the external environment. Not one company has put any focus into tracking internal states, and even when they scratch the surface of this (asEmotiv has done), it’s usually only to provide a greater degree of precision, or another type of to the controllers.5: Wearing most of these devices makes you look like a cyborg, or at best like you’re wearing excessively large headphones. Again, as Apple has proved, designs that look stylish sell much more than uglier, but more functional competitors. The lack of subtlety of these devices has left open a major hole in the market – with the exception of the Neural Impulse Actuator.. However, this device is too weak to have any therapeutic or research applications.
  • In light of these issues, a company I co-founded with my venture capitalist friend Steve Denison, Personal Neuro Devices is working on developing a device that addresses these problems, with some collaborative efforts with a few Ottawa-based companies for prototype and software development, and a manufacturing corporation in China. Steve is a multi-millionaire, and an experienced entrepreneur, so we thus had the required funding for the project from the outset. We’ve named our in-development flagship product Introspect.
  • We have a particular vision for the project, and several necessary capabilities it requires1-1 – in other words, it’s in the several hundred dollar range, rather than the several thousand dollar range. This is similar to the other commercially available EEG devices.2 -1: these are electrodes with amplifiers built in. They are made such that 2-2-1: it seems a bit silly at first, but appearance is extremely important to any product, and we have a while to go yet before wearing electrodes over your head becomes socially acceptable. If we want to people to wear portable EEG devices in their day-to-day lives, we’re going to have to make it easy to hide them, especially to avoid stigma. We predict that most early adopters of portable EEG technology – if not the only people who will use them - will be those suffering from such disorders as intractable epilepsy, bipolar disorder, depression, severe anxiety, ADHD, etc., and wearing one could thus quickly become associated with suffering from a mental illness or neurological disorder, and thus essentially become a beacon showing everyone that a person is struggling with issues related to their brain.
  • 1 – This is fairly easy to implement – we’ll simply use the international 10-20 system, with a few electrodes removed. We still haven’t entirely decided what to get rid of, but we’re leaning towards eliminating A1 and A2 due to their comparative obtrusiveness. We’re going to have to run some tests 2-1: In other words, the software used to run
  • 1-1-2-1: or any benzodiazepine – epileptics could carry an epi-pen like injector for these drugs1-1-2-2: This is still very investigational. However, several studies have shown that a particular form of electrical stimulation lowers the frequency of seizures in epileptic patients. On top of this, a seizure therapy called vagus nerve stimulation exists that operates by sending electrical impulses down the vagus nerve. Taken together, the fact that these electrical stimulation devices can have an effect on overall frequency of seizures in the interictal (between-seizure) phase for epileptics, suggests that a pre-ictal epilepsy seizure blocking form of electrical stimulation likely also exists as well. This is, of course, hypothetical, as advance seizure detection is extremely new technology.1-1-3-1-1: That below is how the system works, in a nutshell. The EEG signal comes into whatever device is doing the processing. It immediately cleans out the noise on arriving (that’s the preprocessing stage). Next, it mathematically extracts all blocks of useful information from the data. Finally, it takes these features, and classifies them according to whether they are representative of the interictal or preictal phase. Finally, based on the ratio of preictal to interictal EEG features, it determines which phase they are currently in, and outputs a 1 if preictal, and a -1 if ictal.This, however, is an extremely new system – the initial paper was published 8 months ago.
  • This should give you an idea of how important it is that epileptics be in a safe position and location directly before a seizure.
  • 1-1: We would add a “check-in” system, wherein emergency services called the patient immediately, and upon no answer, instantly dispatched an ambulance to the patient’s location.2-1:The seizure detection could also come with life-tracking software, into which epilepsy sufferers could enter information about their diet, their daily activities, etc., in hopes of identifying what factors cause the number of seizures and preictal EEG features. In other words, it would determine what events, foods, etc. cause more EEG features suggestive of an upcoming seizure to appear.
  • It’s a protein naturally produced by the body in small quantities to breakdown blood clots. Administering a large quantity of this protein at once will rapidly break down any clots in the body – including the one inducing the stroke.However, if this is not done in the first 3 hours, it has no mitigating effect. Because of this, only 3 There is little research on the EEG markers of stroke, as one cannot induce a stroke on a human in a lab, and those currently going through a stroke must be immediately treated – there is no time to perform an EEG. However, this would become possible if portable EEG devices enter relatively widespread use, as strokes would inevitably occur at some point in a small portion of the users.1-2: IE geriatric populations
  • 1-1: I have a number of papers showing a variety of detection techniques. None are fully robust, but taken together, there is a fairly substantial amount we can detect – especially if physiological measures were added in.Picture: It looks a bit better now – that was the version I programmed over the summer – but it gets the main idea across.We chose to use a simplified version of the bipolar mood rating scale used by the NIMH Life Chart method, because it lends itself well to being transformed into a numerical scale.2-2-1: It’s a useful diagnostic tool to be able to see how the patient’s moods change over a period of weeks and even months – if it’s almost always low, it’s a strong indicator of depression; long-lasting periods of extremely high mood seen alongside long periods of extremely low mood indicate bipolar. 2-2-2: Especially in bipolar disorder - it can help provide insight into a patient’s cycle lengths, which can allow patients to adopt management strategies attuned to the nature of their cycles, and even use methods to increase or decrease mood (IE exercise if depression is seeping, use relaxation exercises for periods in which the patient is entering mania, etc.).
  • 2-2: It would also be more cost-effective, since a therapist wouldn’t have to be paid for each session.3-1: an alarm that goes off if an ADHD sufferer is displaying an excessive proportion of alpha to beta waves – indicating inattention – would mitigate some of the distractibility inherent in the disorder – the patients could pull their attention back to whatever it is they’re supposed to be doingI should note that, like I said earlier, there still isn’t enough evidence to conclusively say how effective neurofeedback is, but it shows enough potential to merit strong consideration, and virtually all research on the subject shows at least some effect. Besides this, having a personal device that allows more consistent use of neurofeedback seems likely to add to its effectiveness, however mild. Research will have to be conducted upon completion of the device.
  • 1-1: likely due to the fact that it’s very easy to detect what stage of sleep a person is in, and much of how sleep quality is rated is based on examining how much time is spent in each stage of sleep.1-1-1 The Zeo sleep coach is particularly interesting, as it monitors you for the stage of sleep you’re currently in, and only wakes you up when you’re in a lighter stage of sleep, within a certain interval of time before the time you set it to wake you up at.
  • 1-1: by gathering information similar to that which would be gathered in a sleep lab1-2: for example, sleep EEG abnormalities have been identified in depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse disorders, schizophrenia, etc. – in fact, virtually all mental disorders display differences in sleep EEG from the general populationAs with all potential neurofeedback applications of the device
  • 1-1) Talk about your study withAmedeohere
  • 1-1: MEG is more effective than EEG for these functions
  • Development of portable eeg for treatment & diagnosis of disorders

    1. 1. Personal Neuro Devices Inc.
    2. 2. Outline1) Regular EEG – basic primer2) Mechanisms behind EEG – how it works3) Current uses of EEG4) Future direction of EEG5) Current state of personal EEG, and its limitations6) Demo of personal EEG device7) Introspect (portable personal EEG)8) Potential uses of Introspect9) Conclusion (and summary)
    3. 3. 1) Regular EEG – basicprimerfor Device determining what areas on the surface of the brain are displaying activity Uses electrodes placed around the scalp to pick up electrical activity produced by neurons in the brain  Action potentials
    4. 4. Action potential
    5. 5. 2) Mechanisms behind EEG: how itworks  Neurons always produce electrical activity  When excited, neural membrane transport proteins pump ions through cell membrane  Biggest effect in action potential  Released ions then push nearby ions in extracellular fluid  Continues indefinitely, in waves  These waves eventually reach the scalp, where they can be detected through their magnetic A membrane transport protein “push” on the metal of the electrodes  Called volume conduction
    6. 6. 3) Current uses of EEG Medical diagnostics in a lab or clinic  Epilepsy  Brain death testing  Sleep disorders  Photosensitivity  ADHD  Narcolepsy  Various brain cancers Coma patient being tested for brain  Encephalitis death
    7. 7. Current uses of EEG  Continuous monitoring for seizures in ICU  Depth of anaesthesia monitoring  Evaluation of head injuries  Finds white matter damageEEG bispectral index monitor for monitoring  Finds brain regions brain activity during surgery that have become isolated
    8. 8. Current uses of EEG Neurofeedback  Patients trained to directly alter their EEG output  Still experimental  Used to a small degree for epilepsy, depression, addictive disorders, and anxiety  Primarily used for treating ADHD ○ Easiest use, as beta waves are strongly associated with attention EEG wave patterns, from top to bottom: beta, alpha, theta, stage 2 sleep, and delta (stage 4 sleep)
    9. 9. Example of a neurofeedback game tailored to young children with ADHD
    10. 10. Current uses of EEG Brain function research, when some or all of the following are required:  High temporal resolution – allows for study of the stages of brain processing, rather than just the activity that results at the end of a task  Study of subjects unable to give direct responses  Monitoring of sleep  Longer-term monitoring than is feasible with fMRI  Study in an environment other than a clinic or lab EEG in use at a sleep lab
    11. 11. 4) Future direction of EEG MEG is considerably better than EEG for most of EEG’s current uses  Cost and device size is all that prevents MEG from entirely supplanting A magnetoencephalography EEG for these particular (MEG) device purposes, but this is dropping
    12. 12. Future direction of EEG  However, MEG is not the end for EEG  Not every use of EEG can be replaced by MEG  Also, two new major directions EEG is currently taking that no other existing neuroimaging MEG could never be used in technique could go: research like this ○ Personal neuroimaging ○ Portable neuroimaging
    13. 13. 5) Personal EEG EEG has become more accessible to the general public in recent years Mindflex  Much lower quality than professional equipment ○ However, other advantages I can lift a ball! $100 well spent.  Most simply use EEG as a component in certain toys and games ○ Jedi Force Trainer ○ Mindflex
    14. 14. Mindflex
    15. 15. Personal EEG 3 companies making programmable EEG platforms - primarily for the purpose of brain- computer interfacing, each with one major device on the market  Neurosky’s Think-Gear ○ Simple device for lay Neurosky’s Think-gear public and software developers ○ 6 electrodes
    16. 16. Personal EEG  OCZ Technology’s Neural Impulse Actuator ○ Weakest of the customizable commercial BCI headsets ○ Only 3 electrodes ○ Not really EEG, though marketed as such Neural Impulse Actuator
    17. 17. Neural Impulse Actuator in use
    18. 18. Personal EEG  Emotiv Inc.’s EPOC Neuroheadset ○ More advanced  16 electrodes ○ Still a BCI ○ Still primarily for games and software ○ However, more conducive to therapeutic Paraplegic using Emotiv to move wheelchair applications
    19. 19. 6) Limitations of current personalEEG  Complete focus on brain-controllers, rather than gaining information about the user  Lose connection easily  Not really portable  Small number of For the look that screams “don’t electrodes bother talking, I’m reading your  Clunky thoughts directly”, why not pick up a Neurosky Mindset?
    20. 20. Personal Neuro Devices: Introspect
    21. 21. 7) Introspect Will be commercially available  Lower cost  Marketed to public Truly portable  Active electrodes ○ Improves resolution, sensitivity, resistance to movement noise  Exterior mesh that clips to a series of hats ○ Hiring fashion design company to make For all you know, Indiana Jones catalogue of hats to fit over could be wearing a portable Introspect EEG device
    22. 22. Introspect  Level of sensitivity equivalent to Emotiv  Modified 10-20 electrode placement system  Open-source API  Applications open to creation by outside developers  Easier to hydrate electrodes  Will run tubes through arms attaching to electrodes; pressing pump will transport 10-20 system fluid to back of electrode pads – will soak through
    23. 23. How active electrode system works – stepwise (very simplified):1) Removes noise caused by circuits themselves2) Ups voltage of incoming signals in relation to one another (multiplies differencesbetween nearby electrode inputs) – makes signal larger without distorting waveform3) Rejects all wavelengths known not to be associated with EEG information (whichrepresent some sort of noise)4) Microcontroller in electrode transmits binary data corresponding to wave inputs5) Base unit receives signal, and sends it through USB to the portable device
    24. 24. 8) Potential uses - Epilepsy Epilepsy  Advance seizure detection ○ Prevention of secondary injuries ○ Stop seizure before it hits  Early drug administration, IE midazolam  Electrical stimulation ○ Effective algorithms already exist  Autoregressive models and support vector machines Midazolam – the most - Can get 100% sensitivity, low false alarm popular emergency rate antiepileptic Schematic representation of combined SVM and AR model seizure prediction system
    25. 25. Importance of being in a safe location and position when a seizure begins
    26. 26. Potential uses - Epilepsy Assess severity of seizure ○ Automatically contact emergency services if over a certain severity level [check-in sys] Track quantity of seizures, pre-seizure states, and potential triggering factors ○ Would allow elimination of Emotional stress is implicated in 30- 66% of seizures reported by epileptics triggering factors ○ [life-tracking software; diet, etc info; find trigs]
    27. 27. Potential uses - stroke Tissue plasminogen activator – protein stucture [clot-breaker; admin alot kills stroke clot] Advance detection of strokes  Early detection massively mitigates damage caused by strokes ○ Administering tissue plasminogen activators within the first 3 hours will dissolve the stroke-inducing clot, immediately stopping the stroke  Minimizes brain damage  Monitoring could be done on high-risk populations [geriat pops]
    28. 28. Potential uses – Mood-tracking Algorithms to detect mood from EEG signals already exist  Currently a bit weak, but ever- improving [*SVN, algorithms] Use in bipolar disorder, depression  Self-report method already used ○ NIMH Life Chart ○ Adjective Mood Scale ○ Etc.  Used in: ○ Diagnosis [always low=depr; high pers=BP] ○ Symptom management  Insight, prep, meds Automating mood tracking would increase adherence, and remove the potential confounding factors inherent in a self-rating system Mood-tracking graph from Introspect software demo [*Impr]
    29. 29. Potential uses –Neurofeedback As discussed earlier, potentially a useful treatment for a variety of mental disorders  Especially ADHD Increase opportunity for neurofeedback  Huge hurdles to using the therapy: number of required sessions and cost  Portable device could allow patients to do neurofeedback daily on their own, incr rate of progress [& cost] Could allow incorporation of neurofeedback into daily life  Small alarms to inform user of problematic thought patterns, excessive anxiety states, wandering attention, etc. [Caveat: effective?]  Neurofeedback when walking or waiting ○ Possibly more persistent benefits if done as a daily exercise?
    30. 30. Potential uses - sleep  Will allow daily tracking of sleep quantity and quality  Sleep quality detection algorithms are at a relatively high level  Already similar commercial products ○ Sleeptracker, Zeo Personal Sleep Coach, etc.  Advantage of Introspect: it Zeo Personal Sleep Coach will integrate it with other functions ○ Search for relationships between sleep quality and levels of attention, mood, anxiety, etc.;
    31. 31. Potential uses - sleep Could aid in diagnosis of: ○ Sleep disorders ○ Mental disorders that involve sleep disruptions Will also include neurofeedback application to help chronic insomnia sufferers train their thinking to help induce sleep ○ However, more evidence required Chronic insomnia
    32. 32. Potential uses - research The list of mental phenomena that could be examined by a portable EEG device is endless:  Formation of autobiographical memories – this is impossible in the lab  Minute-to-minute fluctuations in mood in those with mental and neurological disorders, and in the general population  Naturalistic social interaction, outside the artificial constraints inherent in social research in the lab Autobiographical memory formation could easily be studied in this circumstance with a  Average level of activation of portable EEG device particular areas of the brain on a day-to-day basis  etc.
    33. 33. Potential uses - research It could also determine the external validity of laboratory and clinic-based EEG research  Combined with studies correlating EEG with fMRI, MEG and PET activity, it could determine the external validity of the entire field of neuroimaging A combined fMRI-EEG device
    34. 34. 9) In conclusion... EEG’s future value lies in its portability  As its price drops, MEG likely to slowly replace EEG for all uses requiring no portability Many potential uses for portable EEG  Advance seizure and stroke detection  Tracking of mood disorders  Neurofeedback that can be done on a daily basis and incorporated into day-to-day life  Tracking of sleep quality and quantity that can be used in conjunction with other measures for diagnostic purposes, and for the treatment of sleep disorders  Diagnosis of multiple mental disorders  Research EEG technology in the process of being commercialized  Multiple consumer EEG devices already released – IE Emotiv, Neurosky Thus, the time is right for the release of a portable consumer EEG device  Currently in development by Personal Neuro Devices, under the working title Introspect
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