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  • 1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES NA1
  • 2. ZERO CONDITIONAL
    • Used for facts that are always true.
    • If + present simple, present simple.
      • If you study a lot, you always pass your exams.
      • If you press the switch, the computer comes on.
    • Also If + past simple, past simple.
      • If it rained, he always stayed indoors.
  • 3. TYPE I:LIKELY OR REAL
    • If + present simple, WILL/ going to
      • If you come to the party, you’ ll enjoy yourself.
      • If the concert is on Friday, I’m going to buy the tickets at once.
    • If + present ( simple, continuous, perfect ), imperative
      • If you come to the party, bring some wine.
      • If you have finished , come to the party.
      • If you are expecting someone, tell him to join us.
    • If + present ( simple, continuous, perfect ), modal
      • If you come to the party, you must bring a bottle of wine.
      • If you have finished , you can come with us
      • If you are expecting someone, I can leave.
  • 4. Other Patterns
    • Requests: if + future, future
      • If you ’ll just wait a minute, I ’ll call the manager to help you.
    • If + should/ If + happen to (less likely but possible)
      • If you should see James, tell him to phone me.
      • If you happen to see James, tell him to phone me.
  • 5. TYPE II: UNLIKELY/IMAGINARY
    • If + simple past/ past continuous, would/could/ might/ should + infinitive
      • If you were driving from Cartagena to Cuenca, what way would you go? (You are not driving)
      • If I went to London, I could/ might improve my English (unlikely that you’ll go but possible).
    • If I were rich, I would travel around the world.
    • If she was/were rich, she wouldn’t work.
    • Were you really ill , I would call the doctor (formal).
  • 6.
    • POLITE REQUESTS: IF + WOULD
      • If you would contact me, I’ll give you all the details about the project.
  • 7. TYPE III: UNREAL/ IMAGINARY IN THE PAST
    • Imaginary situations in the past.
    • Used to criticise, to point out mistakes or to express a regret.
    • If+ past perfect, would/ could /might have + past participle
      • If I had gone to the party, I would have taken a bottle of wine.
      • If I had heard the alarm clock, I could have arrived in time.
    • Had I known the results, I would have phoned you. (formal)
  • 8. MIXED CONDITIONALS (TYPES 2 AND 3)
    • Mixed conditionals express two main types of situations:
    • A present situation that is the result of a past
    • condition  
    • If + past perfect, Present conditional (would + verb)
    • If I had worked harder at my old job, I would still have the
    • job now.
    • (I didn’t work hard at my old job. As a result, I don’t have the job now.)
    • I would have lots of money now if I had invested it properly.
    • ( I don’t have money now because I didn’t invest properly in the past.)
  • 9. Compare this to the third/unreal conditional, which expresses a past situation that results from a past condition: If I had won the lottery, I would have bought my mother a new house. ( I didn’t win the lottery. I didn’t buy a new house for my mother)
  • 10. 2. A past situation that is the result of a present or continuing condition   If + simple past, Perfect conditional (would have + past participle)   If he wasn’t such a good programmer, we would have fired him months ago. (He is a good programmer, and as a result we didn’t fire him months ago)   More examples: If I wasn’t afraid of flying, I wouldn’t have driven to the meeting. (I am afraid of flying. As a result I drove to the meeting)
  • 11. OTHER CONJUNCTIONS
    • Unless= if...not . Often used in warnings.
      • We’ll be late for our English lesson unless we hurry.
    • As long as (or so long as )= if, on condition that.
      • We’ll be on time for our lesson as long as you hurry up.
    • Provided (that)/providing (that)= if, on condition that.
      • Providing (that) you lay the table, I’ll cook.
      • He will pass his exam, provided (that) he studies a lot.