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  1. 1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES Zero First Second Third
  2. 2. Use of conditional sentences  Conditional sentences allow us to talk about POSSIBLE and IMPOSSIBLE/ UNREAL SITUATIONS and their CONSEQUENCES.  So, conditional sentences typically contain TWO CLAUSES: - a condition clause (if-clause) - a result clause
  3. 3. ZERO CONDITIONAL: if+ present simple, / present simple Present simple / if+present simple  To describe A SIMPLE CAUSE AND EFFECT If you press that button, the engine starts If I drink coffee in the afternoon, I don’t sleep at night.  To write a SCIENTIFIC TRUTH If you mix oil and water, the oil floats
  4. 4. FIRST CONDITIONAL: IF + PRESENT SIMPLE , WILL WILL / IF+PRESENT SIMPLE When we believe that something is LIKELY (PROBABLE) TO HAPPEN: If I have the money, I will buy a new car You will pass your exams if you study hard  For PROMISES or THREATS: If I go to America, I’ll send you a postcard If you don’t do your homework, you won’t go out 
  5. 5. SECOND CONDITIONAL: IF+ SIMPLE PAST, WOULD/COULD/ MIGHT + INFINITIVE when we think that a situation is NOT VERY LIKELY TO HAPPEN If the students were more serious, they would have better results  for UNREAL or IMAGINARY SITUATIONS: If I were the President of the USA, I would help poor people all over the world  for ADVICE: If I were you, I would think about it for POLITE REQUESTS: Would you mind if I borrowed these CDs? 
  6. 6. EXAMPLE OF POSSIBLE VARIATIONS  If you tried again, you might succeed.  If I knew her number, I could ring her up.
  7. 7. THIRD CONDITIONAL IF+PAST PERFECT , WOULD/COULD/MIGHT HAVE +PAST PARTICIPLE To describe SITUATIONS THAT DIDN’T HAPPEN in the past (IMPOSSIBLE) If I had won the lottery, I wouldn’t have had financial problems. (= but I didn’t win the lottery and so I had financial problems)  To express REGRETS: If you had bought me a diamond ring, I would have loved you forever. (= but you didn’t buy me one, so I stopped loving you!) 
  8. 8. Examples of possible variations: - If I had known you were coming, I could have met you at the airport. (I didn’t know you were coming, so I didn’t meet you there) - We might have passed our exams if we had studied harder. (We didn’t study hard, so we didn’t pass our exams)
  9. 9. ALTERNATIVES OF IF: UNLESS UNLESS (= IF NOT): examples A) - We won’t go to the beach if it isn’t sunny tomorrow. - We won’t go to the beach unless it is sunny tomorrow. B)- Tom wouldn’t come to the party if you didn’t tell him. - Tom wouldn’t come to the party unless you told him.
  10. 10. OTHERWISE  OTHERWISE (= if it doesn’t happen/ if it didn’t happen/ it it hadn’t happen) - Stop eating chocolate, otherwise you won’t lose weight. (If you don’t stop eating,...) -Her father pays her fees, otherwise she wouldn’t be here. (If her father didn’t pay,..) -He studied very hard, otherwise he wouldn’t have had such good marks. (If he hadn’t studied so hard,...)
  11. 11. OTHER ALTERNATIVES TO ..if  AS LONG AS / PROVIDED (THAT) / ON CONDITION THAT.... I’ll lend you my books as long as / provided that / on condition that you promise to bring them back.  INVERSIONS Had I known that he was upset, I wouldn’t have said anything.  EVEN IF... Even if I were a millionaire, I wouldn’t give him any money.
  12. 12. MIXED CONDITIONALS It combines the THIRD CONDITIONAL (in the condition clause) with the SECOND CONDITIONAL (in the result clause): -If I hadn’t eaten that seafood, I wouldn’t feel so awful now. -If the weather had been fine last week, there would be roses in the garden now.