CHAPTER 15   Physical & Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
How Long Will You Live?   <ul><li>Longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Number of years a person can expect to live </li></ul><ul><l...
How Long Will You Live? <ul><li>Genetic & Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Good way to increase life expectancy is ...
The 3rd-4th Age Distinction   <ul><li>3rd Age (Young Old) “Good News” </li></ul><ul><li>Increased life expectancy, with mo...
Physical, Cognitive, & Mental Issues   <ul><li>Demographics of Aging </li></ul><ul><li>Many changes due to increased over ...
Biological Theories of Aging   <ul><li>Wear-&-tear Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Body is like a machine that gradually deterior...
Biological Theories of Aging <ul><li>Cellular Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on processes that occur within individual...
Biological Theories of Aging <ul><li>Metabolic Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Higher caloric intake & stress lower life expect...
Changes in the Neurons   <ul><li>Neurofibrillary Tangles </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers that compose the axon sometimes become t...
The Aging Brain <ul><li>How the Brain Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Shrink & Slowing </li></ul><ul><li>Loses 5 to 10% of its w...
Sensory Changes   <ul><li>2 Major Kinds of Age-related Structural Changes in the Eye   </li></ul><ul><li>Presbyopia </li><...
Sensory Changes <ul><li>Changes in the Retina </li></ul><ul><li>Macular degeneration: </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive & irre...
Sensory Changes <ul><li>Hearing Loss   </li></ul><ul><li>Presbycusis: </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative effects of noise & norm...
Sensory Changes <ul><li>Taste, Smell, Touch, Temperature, Pain, & Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Remain largely in tact </li></...
Cardiovascular Changes   <ul><li>Heart Attack, Irregular Heartbeat, Stroke, Hypertension Increase with Age </li></ul><ul><...
Cardiovascular Changes <ul><li>Strokes or Cerebral Vascular Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Interruptions in the blood flow to...
Cardiovascular Changes <ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most common form of incapacitating ...
Health Issues   <ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults have more trouble sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Takes longer to ...
Cognitive Processes   <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Selective attention: selection of relevant information & inhibit...
Cognitive Processes <ul><li>Psychomotor Speed </li></ul><ul><li>The speed at which a person can make a specific response <...
Memory   <ul><li>Poor Memory often Viewed as Inevitable with Age  </li></ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Gener...
Memory <ul><li>Focus is Generally on 2 Types of Memory Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Memory </li></ul><ul><li>The del...
Memory <ul><li>Implicit Memory </li></ul><ul><li>The unconscious remembering of information learned at some earlier time <...
Memory <ul><li>Widespread Belief that Memory Declines </li></ul><ul><li>What adults believe about their memories affects h...
Remediating Memory Problems   <ul><li>Program for Memory Aids </li></ul><ul><li>External Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Memory aid...
Abnormal Memory Change   <ul><li>Does Memory Problem Interfere with Daily Life? </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory of spouse...
Creativity & Wisdom   <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to produce work that is novel, high in demand, & ta...
4 Characteristics of Wisdom   <ul><li>Wisdom deals with important or difficult matters of life & the human condition </li>...
Wisdom <ul><li>A Wise Person:   </li></ul><ul><li>Is able to Integrate Thinking, Feeling, & Acting into a Coherent Approac...
Mental Health & Intervention   <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosing depression </li></ul><ul><li>Most common sy...
Mental Health & Intervention <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Severe cases medications for the balance of neurotransmit...
Anxiety Disorders   <ul><li>Behavioral and Psychological Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of severe nervousness for no ...
Alzheimer’s <ul><li>Disease Involving Serious Impairment of Behavioral & Cognitive Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms:...
Diagnosing Alzheimer’s   <ul><li>Accuracy  </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on a thorough series of medical & psychological tests...
Parkinson’s Disease   <ul><li>Known for its Characteristic Motor Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Very slow walking, difficulty ...
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G & D Ch. 15

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood

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  • G & D Ch. 15

    1. 1. CHAPTER 15 Physical & Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
    2. 2. How Long Will You Live? <ul><li>Longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Number of years a person can expect to live </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by genetic & environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Average Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Age at which half of the people born in a particular year will have died </li></ul><ul><li>Useful Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Number of years a person is free from debilitating chronic disease & impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest age to which any person lives </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum limit for humans is around 120 years </li></ul>
    3. 3. How Long Will You Live? <ul><li>Genetic & Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Good way to increase life expectancy is to come from a family of long-lived individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors affect life span </li></ul><ul><li>Environment factors include </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases, toxins & pollutants, life style, social class </li></ul><ul><li>Most environmental factors are caused by people </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic & Gender Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Women live longer than men in industrialized countries </li></ul><ul><li>Men being more susceptible to infectious diseases may be cause of shorter life spans or may be due to genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Women have 2 X chromosomes & have a higher metabolic rate, higher testosterone levels </li></ul>
    4. 4. The 3rd-4th Age Distinction <ul><li>3rd Age (Young Old) “Good News” </li></ul><ul><li>Increased life expectancy, with more older people living longer & aging successfully </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial potential for physical & mental fitness, with improvement in each generation </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of cognitive & emotional reserves in the aging mind </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of emotional & personal well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Effective strategies to master the gains & losses of later life </li></ul><ul><li>4th Age (Oldest Old) “Bad News” </li></ul><ul><li>Sizable losses in cognitive potential & ability to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in negative effects of chronic stress </li></ul><ul><li>High prevalence of dementia (50% in people over 90), frailty, & multiple chronic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with quality of life & dying with dignity </li></ul>
    5. 5. Physical, Cognitive, & Mental Issues <ul><li>Demographics of Aging </li></ul><ul><li>Many changes due to increased over 60 years </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing will be targeted, have considerable political & economic power </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on pensions, health care, & other services </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of older adults </li></ul><ul><li>Older women outnumber older men in all ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults of the future will be better educated </li></ul><ul><li>By 2030, 85% will have high school diploma & 75% will have college degree </li></ul><ul><li>Better educated tend to live longer </li></ul><ul><li>Due to higher incomes and better medical care </li></ul>
    6. 6. Biological Theories of Aging <ul><li>Wear-&-tear Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Body is like a machine that gradually deteriorates & finally wears out </li></ul><ul><li>Explains some diseases (e.g. osteoarthritis) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Biological Theories of Aging <ul><li>Cellular Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on processes that occur within individual cells which may lead to a build up of harmful substances or the deterioration of cells over a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Telomeres play a role </li></ul><ul><li>Tips of the chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Free Radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Cause Cellular Damage that Impairs Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals produced randomly during normal cell metabolism, which bond easily to other substances inside cells </li></ul><ul><li>Crosslinking </li></ul><ul><li>Some proteins interact randomly with certain body tissues, such as muscles & arteries stiffening the tissue </li></ul>
    8. 8. Biological Theories of Aging <ul><li>Metabolic Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Higher caloric intake & stress lower life expectancy & disease susceptibility </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed Cell Death Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Aging is genetically programmed </li></ul>
    9. 9. Changes in the Neurons <ul><li>Neurofibrillary Tangles </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers that compose the axon sometimes become twisted together forming a spiral-shaped mass </li></ul><ul><li>Dendritic Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Some shrivel up & die making communications difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Others continue to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Neuritic Plaques </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged & dying neurons sometimes collect around a core of protein producing the plaques </li></ul><ul><li>These plaques interfere with normal functioning of healthy cells </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Aging Brain <ul><li>How the Brain Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Shrink & Slowing </li></ul><ul><li>Loses 5 to 10% of its weight between ages of 20 & 90 </li></ul><ul><li>Dendritic losses & damage to myelin? </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting to Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Can repair itself </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic exercise can increase brain volume </li></ul>
    11. 11. Sensory Changes <ul><li>2 Major Kinds of Age-related Structural Changes in the Eye </li></ul><ul><li>Presbyopia </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty seeing close objects clearly, necessitating either longer arms or corrective lenses </li></ul><ul><li>Other changes include cataracts </li></ul><ul><li>Opaque spots on the lens that limit the amount of light transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Improper drainage of the fluid in the eye causing high pressure & loss of vision </li></ul>
    12. 12. Sensory Changes <ul><li>Changes in the Retina </li></ul><ul><li>Macular degeneration: </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive & irreversible destruction of receptors from different causes </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetic retinopathy: </li></ul><ul><li>Involves fluid retention in the macula, detachment of the retina, hemorrhage, & aneurisms </li></ul>
    13. 13. Sensory Changes <ul><li>Hearing Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Presbycusis: </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative effects of noise & normative age-related hearing problem causing reduced sensitivity to high-pitched tones </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing loss is gradual at first but accelerates during the 40s </li></ul><ul><li>Results from 4 types of changes in the inner ear </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory: consisting of atrophy & degeneration of receptor cells </li></ul><ul><li>Neural: consisting of a loss of neurons in the auditory pathway to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic: consisting of a diminished supply of nutrients to the cells in the receptor area </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical: consisting of atrophy & stiffening of the vibrating structures in the receptor area </li></ul>
    14. 14. Sensory Changes <ul><li>Taste, Smell, Touch, Temperature, Pain, & Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Remain largely in tact </li></ul><ul><li>Smell declines after 70 for most people </li></ul><ul><li>Large declines are characteristic of Alzheimer’s </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in balance make older people more likely to fall </li></ul>
    15. 15. Cardiovascular Changes <ul><li>Heart Attack, Irregular Heartbeat, Stroke, Hypertension Increase with Age </li></ul><ul><li>Overall death rated from these have been declining due to life style changes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes that contribute to cardiovascular problems begin in young adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Fat deposits around the heart & in the arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Amt. heart can pump per minute declines, muscle tissue in the heart declines due to replacement by connective tissue </li></ul>
    16. 16. Cardiovascular Changes <ul><li>Strokes or Cerebral Vascular Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Interruptions in the blood flow to the brain due to blockage or hemorrhage in a cerebral artery </li></ul><ul><li>Transient ischemic attacks are early warning signs of stroke </li></ul><ul><li>An interruption in blood flow to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous small cerebral vascular accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Can have a sudden onset & may or may not progress gradually with varying symptoms </li></ul>
    17. 17. Cardiovascular Changes <ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most common form of incapacitating respiratory disease among older adults </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in depression, anxiety, & need to be continually connected to oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema & asthma are most common forms </li></ul>
    18. 18. Health Issues <ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults have more trouble sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Takes longer to fall asleep, get less sleep, feel more negative effects after little sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Some problems can be due to physical disorders, side effects of medication, effects of caffeine, nicotine, & stress </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep problems can disrupt circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>As long as eating a well-balanced meal, don’t need supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism declines w/age causing body to not extract & use the nutrients the same way </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Unhealthy life-styles, genetics, & exposure to cancer-causing chemicals important </li></ul>
    19. 19. Cognitive Processes <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Selective attention: selection of relevant information & inhibition of irrelevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults tend to perform poorer on selective attention tasks </li></ul><ul><li>With practice, differences minimized </li></ul><ul><li>Vigilance: sustained attention, involving the maintenance of attention over time </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain if vigilance declines </li></ul><ul><li>Attentional Control </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to focus, switch, & divide attention </li></ul><ul><li>With complex tasks, older perform poorer than youth </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in attention depends on factors such as complexity, visual ability, & other cognitive factors </li></ul>
    20. 20. Cognitive Processes <ul><li>Psychomotor Speed </li></ul><ul><li>The speed at which a person can make a specific response </li></ul><ul><li>Rate at which cognitive processes slow varies greatly depending on the task </li></ul><ul><li>Most important reason reaction time slows is that older adults take longer to decide the need to respond, especially for ambiguous information </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults who are physically fit show less slowing </li></ul>
    21. 21. Memory <ul><li>Poor Memory often Viewed as Inevitable with Age </li></ul><ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Generally declines with age </li></ul><ul><li>May be reason for age-related differences on tasks of cognitive performance </li></ul>
    22. 22. Memory <ul><li>Focus is Generally on 2 Types of Memory Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Memory </li></ul><ul><li>The deliberate & conscious remembering of information that is learned & remembered at a specific time </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit is divided into </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic memory : having to do with the conscious recollection of information from a specific time or event </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic memory : concerning remembering meanings of words or concepts not tied to a specific time or event </li></ul>
    23. 23. Memory <ul><li>Implicit Memory </li></ul><ul><li>The unconscious remembering of information learned at some earlier time </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults tend to perform worse on tests of episodic memory </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be less efficient at spontaneously using memory strategies to help their memory </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults have problems in finding words and having more tip-of-the-tongue experiences </li></ul><ul><li>With autobiographical memory, memories experienced between 10 & 30 more often reported than after 30 </li></ul>
    24. 24. Memory <ul><li>Widespread Belief that Memory Declines </li></ul><ul><li>What adults believe about their memories affects how well they perform </li></ul><ul><li>How much effort put into trying to remember, how well predict performance, strategies used to remember </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs Related to Assumptions About the Degree Memory is Supposed to Change </li></ul><ul><li>People convince themselves the changes are worse than they are </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs influenced by changes in information processing (working memory) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Remediating Memory Problems <ul><li>Program for Memory Aids </li></ul><ul><li>External Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Memory aids that rely on environmental sources such as notebooks or calendars </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Memory aids that rely on mental processes such as imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit-internal Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal to remember a phone number </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit-external </li></ul><ul><li>Taking notes during a doctor’s visit </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit-internal </li></ul><ul><li>Associating the color of an indoor parking structure </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit-external </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizing images that represent time of day and number of pills to be taken </li></ul>
    26. 26. Abnormal Memory Change <ul><li>Does Memory Problem Interfere with Daily Life? </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory of spouse’s name, etc., get an examination </li></ul><ul><li>Complete physical & neurological with battery of psychological to identify the nature of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Take the necessary steps to alleviate the difficulties </li></ul>
    27. 27. Creativity & Wisdom <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to produce work that is novel, high in demand, & task appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Highest creativity during 20s, plateaus in 30s, & declines after </li></ul><ul><li>Creative people continue to produce creative ideas, but fewer after 30s </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Seen from 3 main perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>1. The orchestration of mind & virtue, involving the ability to solve difficult real-world problems </li></ul><ul><li>2. Postformal thinking </li></ul><ul><li>3. Action-oriented knowledge acquired w/out direct help form others that enables people to achieve goals they value </li></ul>
    28. 28. 4 Characteristics of Wisdom <ul><li>Wisdom deals with important or difficult matters of life & the human condition </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom is superior knowledge, judgment, & advice </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom is knowledge with extraordinary scope, depth, & balance, applicable to specific situations </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom, when used, is well intended & combines mind & virtue </li></ul>
    29. 29. Wisdom <ul><li>A Wise Person: </li></ul><ul><li>Is able to Integrate Thinking, Feeling, & Acting into a Coherent Approach to a Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy & compassion are important characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>They are able to overcome automatic responses & see through situations getting to the heart of the matter than being caught in the details </li></ul><ul><li>3 Factors to Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>1. General Personal Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Mental ability </li></ul><ul><li>2. Specific Expertise Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring or practice </li></ul><ul><li>3. Facilitative Life Contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Education or leadership experience </li></ul>
    30. 30. Mental Health & Intervention <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosing depression </li></ul><ul><li>Most common symptom is feeling sad or down </li></ul><ul><li>Dysphoria </li></ul><ul><li>Older adults express this as “feeling helpless” or “feeling tired” </li></ul><ul><li>Apathy & expressionless confining themselves to the bed, self neglect, & making derogatory statements re: self </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite, insomnia, & trouble breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalances of specific neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial factors such as loss & internal beliefs systems </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of a spouse, a job, good health, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal belief systems </li></ul><ul><li>What one tells oneself about why certain things are happening </li></ul><ul><li>Belief of being personally responsible for all the bad things that happen to them, things are not going to get any better, life is a mess </li></ul>
    31. 31. Mental Health & Intervention <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Severe cases medications for the balance of neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Heterocyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed people receive too few rewards from their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the good things that happen & minimize the negative </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Maladaptive beliefs or thoughts about oneself are responsible for the depression </li></ul><ul><li>Depression is treatable </li></ul>
    32. 32. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Behavioral and Psychological Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of severe nervousness for no apparent reason, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders, thoughts or actions that are repeatedly performed </li></ul><ul><li>More common in older adults due to loss of health, relocation stress, isolation, fear of losing independence, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be treated with medication & psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation therapy is highly effective & easily learned </li></ul>
    33. 33. Alzheimer’s <ul><li>Disease Involving Serious Impairment of Behavioral & Cognitive Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual decline in memory, learning, attention, & judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion as to time & place </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in communicating & finding the right words </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in personal hygiene & self-care skills </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate social behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Personality changes </li></ul><ul><li>In advanced stages, incontinence </li></ul>
    34. 34. Diagnosing Alzheimer’s <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on a thorough series of medical & psychological tests, including blood tests, metabolic & neurological tests, & neuropsychological tests </li></ul><ul><li>Interview of family necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Often inaccurate in assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Much Attention Focused on Protein Beta- amyloid </li></ul><ul><li>Protein that is produced in extremely high levels in Alzheimer’s possibly causing the plaques & tangles </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Some forms are inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes 12, 14, 19, 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms can be alleviated with medication </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholinestrase inhibitors </li></ul>
    35. 35. Parkinson’s Disease <ul><li>Known for its Characteristic Motor Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Very slow walking, difficulty getting into & out of chairs, & a slow hand tremor </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively treated with L-dopa which raises the functional level of dopamine in the brain </li></ul>

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