Adulthood and Aging, 6eJohn C. CavanaughFredda Blanchard-Fields
Learning Objectives How do rate-of-living theories explain aging? What are the major hypotheses in cellular theories of aging? How do programmed cell death theories propose that we age? How do the basic developmental forces interact in biological and physiological aging?
Rate-of-Living Theories Limited energy Organisms have only so much energy to expend in a lifetime Metabolic rate of certain animals seem to be correlated to their lifespan Excess calories Reduction in calorie intake increases lifespan Okinawans consume 60% less; have 40 times more centenarians Hormonal regulatory system adaptation to stress Age which a mammal becomes mature is related to longevity Metabolism relates directly to longevity Saving your energy won’t directly result in living longer
Cellular Theories Limited number of times a cell can divide (Hayflick limit) Cross-linking Tissue becomes stiffer with age Free radicals Reactive chemicals causing cellular damage
Programmed Cell Death Theories Aging programmed into genetic code? Cells pre-programmed to self-destruct Other genetic pathologies: Osteoarthritis Changes in the brain cells Alzheimer’s Memory loss Personality changes
Implications of the Developmental Forces The biological, psychological, sociocultural, and lifecycle forces Unified theory not yet developed Three general approaches to slowing or reversing the aging process: 1. Delay the chronic illnesses of old age 2. Slow the fundamental processes of aging to increase life span 3. Arrest or reverse aging by removing the damage caused by the metabolic process
Learning Objectives How do our skin, hair, and voices change with age? What happens to our body build with age? What age-related changes occur in our ability to move around?
Changes in Skin, Hair, and Voice Changes in Skin Why does our skin wrinkle? Four-step process Effects of sun exposure on skin Sun exposure & smoking How to counteract these effects? Other skin changes Pigment-containing cells decrease Age spots, moles Varicose veins
Changes in the Hair Individual differences Gender differences Hair loss caused by destruction of germ centers that produce hair follicles Graying caused by cessation of pigment production Other hair changes Males do not lose facial hair. Females gain facial hair. (hormonal changes)
Changes in the Voice Differences in young and old voices Lowering in pitch Increased breathlessness and trembling Slower and less pronounced pronunciation Decreased volume Normative changes or poor health? What do you think?
Changes in Body Build Differences in the way bodies look over time Decrease in height and fluctuations in weight Between mid-50s and mid-70s men lose about 1 inch and women 2 inches Compression of the spine Changes in posture Weight gain then loss How different between men and women?
Changes in Mobility Muscles Strength loss: age 70 – up to 20%; age 80 – up to 40% No difference in the rate of muscle change between men and women Bones Loss begins in the late 30s, accelerates in the 50s, and slows in 70s Gender differences Osteoporosis: leading cause of broken bones in older women Joints Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis
Psychological Implications Gender differences Compensation Cosmetics Hair dyes Plastic surgery Appearance vs. actual losses in strength and endurance Exercise and resistance training is useful up to age 90 Adaptive behaviors Pain in the joints may reduce mobility Rehabilitation after hip fractures
Learning Objectives What age-related changes happen in vision? How does hearing change as people age? What age-related changes occur in the sense of touch and balance? What happens to taste and smell with increasing age?
Vision Structural changes in the eye Adaptation – light and dark; change focus Presbyopia Cataracts – opaque spots on the lens Glaucoma - high pressure in fluid around eye Retinal Changes Macular degeneration - progressive and irreversible destruction of receptors (loss of details) Diabetic retinopathy - aging of the arteries - blindness
Psychological Effects of Visual Changes Reading TV watching Grocery labels; cooking instructions Driving a car Corrective actions Glasses (Presbyopia) Surgery (cataracts) Corrective environmental changes Brighter lights Larger type
Hearing Damage due to loud environment Cumulative effects Single incident damage Presbycusis – reduced sensitivity to high pitched tones Most common hearing problem On increase among young adults Social adjustment to hearing loss Loss of independence, social isolation Irritation, paranoia, depression Emotional effects Decreased quality of life Corrective action (next slide)
Atrophy The wasting away of a body partDecatur Daily Ad - Sept 5, 2010
Somesthesia and Balance Loss of touch Temperature regulation Pain sensitivity Kinesthesis Where is your body? Reduced quality of life
“Weebles wobble, but they don’t fallBalance down!” Vestibular system Dizziness, lightheaded, vertigo Longer time to integrate all sensory information Fear of falling Environmental hazards Loose rugs Slippery floors Lighting Hip protection Tai-Chi Enhance body awareness Improve balance Reduce falls
Taste and Smell Too old to cut the mustard? Taste dependent on smell Safety factors Personal hygiene Memory differences between odors and other memory cues
Learning Objectives What age-related changes occur in the cardiovascular system? What types of cardiovascular disease are common in adult development and aging? Psychological effects? What structural and functional changes occur with age in the respiratory system? What are the most common types of respiratory diseases in older adults? Psychological effects?
Cardiovascular System Underlying cause of diminished capacity Accumulation of fat deposits Stiffening of the heart muscle Decline in aerobic capacity By age 65 - 60 to 70% decline Get tired easily Heart attaches while performing moderately exerting tasks Want to decline less? Stay in shape during adulthood
Cardiovascular Disease Ethnic and gender differences—Why? Congestive heart failure (most common hospitalization over 65) Angina pectoris (decrease oxygen to the heart, causing pain) Myocardial infarction (MI) (heart attack) Atherosclerosis (build up of fat and calcium in artery walls) Hypertension Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (stroke)
Respiratory System Respiratory Diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Damage is irreversible Emphysema 82% self-induced by smoking Chronic bronchitis More common with people over 45 Dust, irritating fumes, air pollution
Learning Objectives What reproductive changes occur in women? What reproductive changes occur in men? What are the psychological effects of reproductive changes?
Female Reproductive System Genital organ change begins in the 40s Transition – perimenopause Changes in reproductive organs and sexual functioning Menopause Ethnic differences in the severity of symptoms Progressive change after menopause Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) No physiological reason why most women cannot continue sexual activity into old age.
Male Reproductive System Unlike menopause, no event to mark changes Decline in testosterone levels Decrease in sperm production (30% between 30 and 60) Prostate cancer a real threat Impotence: normally treatable with drugs Erectile Dysfunction: treatable with Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra Psychological Implications For healthy adults males, sexual activity is lifelong option. Stereotyping has important consequences.
Learning Objectives How do we measure changes in the brain? What major changes occur in neurons? How do neurons’ ability to communicate with each other change with age? What are the psychological effects of changes in the brain? What major changes occur in the autonomic nervous system?
Studying Brain-Behavior Relations:Imaging Techniques Computed Tomography – CT Magnetic Resonance Imaging – MRI Positron Emission Tomography – PET PET Scan
Neurons (individual cells) Dendrites – carry message towards cell Cell body Axon – carry message away from cell Terminal branches Neurotransmitters Synapse5 Min 41 of 40
Structural Changes in Neurons Plasticity (capability of brain to adapt its function and structure) Neurofibrillary Tangles (fibers of the axon become tangled) Amyloid Plaques (damaged & dying neurons around a core of protein) Both considered characteristics of Alzheimer’s diseaseChanges in communication between neurons Parkinson’s disease Tremors Rigidity Difficulty keeping balance Shuffling walking style
Autonomic Nervous System Regulating Body Temperature Elderly susceptible to hypothermia Don’t notice they are cold Less ability to raise body temperature Sleep and Aging Less sleep Day napping Moody, poorer function, fatigue, decrease motivation & concentration
Psychological Implications Senility – What is it? Decline in cognitive functioning Dementia is not part of normal aging Successful Aging Adapting to changes (physically & mentally) Normal Aging expected changes that all experience Pathological Aging due to disease process