Berger ls 7e ch 23


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Berger ls 7e ch 23

  1. 1. Part VIII Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development Chapter Twenty-Three Prejudice and Predictions Senescence Theories of Aging The Centenarians
  2. 2. Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development <ul><li>the last phase of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65 until death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there are biosocial changes in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senses, vital organs, morbidity, mortality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Prejudice and Predications <ul><li>Ageism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a prejudice in which people are categorized and judged solely on the basis of their chronological age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Ageism is a social disease, much like racism and sexism” in that it relies on stereotypes, creating “needless fear, waste, illness, and misery (Palmore, 2005).” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prejudice and Predications <ul><li>Gerontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the multidisciplinary study of old age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geriatrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the medical specialty devoted to aging </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Prejudice and Predications <ul><li>The World’s Aging Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. estimates that nearly 8% of the world’s population today is over age 65 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most nations still have more children than older adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the second oldest age group is centenarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a person who has lived 100 years or more </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Prejudice and Predications <ul><li>Graphing the Change </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prejudice and Predications <ul><li>Young, Old and Oldest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>young-old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>healthy, vigorous, financially secure older adults (generally, those aged 60 to 75) who are well integrated into the lives of their families and communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>old-old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>older adults (generally, those over age 85) who are dependent on others for almost everything, requiring supportive services such as nursing homes and hospital stays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oldest-old </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Senescence <ul><li>Aging and Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the specific physical illnesses or conditions that become more common with aging but are caused by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Senescence <ul><li>High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the leading cause of death for both men and women is cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a disease that involves the heart (cardio) and the circulatory system (vascular) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high blood pressure (hypertension) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is a risk factor for heart disease, stroke, cognitive impairment, and many other aliments of late adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Senescence <ul><li>Selective Optimization with Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Both depend on how well people respond… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary aging is increasingly stressful as aging continues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary aging undermines well-being </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Senescence <ul><li>Social Compensation: Driving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>family members question their oldest relatives driving but hesitate to do something about it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doctors don’t advise their elderly patients about driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if older drivers crash, people blame the driver, not the social context that allowed the driving </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Senescence <ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exercise in later life is important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>becomes difficult for older people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>weather can keep older people inside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>team sports are rarely organized for the elderly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscles stiffen and atrophy causes less range of motions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less flexibility leads to aching backs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Senescence <ul><ul><li>The Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>primary aging causes one cognitive change in everyone—the elderly process information more slowly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>second crucial aspect of the physical aging of the brain—it gets smaller. Some areas shrink more than others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>older people use more parts of the brain (compensation), while young adults use more targeted areas of the brain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Senescence <ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes continue among the elderly, often with emotionally destructive results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are treated and glimpsed at in stereotypical ways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin and Hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the skin reveals the first signs of aging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>becomes drier, thinner, and less elastic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hair becomes grayer, turns white, and thins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Senescence <ul><li>Dulling of the Senses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most troubling part of senescence is the loss of sensory ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>senses become slower and less sharp with each decade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology can modify many of these losses </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Theories of Aging <ul><li>Wear and Tear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a view of aging as a process by which the human body wears out because of the passage of time and exposure to environmental stressors </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Theories of Aging <ul><li>Genetic Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a purported mechanism in the DNA of cells that regulates the aging process by triggering hormonal changes and controlling cellular reproduction and repair </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Theories of Aging <ul><li>How Long is a Normal Life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximum life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the oldest possible age that members of a species can live </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>under ideal circumstances for humans, the age is approximately 122 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average life expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the number of years the average newborn in a particular population group is likely to live </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Theories of Aging <ul><li>Cellular Aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people grow old because of the cells of their body becoming old, damaged, or exhausted—new cells continually created, each designed as the exact copy of an old cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Hayflick </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Theories of Aging <ul><ul><li>Errors in Duplication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this cell duplication may produce aging, because each cell is so complex that minor errors inevitably accumulate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen free radicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>atoms of oxygen that as a result of metabolic processes, have an unpaired election—these atoms scramble DNA molecules or mitochondria producing errors in cell maintenance and repair that, over time, may cause cancer, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>antioxidants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemical compounds that nullify the effects of oxygen free radicals by forming a bond with their unattached oxygen electron </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Theories of Aging <ul><li>The Immune System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cells become less numerous as people age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immune cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying bacteria and viruses that invade the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immune cell manufactured in the thymus gland that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Theories of Aging <ul><li>Replication No More </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… cellular aging limits the life span… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telomeres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the ends of chromosomes in the cells, whose length decrease with each cell duplication and seems to correlate with longevity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Centenarians <ul><li>The Truth About Life After 100 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moderate diet, hard work, an optimistic attitude, intellectual curiosity, social involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>few calories, more respect, lots of vegetables, strong religious faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no one is disease-free, many have achieved a compression of morbidity, tend to minimize whatever problems they have, are upbeat about their health, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attitude may be one reason they lived so long </li></ul></ul>