Pretest Chap 5 & 7


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Pretest Chap 5 & 7

  1. 1. Pretest - Chapters 5,6,7 Psychology 41 - Life Span Development Dr. S. Lee - Spring 2009 1. The frontal areas of the cortex: A) are responsible for visual functions. B) help us understand spoken words. C) assist with self-control. D) are well-developed in newborns. 2. The nerve cells of the brain are called: A) axons. B) neurons. C) dendrites. D) the cortex. 3. The part of a neuron which acts as a tiny antennae and conducts signals toward the axon of that cell is called the: A) dendrite. B) myelin sheath. C) axon terminal. D) synapse, or synaptic cleft. 4. After proliferation and neural pruning occurs, the type of brain experiences which occur are typically: A) trifling, or insignificant. B) those dealing with abstract, general, or universal statements or laws of behavior. C) experience-expectant. D) experience-dependent. 5. Which reflex ensures an adequate supply of oxygen? A) Babinski B) anoxia C) breathing D) respiratory 6. Fine motor skills are those that: A) are due to brain damage or trauma. B) require practice. C) require small body movements. D) use three or more muscles. Page 1
  2. 2. 7. According to recent norms, which skill develops last in the sequence? A) walking while holding on B) standing momentarily without holding on C) sitting without support D) standing while holding on 8. Louise wants to know when her baby boy will develop various skills. The answer depends on: A) his genetic programming. B) the home environment. C) the interaction between genes and environment. D) his father's involvement. 9. Benjamin Spock's book on child-rearing recommended which position for sleeping babies? A) on the back B) on the side C) on the stomach D) the prenatal position 10. Unusual swelling of a toddler's face and abdomen and thin, colorless hair are symptoms of: A) kwashiorkor. B) marasmus. C) rickets. D) hypoglycemia. 11. Assimilation is to accommodation as: A) small is to large. B) incorporating is to readjusting. C) difficult is to easy. D) alone is to united. 12. According to Jean Piaget, the two elements of adaptation are: A) mental combinations and trial and error. B) goal-directed behavior and habituation. C) assimilation and accommodation. D) object permanence and circular reactions. 13. In which Piagetian sensorimotor stage would one find new adaptation and anticipation -- becoming more deliberate and purposeful in responding to people and objects? A) stage one B) stage two C) stage three D) stage four Page 2
  3. 3. 14. In which Piagetian sensorimotor stage would one find new means through mental combinations? A) stage three B) stage four C) stage five D) stage six 15. In Piaget's terminology, sensorimotor stage two is known as: A) the stage of reflexes. B) procedures for making interesting sights last. C) the first acquired adaptations. D) new adaptation and anticipation. 16. An example of stage-three behavior is: A) thumb-sucking and self-soothing. B) searching for a teddy bear hidden under a blanket. C) trying to dress like Mommy or Daddy. D) making a noise, looking for a smile, and smiling back. 17. That objects continue to exist when they cannot be seen is: A) object permanence. B) an acquired adaptation. C) mental representation. D) object continuity. 18. Becka is trying to figure out a place to hide her doll. She considers putting it under the kitchen table, but then realizes it would still be in sight. She decides to hide the doll in the closet instead. Becka is using: A) mental combinations. B) trial and error. C) object permanence. D) invisible displacements. 19. The affordances that are actually perceived depend on the individual's: A) present needs, education, and financial opportunities. B) sensory awareness, past experiences, and immediate motivation. C) age, familiarity, and family. D) sensitivity to the needs of others. 20. According to dynamic perception, 1-year-old Diane would most prefer to look at which of the following: A) a brightly colored beach ball. B) a cassette tape with the music of Barney. C) a mobile spinning over her head. D) the puzzle being held by her Aunt Cynthia. Page 3
  4. 4. 21. Choose the false statement in the following list: A) Stage one of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by sucking, grasping, and other reflexes. B) After repeated exposures to an event or an object, the child tends to experience habituation. C) The distinct form of language used by adults to communicate with babies is called baby talk, or child-directed speech. D) A 3-month-old infant who sucks her thumb, discovers that it is pleasurable, and sucks it again is demonstrating Piaget's concept of tertiary circular reactions. 22. Which statement in this list is an incorrect one? A) A psychologist who hides a toy under a blanket to see if an infant will try to uncover it is testing for object permanence. B) The initials LAD, as proposed by Chomsky, stand for “language acquisition device.” C) Noting that infants between 12 and 18 months engage in actual experimentation and exploration, Piaget described the toddler of this age as “the little scientist.” D) Compared to ordinary speech, baby talk has a lower pitch and a shorter sentence length. 23. The usual order of the development of spoken language is: A) cooing, babbling, reflexes, spoken words. B) reflexes, cooing, babbling, spoken words. C) babbling, cooing, spoken words, reflexes. D) cooing, reflexes, babbling, spoken words. 24. The term “holophrase” is used to denote: A) a word that is empty of meaning. B) the infant's use of one word to express a whole thought. C) the relationship of object permanence to language development. D) the use of two words to take the place of one. 25. According to Chomsky's theory of language acquisition: A) children learn language through a complex process of imitation and reinforcement. B) children have an inborn ability to learn language. C) the inability to learn language is due to specific brain dysfunctions. D) language learning depends on specific structure in the brain. 26. Bill constantly talks to his 3-month-old infant. His friend Ted tells him that it is useless to do so, because an infant cannot understand language. Social-pragmatists would: A) agree with Ted, since cooing and babbling are reflexive. B) suggest that Bill's behavior indicates he needs therapy. C) agree with Ted, since too much listening slows talking. D) disagree with Ted, because Bill's behavior teaches communication. Page 4
  5. 5. 27. According to psychoanalytic theory, what is the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy? A) the mouth B) the anus C) the stomach D) the hands and feet 28. Freud claimed that during the anal stage: A) infants often find urinating and defecating to be quite painful. B) toilet training leads to positive mother-child interactions. C) there is pleasure in stimulating and controlling the bowels. D) the infant is striving to develop a sense of trust in the parents. 29. A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who: A) eats excessively. B) is excessively neat. C) is a homosexual. D) has intense fears. 30. The first “crisis of life,” according to Erikson, is: A) industry vs. inferiority. B) autonomy vs. shame and doubt. C) trust vs. mistrust. D) the oral stage. 31. The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child: A) exhibiting self-control. B) trying to rule his or her own actions. C) developing a sense of self. D) getting along with other children. 32. Epigenetic theory suggests that: A) emotions of the infant are universal in their emergence. B) change is possible because genes permit selective adaptation to the environment. C) some human behavior is imbedded in a social and biological context. D) all of the above are accurate statements. 33. Concerning temperament and personality, research has found that: A) personality dimensions are quite different from one country to the next. B) temperament and personality are determined almost entirely by parenting. C) temperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy. D) all of the above are accurate statements. Page 5
  6. 6. 34. Delilah loves new food and people, whereas Laura tends to get tense when new items are presented. The New York Longitudinal Study considers these to be differences in: A) rhythmicity. B) distractibility. C) approach-withdrawal. D) attention span. 35. Lupe has always been easy to care for. While waiting for food she can be amused with a toy, and her parents have always been able to divert her attention from dangerous to safe objects. The NYLS would categorized Lupe as high in: A) attention span. B) adaptability. C) distractibility. D) quality of mood. 36. Once little Arthur gets a dangerously sharp object in his hand, it is quite difficult to distract him with something else so his attention can be diverted long enough to extricate the item from his grasp. Which temperament dimension would this easily fit into? A) distractibility B) rhythmicity C) attention span D) threshold of responsiveness 37. Regina is irregular, disturbed easily, unhappy, hard to distract, and emotionally tense. Thomas and Chess would say that Regina is: A) difficult. B) challenging. C) experiencing asynchrony. D) typical. 38. The first recognizable emotion in an infant is: A) distress. B) anger. C) happiness, indicated by a social smile. D) wariness in the presence of strangers. 39. Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at: A) 3 months and it fades by 9 months of age. B) 4 months and it remains steady during the next year. C) 9 months. D) 9 months and it increases in intensity throughout the next two years. Page 6
  7. 7. 40. The new emotions that appear toward the end of the second year are: A) joy, distress, fear, and anger. B) pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt. C) joy, fear, shame, and guilt. D) pride, shame, joy, and anger. 41. Jimmy's Dad comes home from grocery shopping and sees Jimmy sitting on the sofa, eating chips and says “Where's that boy of mine?” Immediately, Jimmy gives his Dad the biggest smile, which spreads across his entire face. Now, Dad responds with an exaggerated surprised look. What is this an example of? A) psychosocialization B) synchrony C) symbiosis D) polarization 42. The most critical element in determining synchrony is: A) attention span. B) mood. C) timing. D) love. 43. Proximity-seeking behavior in a secure infant occurs when a baby: A) clings to the mother. B) refuses to be put down. C) crawls behind the mother. D) watches the mother respond to a stranger. 44. Secure attachment makes a toddler: A) willing to explore. B) self-centered. C) cling to the mother. D) try to talk. 45. Attachment studies find that most infants are: A) avoidant. B) disoriented. C) resistant. D) securely attached. 46. Secure attachment (type B) makes a toddler: A) willing to explore. B) self-centered. C) cling to the mother. D) want to talk. Page 7
  8. 8. 47. A 9-month-old explores new environments when her mother is present but shows distress when her mother leaves the room. The child's behavior illustrates: A) secure attachment. B) insecure-resistant attachment. C) insecure-avoidant attachment. D) disoriented and ambivalent attachment. 48. Jerome clings to his mother and can't be soothed when she returns. Jerome is exhibiting: A) insecure-avoidant attachment. B) insecure-resistant attachment. C) secure attachment. D) disoriented attachment. 49. An indication of type D (disorganized infants) is their mothers': A) depressed mental state. B) attitudes toward her infant. C) sudden changes in mood. D) none of the above 50. When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to: A) read stories. B) engage in physical play. C) help them play with their toys. D) give them food. Page 8