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Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
Adolescence (Pt 3)
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Adolescence (Pt 3)

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Personality development in adolescence.

Personality development in adolescence.

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  • 1. Adolescence (Part 3)
  • 2. Social & Personality Development <ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Identity is the important issue </li></ul><ul><li>Able to distinguish between one’s self and others & take others’ views into account </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing one’s self & liking one’s self are two different things </li></ul><ul><li>Liking one’s self is self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Liking one’s self involves seeing one’s self with all your faults and accepting it </li></ul>
  • 3. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem <ul><li>Factors Determining Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is important in early adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Girls’ self-esteem is lower </li></ul><ul><li>Girls tend to be more concerned about the appearances & social & academic success </li></ul><ul><li>Boys’ attitude is more casual </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are vulnerable to gender stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Boys have problems with sports, rejection by girls, & not measuring up </li></ul>
  • 4. SES & Race in Self-Esteem <ul><li>Higher SES Have Higher Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly due to status factors </li></ul><ul><li>Race & Ethnicity Play a Role </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice played a major role before </li></ul><ul><li>Today, social movements within a group help build self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Today, more are focusing on aspects of the self in which they excel </li></ul><ul><li>Taking ethnicity & gender into account together produces different results than separately </li></ul>
  • 5. Identity Formation <ul><li>Identity v. Identity Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Stage where adolescents seek to find what makes them unique & distinct </li></ul><ul><li>They adopt different roles </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion comes by failing to organize around a central, unified core identity </li></ul><ul><li>A good, stable sense of identity is the foundation for future development & choices, esp. marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Social Pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Career or occupation </li></ul><ul><li>The future us now up to them </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on friends & peers for information </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Moratorium </li></ul><ul><li>Period when adolescents take time off from coming adult responsibilities to explore different roles & possibilities </li></ul>
  • 6. Marcia’s Identity Development <ul><li>Identity Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Gone through a period of crisis & developed relatively firm commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Foreclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Never gone through an identity crisis but has become committed to certain goals </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Moratorium </li></ul><ul><li>Currently going through an identity crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Never had a crisis, is not in one now, & has not formed or established goals </li></ul>
  • 7. Identity, Race, & Ethnicity <ul><li>Cultural Assimilation Model </li></ul><ul><li>Individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic Society Model </li></ul><ul><li>Society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features </li></ul><ul><li>Bicultural Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Draw on the cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Formation & Racial & Ethnic Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Identity formation is more difficult with racial & ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>There are contradictory social values </li></ul><ul><li>A society should be color-blind but opportunities differ for races & ethnic groups </li></ul>
  • 8. Depression <ul><li>Who is Depressed? </li></ul><ul><li>25% report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row so they stop doing normal activities </li></ul><ul><li>Girls experience depression more often than boys </li></ul><ul><li>Girls’ coping skills different than boys’ </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are more apt to turn inward, boys turning outward </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans have higher rates of depression than Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Not supported by studies </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the environment & social factors related to much depression </li></ul>
  • 9. Suicide <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd major cause of death among 15 – 24 age group </li></ul><ul><li>12.2 suicides per 100,000 adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Girls attempt; boys complete </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in suicides in the last 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: Depression is a major cause (social & family problems, perfectionism, anxiety over the future, & alcohol & drug abuse </li></ul>
  • 10. Relationships <ul><li>Changing Family Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking autonomy: control over one’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Parents become frustrated over the increasing autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy slowly grows during adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the relationship with the parents </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of autonomy varies with the number of children & the culture </li></ul>
  • 11. Family Changes <ul><li>Generation Gap </li></ul><ul><li>The divide between parents & children in attitudes, values, aspirations, & worldview </li></ul><ul><li>The actual “gap” is very narrow </li></ul><ul><li>On social, political, & religious issues parents & adolescents tend to agree </li></ul><ul><li>Most adolescents & their parents get along quite well </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a deep love, affection, & respect for parents </li></ul><ul><li>Most relationships are more positive than negative </li></ul>
  • 12. Parent/Child Relations <ul><li>Conflicts with Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Most get along with parents most of the time </li></ul><ul><li>There are differences in taste in music, friends, relationships, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict is greater in early adolescence than later </li></ul><ul><li>Problems are due to differing definitions of, & rationales for, appropriate & inappropriate conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Parents begin to realize that the children are growing up </li></ul><ul><li>There’s less conflict in “traditional” pre-industrial cultures </li></ul>
  • 13. Relations with Peers <ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing & evaluating opinions, abilities, & physical changes of others </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Group </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of people with whom you compare yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Clique </li></ul><ul><li>Group of from 2 – 12 whose members have frequent social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than a clique made up of those who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with each other </li></ul>
  • 14. Gender/Race Relations <ul><li>Gender Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Sex cleavage: Boys hang out with boys & girls with girls in preadolescence </li></ul><ul><li>With puberty, hormonal changes bring more interest in the opposite sex & boys’ & girls’ cliques begin to converge </li></ul><ul><li>Later on, more time is spent with members of the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Race Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Even with desegregation races & ethnicities tend to interact very little </li></ul><ul><li>May be ethnic & racial segregation in classrooms with less minorities in certain classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of contact among students may produce prejudice, both perceived & real </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents who have interacted with other races or ethnicities tend to have friends of different races & ethnicities </li></ul>
  • 15. Popularity <ul><li>Controversial Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those liked by some peers & disliked by others </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those actively disliked & whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner </li></ul><ul><li>Neglected Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Those receiving relatively little attention from peers in either positive or negative interactions </li></ul>
  • 16. Peer Relations <ul><li>Peer Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior & attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents are highly susceptible to the influence of peers </li></ul><ul><li>What to wear, who do date, movies to see, what group to belong to </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity to peers due to pressure to conform & seek an identity </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, conform less to peers & parents & develop their own autonomy </li></ul>
  • 17. Delinquency <ul><li>Undersocialized Delinquents </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Not socialized appropriately & not taught standards of conduct to regulate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Socialized Delinquents </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents who know & subscribe to the norms of society & who are fairly normal psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to social norms </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>16% of all arrests for serious crimes involve a person under 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>Undersocialized delinquents most likely to be diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder as a child & seen as less intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>May also have psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Socialized delinquents are fairly normal psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Most engage in petty crimes & stop at adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Very influenced by peers & crimes occur in groups </li></ul>
  • 18. Dating <ul><li>Functions of Dating </li></ul><ul><li>A way to establish intimacy with another person </li></ul><ul><li>Provides entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige (trophy) </li></ul><ul><li>Can assist in developing a sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Dating in early & middle adolescence isn’t useful in furthering intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>True intimacy comes during later adolescence when dating becomes more serious </li></ul><ul><li>Gays & lesbians may date the opposite sex to fit in </li></ul><ul><li>Culture influences dating patterns </li></ul>
  • 19. Sexual Relations <ul><li>Masturbation </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual self-stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>By age 15, 80% of boys & 20% of girls report masturbating </li></ul><ul><li>Can still produce guilt feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Now viewed as normal & harmless </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>About 50% of adolescents begin intercourse between 15 & 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>10% are postponing sex </li></ul><ul><li>Double-standard </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible for males, not for females </li></ul><ul><li>For many girls, it is okay with affection </li></ul>
  • 20. Pregnancy <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Teen pregnancies have dropped 30% in the last 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>43 of 1000 births is a teen </li></ul><ul><li>Pledges in sex classes are useless </li></ul><ul><li>Teen pregnancies in the U.S. are still 2 – 10 X higher than most other industrialized countries </li></ul><ul><li>Caring for the child generally goes to the mother with little or no help from the father </li></ul>
  • 21. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Heterosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual attraction & behavior with members of the opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual attraction & behavior with members of the same sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gay: male homosexuals </li></ul><ul><li>Lesbian: female homosexuals </li></ul><ul><li>Bisexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual attraction & behavior with members of either sex </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity </li></ul><ul><li>The gender a person believes he or she is psychologically </li></ul>
  • 22. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>20% - 25% of male adolescents & 10% of females experiment with homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>4% - 10% are exclusively homosexual throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation & gender identity are not related </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which men & women enact traditional “masculine” & “feminine” behavior is not related to either sexual orientation or gender identity </li></ul><ul><li>Determinates of Sexual Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Determining factors are not clear </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic & biological factors are important </li></ul><ul><li>There are differences in brain structures </li></ul><ul><li>Family & peer environment plays a role </li></ul><ul><li>It develops from a complex interplay of genetics, physiological, psychological, & environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Many adolescent homosexuals are it risk for depression & suicide </li></ul>

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