Session2-adolescent development


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Second ppt of adolescence development. This power-point will brings you scope of adolescent. There are 6 aspects of adolescence development: physics, emotions, personal, cognitive, psychosocial, moral and value.

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  • Body Image: Adolescents are preoccupied with their bodies and develop individual images of what their bodies are like.Menarche: Events like this produce a different body that requires considerable change in self-conception, possible resulting in an identity crisis.Early/Late Maturation: Many studies done on the effects of this. See text chapter for details.Complexity of On-time/Off-time: Adolescents can be at risk when the demands of a particular social context do not match their physical and behavior characteristics.Are effects exaggerated? For some transition to puberty is stormy, but for most it is not.
  • Body Image: Adolescents are preoccupied with their bodies and develop individual images of what their bodies are like.Menarche: Events like this produce a different body that requires considerable change in self-conception, possible resulting in an identity crisis.Early/Late Maturation: Many studies done on the effects of this. See text chapter for details.Complexity of On-time/Off-time: Adolescents can be at risk when the demands of a particular social context do not match their physical and behavior characteristics.Are effects exaggerated? For some transition to puberty is stormy, but for most it is not.
  • Session2-adolescent development

    1. 1. ES001: EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNERS AND LEARNING Session 2: An Overview of Key Areas of Adolescent Development
    2. 2. Session Overview Key Areas of Adolescent Development • Physical Development • Emotional Development • Social Development • Personal Development Social Contexts and Adolescent Development • Families • Peers • Schools
    4. 4. 1/31/2015 4 Take a stroll down memory lane to a time in your life when you were an adolescent. • What thoughts, experiences, and snap-shots of events come to your mind? • How would you describe this period of your life?
    5. 5. 1/31/2015 5 Share your experiences with the rest of the group. Identify the common characteristics or common experiences in your group. Identify some unique characteristics and experiences.
    6. 6. 1/31/2015 6 Share your group’s characteristics and experiences during adolescence with the class.
    7. 7. ACTIVITY: Aspects of Development • Categorize and organize the experiences and memories shared on adolescence according to the key areas of development • Discuss how and in what ways the observations are aspects of the areas of development you have selected. • Further illustrate each of the 6 aspects of development with your own experiences and observations • Consolidate your discussion on flip chart paper
    8. 8. Psychoanalytical Views of Adolescence Havighurst: Adolescent Developmental Tasks • Achieving new and more mature relationships with age mates of both sexes • Achieving a masculine or feminine social role • Accepting one’s physique • Achieving emotional independence from parents • Preparing for marriage, family life • Preparing for economic career • Acquiring a set of values and ethical system as a guide to behaviour • Developing a set of ideology • Desiring and achieving socially responsible behaviour • Acquiring a positive self-identity
    9. 9. Childhood to Adolescence • Growth spurt, Hormonal changes, Sexual maturation • Increases in Abstract, Idealistic, and Logical Thinking • Quest for Independence • Conflict with Parents • Increased Desire to Spend More Time with Peers • Conversations with friends become more intimate Developmental Transitions
    10. 10. Developmental Transitions Adolescence to Adulthood • Approximately 18 to 25 Years of Age • Economic & Personal Temporariness • Experimentation & Exploration
    11. 11. Emerging Adulthood Key Features • Identity exploration, especially in love and work • Instability • Feeling in-between • Self-focused • The age of possibilities, a time when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives
    12. 12. Becoming an Adult Possible markers of adulthood: • Economic independence • Self-responsibility • Independent decision making • Accepting responsibility for the consequences of one’s actions • Deciding on one’s own beliefs and values • Establishing a relationship equal with parents
    13. 13. Becoming an Adult Resilience Refers to adapting positively and achieving successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances.
    15. 15. Puberty • The period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place primarily in early adolescence • Puberty is often thought of as the most important marker for the beginning of adolescence
    16. 16. Physical Development Pubertal Changes: • Growth spurt – Rapid increase in height and weight • Sexual maturation
    17. 17. Growth Spurt • Occurs 2 years earlier for girls (age 9) than boys (11) on average • Peak occurs at 11.5 years for girls and 13.5 years for boys • Girls increase 3.5 inches per year, boys about 4, during this period
    18. 18. Growth Spurt • Boys and girls who are shorter or taller than their peers before adolescence are likely to remain so during adolescence • At the beginning of adolescence, girls tend to be as tall as or taller than boys of their age • By end of middle school, boys have caught up with them, or in many cases even surpassed them in height
    19. 19. Growth Spurt • Though height in elementary school is a good predictor of height later in adolescence, as much as 30% of an individual’s height in late adolescence is unexplained by the child’s height in elementary school
    20. 20. Growth Spurt • Weight gain follows roughly the same timetable as height gain • Marked weight gains coincide with the onset of puberty. • 50% of adult body weight is gained during adolescence • During adolescence, girls tend to outweigh boys, but just as with height, by about 14 years of age, boys begin to surpass girls in weight • Girls gain hip width while boys gain shoulder width
    21. 21. Sexual Maturation Males • Increase penis and testicle size • Pubic hair • Voice change • Spermarche • Armpit hair • Facial hair Females • Breasts enlarge • Pubic hair • Armpit hair • Menarche • The age at menarche has declined
    22. 22. Psychological Dimensions of Puberty • Body Image Gender Differences Ethnicity Appearance Developmental Changes Mental Health Problems Health Perceived Aspects of Being a Boy or a Girl Body Art
    23. 23. Psychological Dimensions of Puberty • Dissatisfaction with body may result in: • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia Nervosa • Binge-Eating Disorder • Reverse Anorexia
    24. 24. Psychological Dimensions of Puberty • Hormones and Behavior • Menarche and the Menstrual Cycle • Early and Late Maturation • Are Puberty’s Effects Exaggerated?
    26. 26. What is Emotion? • A feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being (Campos, Frankel, & Camras, 2004).
    27. 27. The Emotions of Adolescence • Early adolescence is a time when emotional highs and lows occur more frequently (Rosenblum & Lewis, 2003) • Moodiness is a normal aspect of early adolescence • Most adolescents eventually emerge from these moody times and become competent adults • For some adolescents, intensely negative emotions can reflect serious problems
    28. 28. Dominant Emotions • Depression • Loneliness • Worry • Stress
    29. 29. • Adjustment to new environments • Social expectations of more mature behaviour • Unrealistic aspirations • School problems • Status insecurity • Unfavorable family relationships • Obstacles to what adolescent wants to do • Risk of school failure • Expectations of teachers and parents • Relationships with teachers and parents • Conflict with parents regarding previous academic performance and future educational plans “Storm and Stress” Factors Influencing Emotional Development
    30. 30. SUICIDES: CHILDREN & YOUTH 10-14 years 15-19 years Total 1997 4 10 14 1998 3 19 22 1999 5 10 15 2000 6 15 21 2001 6 22 28 2002 0 18 18 2003 4 18 22 2004 5 7 12 2005 3 10 13 2006 2 8 10 2007 (Jan-Oct) 0 9 9 The Straits Times (January 2, 2008)
    31. 31. Hormones, Experience, and Emotions • As adolescents move into adulthood, their moods become less extreme, perhaps due to their adaptation to hormone levels over time (Rosenblum & Lewis, 2003). • Both hormonal changes and environmental experiences are involved in the changing emotions of adolescence – Pubertal change is associated with an increase in negative emotions. However, such hormonal influences are small and are usually associated with other factors such as stress, eating patterns, sexual activity and social relationships – Stressful experiences – e.g., school transitions, onset of sexual experiences and romantic relationships
    32. 32. Emotional Competence Example Being aware that the expression of emotions plays a major role in relationships. Knowing that expressing anger toward a friend on a regular basis can harm the friendship. Adaptively coping with negative emotions by using self-regulatory strategies that reduce the intensity and duration of such emotional states. Reducing anger by walking away from a negative situation and engaging in an activity that takes one’s mind off it. Being able to discern others’ emotions. Perceiving that another person is sad rather than afraid. Emotional Competence
    33. 33. Emotional Competence Emotional Competence Example Understanding that inner emotional states do not have to correspond to outer expressions. As adolescents become more mature, they begin to understand how their emotionally expressive behavior may impact others, and take that understanding into account in the way they present themselves. Recognizing that one can feel angry yet manage one’s emotional expression so that it appears more neutral. Being aware of one’s emotional states without becoming overwhelmed by them. Differentiating between sadness and anxiousness, and focusing on coping rather than becoming overwhelmed by these feelings.
    35. 35. What is Social Development? • Describes the advances people make in their ability to interact and get along with others, and it is an essential element of individuals’ overall development. • Enhanced social and emotional behaviours can have a strong impact on success in school and ultimately in life.
    36. 36. Social Development in Adolescence Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary Audience Personal Fable Perspective- Taking Social Problem- Solving
    37. 37. Violence and Aggression in Schools • School violence and aggression are persistent problems • Linked to a lack of personal and social development
    38. 38. Forms of Aggressive Behaviour (including Bullying) Physical aggression Relational aggression Instrumental aggression Proactive aggression Reactive aggression
    39. 39. Promoting Social Development (in Your Classroom) • Model and explicitly teach social skills • Establish rules governing acceptable classroom behaviour • Help students understand the reasons for rules by providing examples and rationales • Have students practice social skills and give them feedback
    41. 41. What are Self-Esteem and Self-Concept? • Self-esteem – Also referred to as self-worth or self-image – is the global evaluative dimension of the self • For example, an adolescent or emerging adult might perceive that she is not merely a person, but a good person. • Self-concept – Refers to domain-specific evaluations of the self. • For example an adolescent may have a negative academic self-concept because he is not doing well at school, but have a positive athletic self-concept because he is a star swimmer.
    42. 42. Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Self-esteem is the affective or emotional reaction to one’s self-concept. Self-concept is a cognitive appraisal of our social, physical, and academic competence. CognitiveAcademic Social Physical
    43. 43. Measuring Self-Esteem and Self-Concept • Susan Harter (1989) developed a measure for adolescents: – the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. – It assesses eight domains: • scholastic competence • athletic competence • social acceptance • physical appearance • behavioral conduct • close friendship • romantic appeal and job competence • plus global self-worth
    44. 44. Measuring Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Behavioral observations in the assessment of self-esteem
    45. 45. The Relationships Among the Dimensions of Self-Concept and Achievement Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak. Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    46. 46. Guidelines for Promoting Self Concept Development in Your Classroom 1. Create a learning-focused classroom and communicate genuine interest in all students. 2. Use an authoritative management style to help your students develop responsibility. 3. Establish appropriately high expectations for all learners, and provide evidence of increasing competence. 4. Design grading systems that emphasize learning progress and personal growth.
    47. 47. Self-Esteem: Perception and Reality • Self-esteem reflects perceptions that do not always match reality (Baumeister & others, 2003). • Self-esteem fluctuates across the life span • During and just after many life transitions, individuals’ self- esteem often decreases.
    48. 48. Self-Esteem: Perception and Reality • Does Self-Esteem Change During Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood? • Is Self-Esteem Linked to Success in School and Initiative? • Are Some Domains More Closely Linked to Self-Esteem Than Others?
    49. 49. Consequences of Low Self-Esteem – For most adolescents, the emotional discomfort of low self-esteem is temporary – Low self-esteem has been implicated in depression, suicide, anorexia nervosa, delinquency, and other adjustment problems (Donnellan & others, 2005, 2006; Flory & others, 2004).
    50. 50. Self-concept and self-esteem (self worth) are often confused, much to the detriment of students and people in general. “High self esteem is offered as a panacea for problems. Low self- esteem is seen as the root of problems such as . . . body image problems, marital infidelity, learning problems and personal unhappiness. . . . Increasing self esteem will result in remediation of these problems. Some educators subscribe to this simplistic view. Teachers are afraid to say anything negative to students about their performance because they believe it will hurt the students’ self-esteem. Children are asked to chant positive statements about themselves to enhance self-esteem.” (Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2008, p. 221-222) Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak. Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    51. 51. Improving Students’ Self-Esteem  Identify causes of low self-esteem and areas of competence important to the self  Provide emotional support and social approval  Help students achieve  Develop coping skills
    52. 52. Increasing Adolescents’ Self-Esteem Four ways to improve adolescents’ and emerging adults’ self- esteem are: (1) Identify the causes of low self-esteem and the domains of competence important to the self (2) Provide emotional support and social approval (3) Foster achievement (4) Help adolescents to cope
    53. 53. Increasing Adolescents’ Self-Esteem – Self-esteem often increases when adolescents face a problem and try to cope with it rather than avoid it (Dyson & Renk, 2006; Nes & Segerstrom, 2006) – Facing problems realistically, honestly, and non-defensively produces favorable self-evaluative thoughts, which lead to the self-generated approval that raises self-esteem.
    54. 54. Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory  Development proceeds in stages throughout the lifespan  Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisis  Stages reflect the motivation of the individual
    55. 55. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
    56. 56. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
    57. 57. Identity • Erikson’s Ideas on Identity – Who am I? – What am I all about? – What am I going to do with my life? – What is different about me? – How can I make it on my own? • These questions, not usually considered in childhood, surface as a common, virtually universal concern during adolescence.
    58. 58. Identity • Identity is composed of many pieces: – Vocational/career identity – Political identity – Religious identity – Relationship identity – Achievement, intellectual identity – Sexual identity – Cultural/ethnic identity – Interest – Personality – Physical identity
    59. 59. Erikson’s Human Development Stages 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust 0–1 years 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1–3 years 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt 3–5 years Developed through consistent love and support Independence fostered by support and encouragement Developed by exploring and accepting challenges
    60. 60. Erikson’s Human Development Stages 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority 6 years–puberty 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation Early adult years Mastery comes from success and recognition Exploration of different paths to attain a healthy identity Form positive, close relationships with others
    61. 61. Erikson’s Human Development Stages 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood 8 - Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood Transmitting something positive to the next generation Life review and retrospective evaluation of one’s past
    62. 62. Strategies for Erikson’s Stages of Development Initiative  Encourage social play  Have children assume responsibility  Structure assignments for success Industry  Nourish motivation for mastery  Be tolerant of honest mistakes Identity  Recognize that identity is multidimensional  Encourage independent thinking  Stimulate students to examine different perspectives
    63. 63. Some Contemporary Thoughts on Identity – it is a lengthy process – More gradual and less cataclysmic than Erikson’s term crisis implies (Baumeister, 1991) – Complex process neither begins nor ends with adolescence (Cote, 2006; Kroger, 2007; Marcia & Carpendale, 2004) – For the first time, physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development advance to the point at which the individual can sort through and synthesize childhood identities and identifications to construct a viable path toward adult maturity (Marcia & Carpendale, 2004)
    64. 64. Identity • The Four Statuses of Identity – James Marcia (1980, 1994, 2002) believes that Erikson’s theory of identity development implies four identity statuses, or ways of resolving the identity crisis: • identity diffusion • identity foreclosure • identity moratorium • identity achievement
    65. 65. The Four Statuses of Identity Marcia’s four statuses of identity development.
    66. 66. Cultural and Ethnic Identity – Ethnic identity - a basic aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership. – Bicultural identity - adolescents identify in some ways with their ethnic group and in other ways with the majority culture (Phinney, 2006; Whitesell & others, 2006).
    67. 67. Social Contexts and Adolescent Development Social Contexts of Development Families Peers Schools
    68. 68. Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parents are restrictive and punitive. Children tend to be socially incompetent, anxious, and exhibit poor communication skills. Indulgent Parents are highly involved but set few restrictions. Children have poor self-control. Neglectful Parents are uninvolved. Children have poor self- control, don’t handle independence well, and low achievement motivation. Authoritative Parents are nurturing and supportive, yet set limits. Children are self-reliant, get along with peers, and have high self-esteem.
    69. 69. The Changing Family Working parents  Nature of parents’ work matters Children in divorced families  The quality of parental relationships, timing of divorce, use of support systems, type of custody, SES, and quality schooling all affect children.  Elementary school children did best when the parent and the school environment were authoritative. Children in stepfamilies  Show more adjustment problems than children in intact families, especially during adolescence
    70. 70. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Minority students  Families tend to be larger; depend more on the extended family for support  Single parents are more common  Less educated; lower income Low-income parents  Tend to value external characteristics such as obedience and neatness  See education as the teachers’ job
    71. 71. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Middle-class families  Often place high value on internal characteristics such as self-control and delayed gratification  See education as a mutual responsibility
    72. 72. Peer Statuses Neglected Infrequently “best friend”; not disliked by peers Rejected Seldom “best friend”; often actively disliked by peers Popular Frequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked by peers
    73. 73. Peer Statuses Controversial Frequently “best friend”; often disliked by peers Average Receive both positive and negative peer nominations
    74. 74. Early Childhood and Elementary School  Developmentally appropriate practices  Early Childhood Approaches  Montessori  Academic versus child-centered  Transition to elementary schools
    75. 75. Schools for Adolescents  Transition to Middle or Junior High School  Stressful due to developmental changes  Top-dog phenomenon  Academic challenge
    76. 76. Social Contexts and Self-Esteem • Social contexts such as the family, peers, and schools contribute to the development of an adolescent’s self-esteem (Dusek & McIntyre, 2003; Harter, 2006; Turnage, 2004). • Peer judgments gain increasing importance in adolescence
    77. 77. Social Contexts and Aggression • Bullies often come from homes where parents are authoritarian, hostile, and rejecting and where aggressive behaviour is both modeled and reinforced • Their parents often have poor problem-solving skills and often advocate fighting as a solution to conflicts
    78. 78. Family Influences on Identity – Parenting style – Individuality • self-assertion - ability to have and communicate a point of view • separateness - expressing how one is different from others - Connectedness • mutuality - sensitivity to and respect for others’ views • permeability - openness to others’ views
    79. 79. RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS • The Development of Self-Representations in Childhood and Adolescence by Susan Harter (2006). In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (6th ed.). New York: Wiley Leading self theorist and researcher, Susan Harter provides an in-depth analysis of how the self develops in childhood and adolescence. • Emotional Development by Carolyn Saarni, Joseph Campos, Linda Camras, & David Witherspoon (2006). In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (6th ed.). New York: Wiley Read about up-to-date research and views on how emotions develop in children and adolescents.
    80. 80. RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS • Ghandi’s Truth (1969) by Erik Erikson. New York: W. W. Norton This Pulitzer Prize–winning book by Erik Erikson, who developed the concept of identity as a central aspect of adolescent development, analyzes the life of Mahatma Gandhi, the spiritual leader of India in the middle of the twentieth century. • Identity Development: Adolescence through Adulthood (2nd Ed.). (2007) by Jane Kroger. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Leading expert Jane Kroger provides a contemporary analysis of identity development research.
    81. 81. RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS • Personality Development by Avshalom Caspi & Rebecca Shiner (2006). In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (6th ed.). New York: Wiley Leading experts describe recent research on how personality develops.