Bogues 2001:  A-2:  Campus numériques - Digital campus - Campus numéricos 1     Alexandra Bal   Paris 13, SIF, France   Ry...
The promotional context of experimental technological trials in higher education <ul><li>The enhancement of learners’ auto...
The Pedagogical Paradox <ul><li>The promoted  new  pedagogical practices  are  not often  present in new applications .  <...
Theoretical  Framework <ul><li>incorporat ing  actors’ strategies  to the analysis of such projects , it is noticed that: ...
Hypothesis <ul><li>T he  learner’s  autonomy is a prerequisite to the industrialisation of learning processes,  as  it is ...
An Ontario experimental trial in e-formation <ul><li>Ontario based experimentation regrouping industrial and university ac...
Three levels of analysis   <ul><li>We analysed three aspects of the actors logics: </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical:  Their c...
<ul><li>Pedagogical logics </li></ul><ul><li>Paradoxal  use of the  concept of autonomy   : defined as a  constructivist  ...
Conflicting views:  Learning as conditionment or bricolage Personnalisation :  Customized curriculum .  The learner  can  ...
Opposite system design principles Information «  pull  »: the content adapts to the « bricoleur »  user .   Information « ...
Hybridization   From these two incompatible models, emerges a third The user chooses the application that suits his/her mo...
Obstacles to the creation of the system <ul><ul><li>The user’s  autonomy  is not  longer  an objective of the learning pro...
2. socio-economical references <ul><li>Why are educators interested in a technical system that does not necessarily enhanc...
globalisation versus  world based knowledge sharing User-centred . Active learning. Knowledge centred  as knowledge is a c...
Which logic dominates? <ul><li>The experimentators ignore these ideological difference by positioning innovation   at the ...
3. Industrial logics: Standardization of knowledge or of tools? <ul><li>Two type of standardization are present: </li></ul...
Rationalization of teaching <ul><li>In all cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher s  become content producer </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Conclusion   <ul><li>The wish to the see education respond to today’s societal needs requires  it’s  technologisation.   <...
questions <ul><li>Paradoxe : T he mandate of the present educational system is to  develop the  intellectual autonom y   o...
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Learner Autonomy: A strategic tool in the globalization of virtual education

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Learner Autonomy: A strategic tool in the globalization of virtual education

  1. 1. Bogues 2001: A-2: Campus numériques - Digital campus - Campus numéricos 1 Alexandra Bal Paris 13, SIF, France Ryerson University, New Media,Toronto L’autonomie de l’apprenant Un enjeu pour la globalisation de l’éducation virtuelle The Learner’s Autonomy A strategic tool in the globalization of virtual education
  2. 2. The promotional context of experimental technological trials in higher education <ul><li>The enhancement of learners’ autonomy is often central to the modernization discourse of university based pilot projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society is changing  : Promotion of Post-Industrial and Knowledge Based societal models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Educational system has to adapt : Since Innovation requires the development of personalized learning skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L earning strategies that promote learners’ autonomy are required. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The technologisation of education can help as it is considered : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to personalized diverse student motivations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be inherently user-centred , therefore a tool for active learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T o be able to i ncrease student autonomy in the learning process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Pedagogical Paradox <ul><li>The promoted new pedagogical practices are not often present in new applications . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The learner’s autonomy is assumed to be pre-existent, while it needs to be fostered (Linard, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conceptual framework of many educational application often neglects the mental work required from the user and the gradual learning curve of the processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The fact that the e valuations of experimental trials rarely discuss these findings points to the fact that the improvement of the educational process is not central to such projects. W hat is then at stake in these trials? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theoretical Framework <ul><li>incorporat ing actors’ strategies to the analysis of such projects , it is noticed that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T hese t rials tend to regroup actors possessing diverging industrial and pedagogical objectives, who need to collaborate to evaluate potential implementation methodologies and usage of educational innovation (Tremblay, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The technologisation of learning requires the standardization and rationalization of its processes, and leads to the reorganisation of the teaching profession. Manifestation of a certain re-industrialisation of education (Moeglin, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this context, the user’s autonomy can be a means to justify the priority given to the development of industrial learning technologies (Combès et Payeur,1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These findings point to the fact that technology, not learning, is being studied in experimental trials. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hypothesis <ul><li>T he learner’s autonomy is a prerequisite to the industrialisation of learning processes, as it is essential to the mass distribution of virtual educational applications and to the promotion of user-centred products adaptable to a diverse client/learner base. </li></ul><ul><li>By analysing an experimental e-learning project, we are trying to apprehend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the diverse forms of autonomy experimentors refer to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the value assigned to e-learning as a pedagogical, industrial and social tool. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This second level of questioning is important as while our actors all consider e-learning as a requirement of a global economy, their individual professional bias motivates conflicting and incompatible social and ideological finalities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. An Ontario experimental trial in e-formation <ul><li>Ontario based experimentation regrouping industrial and university actors exploring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity of Telecommunication systems to support large scale virtual offerings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The capacity of different mediation models to create adaptable content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable to diverse subject matters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to the needs of both the university and private sectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The offering of educational applications that personalize the learning process while being transmitted in mass to diverse student populations. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Three levels of analysis <ul><li>We analysed three aspects of the actors logics: </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical: Their conflicting theoretical positions affect how the notion of autonomy is to be translated in the application </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economical: some actors support knowledge globalization others free distributed knowledge sharing, which fuels their conflicting definitions of a pre-existant learner’s autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial :All looking for a way to standardise active learning, they rationalize the use of incompatible educational forms. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pedagogical logics </li></ul><ul><li>Paradoxal use of the concept of autonomy : defined as a constructivist concept but utilized within a behaviorist or cognitive framework and assumed to be pre-existent. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite visions of the virtual system : conflicting views as to what structure (open or close hierarchical architecture) should be utilized to create the system’s infrastructure and for the codification of content </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conflicting views: Learning as conditionment or bricolage Personnalisation : Customized curriculum . The learner can structure and develop his/her own curriculum individualisation of learning rhythms and conditioning activities Learning objectives Facilitates the learning experience C ontrols the entire learning process Teacher Responsive, assist in Self-directed learning Pre-programmed : Tutorials / individual iz ed linear training Applications Innate ability. Learners is a bricoleur who controls all aspect of learning Limited, the learner must be guided in the learning process Autonomy The inneist logic The materialistic Logic
  10. 10. Opposite system design principles Information «  pull  »: the content adapts to the « bricoleur » user . Information «  push  »: the learner adapt s to the content System supports Flexible codification of information Non-linear and modular configuration for real time manipulation . T ransmission of adaptable knowledge maps. Systemized codification of information Linear and fixed (non editable) configuration of information codification Open ended, Distributed access to learning resources , communication system and Customi z ed learning tools On demand Mass distribution system of standardised educational products Personali z ed through a tutor and Indirect communication (via map s ) Mass transmission of the same message to many. Use elect r onic email lists. Communication
  11. 11. Hybridization From these two incompatible models, emerges a third The user chooses the application that suits his/her motivation and learning objectives. Some time this means pulling and sometime pushing information
  12. 12. Obstacles to the creation of the system <ul><ul><li>The user’s autonomy is not longer an objective of the learning process but assumed to be pre-existent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No discussion of the learning curve required to familiarize individuals to the complex technical system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system does not contain much human interaction , since it is difficult to utilised in a massive system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is considered to be equivalent to the mechanical structure of the information system. Priority is given to the structural , not the relational , aspects of learning. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 2. socio-economical references <ul><li>Why are educators interested in a technical system that does not necessarily enhance learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The analysis of their social and economical references reveal that the social mutation they envision can not exist without a virtual educational system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pre-existing autonomy of the user becomes an important predefining element of virtualisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The technologisation of the system is indeed central to their preoccupation. </li></ul>
  14. 14. globalisation versus world based knowledge sharing User-centred . Active learning. Knowledge centred as knowledge is a commodity Learning Virtual community connecting individuals and information. monopoly nor control of information economical system that develops world markets by selling standardised products Virtual education Individual is free to participate to discourse and debate Individual is free to choose how to better his/her human capital Autonomy brakes from the industrial model evolution of the industrial model
  15. 15. Which logic dominates? <ul><li>The experimentators ignore these ideological difference by positioning innovation at the heart of the educational system. </li></ul><ul><li>They implicitly giv e priority to economical not social objectives since they have to produce standardized learning applications . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to decrease production and usage cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to create applications adaptable to many disciplines. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 3. Industrial logics: Standardization of knowledge or of tools? <ul><li>Two type of standardization are present: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information “push”: Creation of standards educational products for a segmented market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information “pull”: Creation of standards educational “dialogical” and virtual tools, services for a personalized education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital campus: hybrid forms in a self-service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products: varied forms of content (modular/linear) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services: open and closed. Information and communication Based </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Rationalization of teaching <ul><li>In all cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher s become content producer </li></ul><ul><li>Their relationship to students decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Their role in the learning process becomes oriented towards information processing. </li></ul><ul><li>The c control of the learning process goes to other players (tutors, external experts, machine) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>The wish to the see education respond to today’s societal needs requires it’s technologisation. </li></ul><ul><li>An economical, not pedagogical, framework tries to legitimize the technologisation of knowledge through experimental trials. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that learning is not the central preoccupation to these projects, explains the existence of pedagogical inconsistencies : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non existence of highly promoted active learning methods , too difficult to standardize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the concept of Autonomy without its constructivist framework helps to facilitate the introduction of self-service in education </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. questions <ul><li>Paradoxe : T he mandate of the present educational system is to develop the intellectual autonom y of the learner . Within a standardized virtual educational system, the learner`s autonomy needs to be pre-existent. What will the university educational mandate become? </li></ul><ul><li>If we move towards a virtual system where teachers are no longer directly involve in students ’ learning process , who will become responsible for th eir autonomi s ation and with what consequences? </li></ul>
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