Effectiveness and costs of DE

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  • this presentation is very nice but we need more information about cost effectness
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  • It is a simple and clear presentation that helps learners to focus on important points , then, extend to relevant issues
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  • دكتور: علاء صادق:

    نشكر لك حسن أدائك في العرض والشرح...

    عندي ملاحظة:

    في محاضرة العملي وخاصة عندما تسند إلينا عمل نشاط معين يكون كل تركيزنا وتفكيرنا فيه وفجأة ينقطع حبل الأفكار بسب أن تتكلم في عمل نشاط أخر فنبقى في حيرة من أمرنا أنكمل النشاط أم نسمع ما يقوله الدكتور لأنها أشياء مهمة فيحبذا يا دكتور أن لا تكثر علينا بالأنشطة فليست المادة الوحيدة التي نأخذها وكذلك يا حبذا لو تتكلم أولا وتترك المجال الطلاب لحل النشاط داخل المعمل فقط وليس خارجه.

    فالنشاطين الأولين أعدنا فيهما بعض الأشياء لأننا كنا منشغلين بالعمل الأول فلم نسمع بعض الأشياء التي طلبتها.

    ولكم جزيل الشكر
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  • This presentation focused our attention on an important issue, which is the debate whether the medium used to deliver an educational program effects learning out comes or NOT. I believe that its effectiveness on learning out comes depend on various factors such as age, motivation, social statue, location of learners, quality of the medium used to deliver…etc
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  • Clear and sequential presentation and I agreed that the benefits are the same for the traditional learning and distance education, but how and where you learn is the different between them.
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Effectiveness and costs of DE

  1. 1. Distance Education and the Internet TECH4101 Dr. Alaa Sadik Instructional & Learning Technologies Department www.alaasadik.net [email_address]
  2. 2. Lecture Three Key Issues in Distance Education The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology Distance Education and the Internet TECH4101
  3. 3. <ul><li>A debate about the effect of the distance education technology on the learning outcomes presents two opposing viewpoints . </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  4. 4. <ul><li>Viewpoint 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The medium used to deliver an educational programme can affect only the efficiency of delivery , not the outcomes of the learning. </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  5. 5. <ul><li>Viewpoint 1 </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li>Television can facilitate reaching a wide range of learners (using satellite) and reduce the time of learning (using audio-visual presentation). </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  6. 6. <ul><li>Viewpoint 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, there are no significant differences between the results of students who learn by television and others who learn in traditional classes (face-to-face education). </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  7. 7. <ul><li>Viewpoint 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The medium can have an impact on the learning outcomes apart from its capabilities as a delivery medium . </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  8. 8. <ul><li>Viewpoint 2 </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li>Using television affect students’ performance and attitudes. In addition, television is easy to access, motivate students to learn and can reach students who can’t attend the class . </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  9. 9. <ul><li>Viewpoint 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, there are significant differences between the results of students who learn by television and others who learn in traditional classes (face-to-face education). </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  10. 10. <ul><li>So, what is your point of view? </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  11. 11. <ul><li>The majority of studies agree with the first point of view (that using the medium can affect only the efficiency of delivery, not the outcomes of learning). </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  12. 12. <ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional strategy , rather than the medium, influences the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional approach affects the development in learners’ achievement. </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  13. 13. <ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li>Only the use of adequate instructional methods influences learning acquired. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of these studies have shown that distance education students achieve as well as , traditional classroom students . </li></ul>Effectiveness of Distance Education Technology
  14. 14. <ul><li>Since distance education relies on technology to deliver instruction and support the learner, a great part of its cost is that of technology . </li></ul>Costs of Distance Education Technology
  15. 15. <ul><li>The costs of distance education programmes depend on the choice of technology and level of support . </li></ul><ul><li>For example, costs of equipment, costs of learning materials, costs of operation, tutoring, technical support, etc. </li></ul>Costs of Distance Education Technology
  16. 16. <ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Some institutions use cheap forms of technology and do not provide support for students or encourage interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>However, others use expensive technology in which tutorial-style interaction is usually incorporated (personal tutoring using telephone). </li></ul>Costs of Distance Education Technology
  17. 17. <ul><li>Structure of cost </li></ul><ul><li>Production: the costs of designing and developing teaching materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery: the costs of delivering materials to distance students. </li></ul><ul><li>Support: the administrators’, facilitators’ and tutors’ salaries. </li></ul>Costs of Distance Education Technology
  18. 18. <ul><li>Type of costs </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed costs </li></ul><ul><li>Variable costs </li></ul><ul><li>Average cost </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal cost </li></ul>Costs of Distance Education Technology
  19. 19. <ul><li>Fixed costs </li></ul><ul><li>The initial costs of purchasing the equipment. These costs do not depend on the size of audiences or number of courses in the programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable costs </li></ul><ul><li>The costs that depend on the size of audiences and number of courses in each programme (e.g., costs of teachers, materials, etc.). </li></ul>Costs of Distance Education Technology
  20. 20. <ul><li>Average cost </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of a programme for each student per study hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal cost </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal costs are the costs of adding one or more units of output (student) to the program. </li></ul>Costs of Distance Education Technology
  21. 21. Costs of Distance Education Technology <ul><li>Calculating the cost </li></ul><ul><li>The total cost can be approximated using the following formula: </li></ul><ul><li>where: </li></ul><ul><li>AC (N ) is the cost per number of students </li></ul><ul><li>F is the fixed cost </li></ul><ul><li>N is the number of students </li></ul><ul><li>V is the variable costs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Costs of Distance Education Technology <ul><li>Examples of technology costs </li></ul><ul><li>A cost function that can estimate the total cost of using broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>where: </li></ul><ul><li>C C = central costs (costs of research, planning and start up the programme) </li></ul><ul><li>P P = programming costs (production equipment, facilities, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>T T = transmission costs (transmission operation and equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>R R = reception costs (receivers, power, etc.) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Questions & Discussions </li></ul>The End
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