Alaa Sadik Ph.D., University of Hull, UK Faculty of Education in Qena The Readiness of Academic Staff at South Valley Univ...
Purposes of the Study <ul><li>P rovide a general overview of staff competencies, experience and attitudes towards e-learni...
Purposes of the Study <ul><li>Inform the e-learning components of the academic strategy for the University. </li></ul><ul>...
The Dimensions to be Evaluated <ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>A related set of knowledge and skills that enable a ...
E-learning Competencies The competent e-learning developer or facilitator must be able to cope with the following three qu...
E-learning Competencies Andresen’s FIKS-model
E-learning Competencies <ul><li>Types of competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Basic technology operation. </li></ul></ul>...
The Dimensions to be Evaluated <ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Direct participation in events or knowledge, skill or ...
The Dimensions to be Evaluated <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Used to understand and predict people’s reaction to an ...
Research Questions Do SVU staff have: 1. e-learning competencies required to develop and implement e-learning in their tea...
Research Questions 4. What are the variables influencing SVU staff’s current and future implementation of e-learning?  5. ...
Instrument and Sampling The development process involved four stages:   1. The delineation of relevant domains for the con...
Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>1. The delineation of relevant domains for the constructs of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and skills that enable academics to effective...
Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>2. Survey assembly and pilot testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop from the information in...
Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>3. Large-scale field-testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The readiness rating scale was field-te...
Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>4. The validation of instrument scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The psychometric characterist...
 
 
The Psychometric Characteristics <ul><li>Competencies sub-scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-  19  items were retained with ...
Competencies sub-scale
The Psychometric Characteristics <ul><li>Experience sub-scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-  15  items were retained with th...
Experience sub-scale
The Psychometric Characteristics <ul><li>Attitude sub-scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-  32  items were retained with two ...
Attitude sub-scale
Attitude sub-scale
Interrelations  and convergent validity Each sub-scale (competencies, experience and attitudes) correlates significantly w...
Results Demographic profile
Results <ul><li>E-learning competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28%  of academics rated themselves as good or excellent in e...
Results <ul><li>E-learning competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics scored significantly higher on the pedagogical com...
Results <ul><li>E-learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7.3%  have adequate experience in e-learning.  </li></ul></ul>...
Results <ul><li>E-learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics scored significantly highest on the frequency of use...
Results <ul><li>Attitudes to e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>93.8%   have strong positive attitudes towards e-learning.  ...
Results <ul><li>Attitudes to e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics scored significantly lowest in the liking sub-scal...
Results <ul><li>Barriers to the development and implementation of e-learning   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of training  55%...
Discussion and Conclusions <ul><li>These universities should find the instrument developed in this study useful.  </li></u...
Implications and Recommendations <ul><ul><ul><li>Research-based interventions are needed to help these academics to overco...
Implications and Recommendations <ul><ul><ul><li>The University should ensure adequate in-service training programmes and ...
Thank you Alaa Sadik [email_address] www.freewebs.com/alaasadik
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The readiness of academic staff at South Valley University to develop and implement e-learning

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The readiness of academic staff at South Valley University to develop and implement e-learning

  1. 1. Alaa Sadik Ph.D., University of Hull, UK Faculty of Education in Qena The Readiness of Academic Staff at South Valley University to Develop and Implement E-learning <ul><ul><li>استعداد أعضاء هيئة التدريس بجامعة جنوب الوادي لتطوير و استخدام التعلم الإلكتروني </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Purposes of the Study <ul><li>P rovide a general overview of staff competencies, experience and attitudes towards e-learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how support systems and procedures for staff can be further developed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Purposes of the Study <ul><li>Inform the e-learning components of the academic strategy for the University. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the perceived training needs of staff and their particular areas of difficulty as well as interest in the use of e-learning. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Dimensions to be Evaluated <ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>A related set of knowledge and skills that enable a person to effectively perform the activities of a given occupation in such a way that meets the standards expected in a particular profession. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical and technical e-learning competencies are a set of teaching and technology standards that define proficiency in using e-learning in teaching. </li></ul>
  5. 5. E-learning Competencies The competent e-learning developer or facilitator must be able to cope with the following three questions: 1. Which learning principles are to be used? 2. How is the teaching to be organised? 3. Which ICT genres are going to work with? Anderson (1999)
  6. 6. E-learning Competencies Andresen’s FIKS-model
  7. 7. E-learning Competencies <ul><li>Types of competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Basic technology operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Professional use of technology tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Social, ethical and human issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Application of technology in learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Technology Competency Committee (1998) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Dimensions to be Evaluated <ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Direct participation in events or knowledge, skill or practice derived from direct observation of or observation in event. </li></ul><ul><li>Often measured in terms of amount and frequency of technology use, training attended, etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Dimensions to be Evaluated <ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Used to understand and predict people’s reaction to an object or change and how their behaviour can be influenced. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant determinants of behaviour that may influence their success in high-levels of using technology in instruction. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research Questions Do SVU staff have: 1. e-learning competencies required to develop and implement e-learning in their teaching? 2. sufficient experience to develop and implement e-learning in their teaching? 3. positive attitudes toward the development and evaluation of e-learning?
  11. 11. Research Questions 4. What are the variables influencing SVU staff’s current and future implementation of e-learning? 5. What content is appropriate and favoured to be included in future e-learning training programs for SVU staff?
  12. 12. Instrument and Sampling The development process involved four stages: 1. The delineation of relevant domains for the constructs of interest. 2. Survey assembly and pilot testing. 3. Large-scale field-testing. 4. The validation of instrument scores.
  13. 13. Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>1. The delineation of relevant domains for the constructs of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of the literature and similar instruments on various aspects of e-learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The review revealed many aspects that feel within three domains. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and skills that enable academics to effectively develop and implement e-learning approaches . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior and present practices regarding e-learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings and opinion about the development and implementation of e-learning in university teaching. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>2. Survey assembly and pilot testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop from the information in phase one a multi-dimensional rating scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domains were examined for comprehensiveness and items were added or deleted to ensure appropriate and logical coverage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A panel of five content experts were consulted to review and reflect on these dimensions and items. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resulting dimensions and items were pilot tested with as random sample of faculty members to comment on the importance, clarity and wording of items. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>3. Large-scale field-testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The readiness rating scale was field-tested with a sample of 233 academic staff at SVU. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful attention was given to potential differences between those academics who responded to the survey and the population of academies at the University. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Instrument and Sampling <ul><li>4. The validation of instrument scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The psychometric characteristics of the instrument were investigated through the use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. The Psychometric Characteristics <ul><li>Competencies sub-scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 19 items were retained with two independent constructs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Two interpretable factors named pedagogical competencies (12 items) and technical competencies (7 items) were suggested accounted for 59.61% of variance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The eigenvalues of the two factors from principle component analysis were larger than one: 6.38 and 4.95. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Cronbach’s coefficient  : 0.92 for the entire scale and 0.89 and 0.87 for the two sub-scales. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Competencies sub-scale
  20. 22. The Psychometric Characteristics <ul><li>Experience sub-scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 15 items were retained with three independent constructs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Three interpretable factors named ‘frequency of use’ (4 items), ‘training received’ (3 items) and ‘practice’ (8 items) were suggested accounted for 58.83% of variance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The eigenvalues of the three factors from principle component analysis were larger than one: 4.20, 2.84 and 1.73. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Cronbach’s coefficient  : 0.85 for the entire scale and 0.84, 0.46 and 0.86 for the three sub-scales. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Experience sub-scale
  22. 24. The Psychometric Characteristics <ul><li>Attitude sub-scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 32 items were retained with two independent constructs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Four interpretable factors named ‘anxiety’ (5 items), ‘confidence’ (7 items), ‘liking’ (7 items) and ‘importance’ (13 items) were suggested accounted for 48.83% of variance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The eigenvalues of the four factors from principle component analysis were larger than one: 3.09, 3.84 , 3.36 and 5.33. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Cronbach’s coefficient  : 0.80 for the entire scale and 0.74, 0.83, 0.59 and 0.86 for the four sub-scales. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Attitude sub-scale
  24. 26. Attitude sub-scale
  25. 27. Interrelations and convergent validity Each sub-scale (competencies, experience and attitudes) correlates significantly with the other two sub-scales and the entire scale. In addition, significant relationships were observed between each sub-scale and its constructs.
  26. 28. Results Demographic profile
  27. 29. Results <ul><li>E-learning competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28% of academics rated themselves as good or excellent in e-learning competencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16.6 % are technically competent (M=0.99) . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>88 % are pedagogically competent (M=2.11) . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Results <ul><li>E-learning competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics scored significantly higher on the pedagogical competencies than the technical competencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics who have 5 to 10 years of teaching experience reported highest technical and pedagogical competencies than those who have less than 5 years or more than 10 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistant professors tend to have statistically higher scores on the technical competencies sub-scales than professors. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Results <ul><li>E-learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7.3% have adequate experience in e-learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25% frequently use e-learning technologies (M=1.21) . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.8% received in-service training in e-learning (M=0.53) . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.8 % practised or implemented e-learning in their university teaching (M=0.008) . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Results <ul><li>E-learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics scored significantly highest on the frequency of use sub-scale and lowest in the training received sub-scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No significant differences exist among academics from different faculities or with different ranks in terms of frequency of use nor training received. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Results <ul><li>Attitudes to e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>93.8% have strong positive attitudes towards e-learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>89% less anxious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% confident. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>39% like e-learning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>86% appreciate its importance. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Results <ul><li>Attitudes to e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics scored significantly lowest in the liking sub-scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics with 5-10 years of teaching experience are less anxious than those with more than 10 years of teaching experience. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Results <ul><li>Barriers to the development and implementation of e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of training 55% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge 49% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of time 35.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack the technical support 32% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of equipment 26% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy workload 15.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other reasons 5% </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Discussion and Conclusions <ul><li>These universities should find the instrument developed in this study useful. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to staff training in using e-learning development software, managing e-courses, integrating Web resources and interacting with students via the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>A careful blend of intensive training, guidance and counselling is necessary to dispel academics’ fears. </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning knowledge, skills and experience are vital and influence the future acceptance and implementation of e-learning. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Implications and Recommendations <ul><ul><ul><li>Research-based interventions are needed to help these academics to overcome barriers to use and development e-learning and keep up with technological development. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The University must plan to have competent computer academic staff to support e-learning development and use. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academics need to adjust their attitudes to teach online, understand what qualifications are needed and know what they can do ensure the quality of e-learning. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 38. Implications and Recommendations <ul><ul><ul><li>The University should ensure adequate in-service training programmes and enhance academics' abilities to use information and communication technologies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculties should be equipped with state-of-the-art hardware and software to encourage staff to learn and use e-learning approaches in their teaching. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a growing need for collaboration and sharing of experience and expertise in e-learning adoption among staff from different faculties in the university. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Thank you Alaa Sadik [email_address] www.freewebs.com/alaasadik

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