Information and Instructional Technologies


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  • Information and Instructional Technologies

    1. 1. Alaa Sadik Department of Instructional & Learning Technologies College of Education [email_address] Information and Instructional Technologies <ul><li>. </li></ul>Centre for Educational Technology
    2. 2. PART ONE Instructional Media and Message Design PART TWO Utilization of Media & Technology in HE Information & Instructional Technologies PART THREE Applications
    3. 3. PART ONE Instructional Media
    4. 4. Types of Instructional Media
    5. 5. The Human Ear Text (words, numbers, signs, symbols, equations, etc.) A B C أ ب ت 1 2 3 > = ©      £   +       
    6. 6. The Human Ear Images (drawing, graph, photo, map, etc.)
    7. 7. A simple representation of forms or objects by means of lines, curves and indicators to explain idea or show relationship. Line Drawing
    8. 8. A simple and attractive artwork that helps simplify concept or make an idea or relationship simple and clear. Illustrated Drawing
    9. 9. A group of pictures in a specified sequence that tell a story or illustrate a phenomena with titles and captions. Sequenced Drawing
    10. 10. A complex picture aims to explain the similarities and differences between two or more objects. Comparative Drawing
    11. 11. A map is a simplified depiction of a space or specific region, which highlights relations between objects within that space with navigational aids and appropriate scale. Maps
    12. 12. A poster is a graphic advertisement aims to post a specific message quickly and simply in a public place. Posters
    13. 13. A chart is a visual representation of data ( using lines, bars, pies… ) that displays the relationship among variables, usually cast along x and y axes. Charts
    14. 14. Flowcharts A flowchart is a diagram consisting of a set of specified symbols ( rectangles, diamonds, circle.. ) and connecting arrows that shows step-by-step progression through a procedure, process or system.
    15. 15. Geometrical Figures A two- or three-dimensional drawing illustrates a geometrical concept or relationship using accurate measures.
    16. 16. Screenshots A screenshot is an image captured by the computer to record the visible items on the monitor or another visual output device.
    17. 17. A visual representation captured using ordinary or special optical or digital camera. Photographs
    18. 18. <ul><li>Line Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrated Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Kroki </li></ul><ul><li>Sequenced Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Cartoon </li></ul><ul><li>Caricatures </li></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Posters </li></ul>Charts Flowchart Hierarchical Drawing Geometrical Figures Screenshots Photographs Types of Instructional Images
    19. 19. The Human Ear Audio (human voice, sound effects, etc.) The human ear consists of ...
    20. 20. The New Media Class Hierarchy <ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><li>- Computational </li></ul><ul><li>- Directive </li></ul>(Waters, 1998)
    21. 21. The Human Ear Temporal (animation)
    22. 22. Landing The pilot managed to land the airoplane safely Temporal (video)
    23. 23. Auditory Physiology Lab. This figure shows a summary of the maximum efferent mediated adaptation of the DPOAE for 168 intensity combinations of the primary tones in 0.4 dB steps. Computational (graphs)
    24. 24. Define Values Using Sliders Directive (sliders)
    25. 25. Multimedia Transmission that combine different media of communication ( text , graphics , audio, animation, video, etc. )
    26. 26. <ul><li>The human ear consists of three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>The outer ear </li></ul><ul><li>The middle ear </li></ul><ul><li>The inner ear </li></ul>Listen The Human Ear Multimedia
    27. 27. Message Design
    28. 28. Communication Process - Sender - Message (to carry the content) - Medium (to carry the message) - Receiver - Domain
    29. 29. Communication Process
    30. 30. Media & Experience Dale’s Cone of Experience
    31. 31. Dale’s Cone of Experience <ul><li>At the top: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide more information, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compress information, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faster for those able to process it, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need more instructional support. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the bottom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involve the learner, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage active learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide less information, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more stimuli and richer experience </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Dale’s Cone of Experience
    33. 33. PART TWO Utilization of Media & Technology
    34. 34. <ul><li>Writing boards </li></ul><ul><li>Flipcharts </li></ul><ul><li>OHP transparencies </li></ul><ul><li>35 mm slides </li></ul><ul><li>Videotapes </li></ul><ul><li>Models/real objects/samples/shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-video-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Digital projectors </li></ul><ul><li>Smart classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Computers (software and storage media) </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul>Media & Technology Used in Higher Education
    35. 35. Writing Boards
    36. 36. e-Boards
    37. 37. Samples, Real Objects & Models
    38. 38. Samples, Real Objects & Models
    39. 39. Projectors
    40. 40. Smart Classrooms
    41. 41. Instructional Software <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Drill-and-Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Games </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Utilities </li></ul>
    42. 42. Applications A group of programs that is designed to automate general-purpose and specific tasks such as word processing, database management, spreadsheet, attendance, accounting, grade reporting, scheduling and others.
    43. 43. Drill and Practice Drill and practice software provides exercises in which students work example items one at a time and receive feedback on their correctness.
    44. 44. Tutorials A tutorial exposes the learner to material that is believed not to have been previously taught or learned. A tutorial often includes pre-test, post test and drill and practice activities.
    45. 45. Simulations A simulation is a computerized model of real or imagined system designed to teach how a system works and allows learners to create their own sequence for using simulation.
    46. 46. Problem-Solving Problem-solving software is a type of content-free or content-based programs that places emphasis on critical thinking, analysis, logic and reasoning via the presentation of set of data or problematic event.
    47. 47. Teacher Utilities Non-instructional or administrative programs used to prepare instructional materials or organize, store, evaluate and report information on pupils’ achievement and progress.
    48. 48. Multimedia Programs that support the interactive use of text, audio, still images, video and graphics and manipulate them to support learning.
    49. 49. Authoring and Support Tools - For general purposes MX Flash, PowerPoint, FrontPage, etc. - For instructional purposes ToolBook Instructor, Authorware, etc.
    50. 50. Authoring Tools Gneral FrontPage
    51. 51. Authoring Tools Instructional ToolBook Instructor
    52. 52. Authoring Tools Instructional ToolBook Instructor
    53. 53. Authoring Tools Instructional ToolBook Instructor
    54. 54. Authoring Tools Instructional ToolBook Instructor
    55. 55. Support Tools <ul><li>- Word processors </li></ul><ul><li>Photo editors </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing tools </li></ul><ul><li>- Audio/video editors </li></ul><ul><li>- Web browsers </li></ul>
    56. 56. Support Tools Photo editors PaintShop Pro Contains all the tools you need for creating, editing, and retouching your images. It is friendly enough for the casual user and professional.
    57. 57. Support Tools Drawing tools SmartDraw Contains all the tools you need for drawing shapes, instructional graphics, maps and flowcharts and export them in standard formats.
    58. 58. Support Tools Video editors Pinnacle Studio Contain many tools to edit and produce professional video clips.
    59. 59. Support Tools Multimedia authoring Liquid Media Rich multimedia authoring & presentation software package, capable of stunning effects with fluid motion.
    60. 60. Delivery and Management Systems WebCT - Tutor utilities - Course tools - Interaction tools
    61. 61. BlackBoard - Content builder - Communication tools - Assessment tool - Student administration Delivery and Management Systems
    62. 62. Web 2.0 <ul><li>Web 2.0 refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>a perceived second generation of web-based communities and services which aim to facilitate collaboration and sharing between users. </li></ul>
    63. 63. Email Knowledge of HTML Static Web sites Web-authoring Software Proprietary Knowledge Expertise The Old Web One Many
    64. 64. Web 2.0 One Many
    65. 65. Web 2.0 Many Many
    66. 66. Web 2.0: Evolution Towards a Read/Write Platform Browsers, RSS Readers, anything Web browser Dynamic Static Post / Record Page Web Services Client Server Write” & Contribute Read Web 2.0 (2003- beyond) Web pages, plus a lot of other “content” shared over the web, with more interactivity; more like an application than a page Web 1.0 (1993-2003) Pretty much HTML pages viewed through a browser
    67. 67. What is Web 2.0? How to recognize a Web 2.0 product? <ul><ul><li>Network as platform - delivering applications entirely through a browser. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users owning the data on a site and exercising control over that data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An architecture of participation that encourages users to add value to the application as they use it. </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. What is Web 2.0? How to recognize a Web 2.0 product? <ul><ul><li>A rich, interactive, user-friendly interface based on Ajax or similar frameworks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some social-networking aspects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines and integrates services and content from other products . </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Web 2.0 Applications
    70. 70. Wikis <ul><li>A Wiki is a server program (called CMS) that allows users to collaborate in forming the content of a Web site. </li></ul><ul><li>With a Wwiki, any user can edit the site content, including other users' contributions, using a regular Web browser. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, a Wiki Web site operates on a principle of collaborative trust. </li></ul>
    71. 71. Wikis <ul><ul><li>A wiki is a Web application that allows users to easily create, edit and link web pages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis are mostly used to create collaborative websites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly used by businesses to provide affordable and effective intranets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are several variations of Wikis like PBwiki, Triki, Bliki, Interwiki with specialized functions. </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Wikipedia A collaborative encyclopedia edited in realtime by anyone
    73. 74. Web 2.0 for User Assistance Examples
    74. 75. Blogs <ul><ul><li>Simple content publishing/management systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs display content in a reversed chronological order – newest first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept to keep and publish diaries, thoughts on various subjects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new blog is added every two seconds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In September, the blog search engine Technnorati was tracking more that 107Milion blogs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging has become a mass phenomena and a topic of much research. </li></ul></ul>
    75. 78. Flickr A social network for sharing photos <ul><li>Flickr combines a social network with user generated content. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can work together to collaborate on photo projects and use each others’ tags to find new photos. Flickr also has an API for web services to integrate photo collections with blogs and other apps. </li></ul>
    76. 81. <ul><li>Can share with people around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Can put captions on (and more). </li></ul><ul><li>Can see who uploaded. </li></ul><ul><li>Can apply tags. </li></ul>Flickr A social network for sharing photos
    77. 82. So, we can search on tags Anyone know what will come up if we search for “PFK”? Flickr A social network for sharing photos
    78. 83. Results: Poulet Frit Kentucky
    79. 84. A floksonomy site that organize bookmarks A “folksonomy” is a spontaneous, collaborative work to categorize links by a community of users. Users take control of organize the content together.
    80. 86. <ul><li>The old way: </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing your own list of ‘Favourites’ on your browser. </li></ul><ul><li>The more you use it the more difficult it becomes to control. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding items is dependent upon how organised you are in creating the original lists and folders. </li></ul> A floksonomy site that organize bookmarks
    81. 87. <ul><li>Social Bookmarking: </li></ul><ul><li>Each website is selected and stored together with others in a defined website area. </li></ul><ul><li>Each stored item is ‘tagged’ with keywords – either assigned/suggested by the host service or chosen by you. </li></ul><ul><li>The items are found by using a tag list. </li></ul> A floksonomy site that organize bookmarks
    82. 88. Some Common Uses for <ul><li>Storing bookmarks online so they can be accessed from any internet connect computer </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating bookmark collections to eliminate the confusion of attempting to locate bookmarks stored on multiple computers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interests – shopping, vacations, hobbies, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Pursuits – keeping track of online source materials in one protected location </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing – Bookmarks are public </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise Mining – all bookmarks on have been chosen by a human being. Exploring the results of their previous searches is a great labor saver </li></ul>
    83. 89. Some Advantages <ul><li>Easy to learn and use. </li></ul><ul><li>Web based. </li></ul><ul><li>Searchable. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates the development of communities of interest and expertise – can see who else is interested in your “topic” and the sites they have bookmarked. </li></ul><ul><li>Semantically classified tags – tags are chosen by human beings who understand the content and rank the bookmarks by their perceived utility as opposed to search engine algorithms used by internet search engines. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent way to locate “communities of expertise” </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to group related tags under a category heading chosen by the user. </li></ul>
    84. 90. How does fit in the Classroom? <ul><li>Useful for creating web-based bibliographies. </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own taxonomies. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory research. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing tags with students to facilitate active learning. </li></ul>
    85. 91. Social Networks Connect users into communities of interests
    86. 92. Social Networks A social network service focuses on building online communities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. Social networking has created powerful new ways to communicate and share information. Social networking websites are being used regularly by millions of people, and it now seems that social networking will be an enduring part of everyday life.
    87. 93. Facebook <ul><li>Facebook is a social networking website launched on 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can join networks organized by city, workplace, school, and region to connect and interact with other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can also add friends and send them messages, and update their personal profile to notify friends about themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can create profiles including photos and lists of personal interests, exchange private or public messages, and join groups of friends. </li></ul>
    88. 97. Page flakes <ul><li>A sort of customisable dashboard that can draw data from a wide range of other Web2.0 applications. </li></ul>
    89. 99. File Storage & Sharing <ul><li>A file storage and sharing system is a service that gives you access to your files from anywhere. You can access important documents from your desktop computer, laptop, or even mobile phone. Once you've uploaded your files to your online storage account, you can also share them with anyone, anytime. </li></ul>
    90. 101. RSS <ul><ul><li>A content syndication standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An XML standard provides structure and semantics to the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for publishing and subscription to specific information (channel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content is both human and machine readable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The content can be reused in different ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is delivered to the users when and how they wanted. </li></ul></ul>
    91. 102. RSS A new way of receiving content RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is an emerging technology which enables users to get “feeds” of data from content publishers via a browser or special newsreader tool. Items come to user free of spam, on-demand, and in an easy to digest format.
    92. 103. RSS Reader Example
    93. 105. Educational Applications of Web 2.0 Tools
    94. 106. What does Web 2.0 mean for education? <ul><li>Web 1.0 – web as digital library, largely a source of information for students. Strive for content to be authoritative. </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 – web as place for students to build knowledge, interact, share ideas, resulting content treated accordingly. </li></ul>
    95. 107. What does Web 2.0 mean for education? <ul><li>Web 2.0 tools are often used as Web 1.0 tools initially. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li> collections used only to convey websites, Wikipedia just as a “reference” tool. </li></ul>
    96. 108. What does Web 2.0 mean for education? <ul><li>If we accept that knowledge creation is at least a significant part of pedagogy (constructivism), we need tools that support this </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 tools meet this need. </li></ul>
    97. 109. Educational Applications of Web 2.0 Tools <ul><li>Allow interactive content building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your audience participates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Editing through your web browser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to download or buy expensive software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps your course fresh </li></ul></ul>
    98. 110. <ul><li>Use Wikipedia for creating websites for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for service learning projects in the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative essays and reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space for free writing or reader-response journaling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share resources – web sites, annotated bibliographies, models for assignments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a compendium of terms and concepts for the course to use as a study guide. </li></ul></ul>Educational Applications of Web 2.0 Tools
    99. 111. <ul><li>Using group or individual blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For each work or topic that you cover in a course, have small groups publish blogs on how a their assigned theory would analyze or interpret it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a blog for students in your courses or department; link to journal articles, news items, conferences, calls for papers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students create blogs for journaling. </li></ul></ul>Educational Applications of Web 2.0 Tools
    100. 112. Curriki <ul><li>Free online curriculum, built in a wiki-style model. Can be used as a resource, or as a place to collaboratively build curriculum </li></ul>
    101. 114. Edu 2.0 <ul><li>Provides shared curriculum/courses, and allows people to teach them or learn from them. Courses can be public or private. </li></ul>
    102. 116. Think <ul><li>Think engages and inspires students. It turns students into multimedia authors for a global community. </li></ul><ul><li>Members use interactive tools to publish their ideas, collaborate on projects, and build knowledge together </li></ul>
    103. 118. PART THREE Applications PowerPoint FrontPage Photo Story Web 2.0 ( Blogger, FilesAnyWhere, Flickr, Slide Share & )