Media and Technologies Used in DE I

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Media and Technologies Used in Distance Education: Advantages and limitations.
Broadcasting radio and television
Telephone and audio-conferencing

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Media and Technologies Used in DE I

  1. 1. Distance Education and the Internet TECH4101 Dr. Alaa Sadik Instructional & Learning Technologies Department www.alaasadik.net [email_address]
  2. 2. Lecture Four Media and Technologies Used in Distance Education: Advantages and limitations Distance Education and the Internet TECH4101 Includes suggestions for class presentations
  3. 3. <ul><li>Broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone and audio-conferencing </li></ul>Media and Technologies Used in Distance Education
  4. 4. <ul><li>Broadcasting radio and television </li></ul>Media and Technologies Used in Distance Education
  5. 5. <ul><li>Advantages of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>The broadcast element includes components which are unique to the medium and which provide experiences not easily gained by other means. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting reaches audiences that other forms of education do not reach. </li></ul>Broadcasting Radio and Television
  6. 6. <ul><li>Advantages of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is extremely flexible, has a dramatic effect and can stimulate the imagination of learners. </li></ul><ul><li>With the development in communications satellites, television can reach a long distance and use extra numbers of channels, with their potential for two-way signal carriage. </li></ul>Broadcasting Radio and Television
  7. 7. <ul><li>Disadvantages of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting does not have many of the features available in printed materials, such as learner control and self pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Although broadcasting is considered as a powerful tool for bringing the real world into the classroom, programmes often lack strategies for involving learners. </li></ul>Broadcasting Radio and Television
  8. 8. <ul><li>Disadvantages of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult for students to talk, practise skills or understand difficult points unless teachers integrate broadcasting with other learning activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction goes in one direction, from the tutor to the audience and the medium does not support transfer of information in the opposite direction. </li></ul>Broadcasting Radio and Television
  9. 9. <ul><li>Disadvantages of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>Certain types of experiences cannot be transmitted by broadcasting, such as face-to-face contacts and abstract ideas that need interaction and deep explanation, like mathematical concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>The costs of production, equipment and transmission per hour are very high in comparison with other media. </li></ul>Broadcasting Radio and Television
  10. 10. <ul><li>Disadvantages of broadcasting radio and television </li></ul><ul><li>Students resist technology that have to be used according to a rigid pre-set schedule . </li></ul>Broadcasting Radio and Television
  11. 11. <ul><li>As a result of the limitations of radio and television, many solutions were suggested to give the learner more control and to facilitate interaction between the teacher and students . </li></ul><ul><li>These solutions include using audio-cassettes, video-cassettes and two-way interactive radio/television. </li></ul>Broadcasting Radio and Television
  12. 12. Broadcasting Radio and Television Features analysis Cost Multimedia support Stand-alone medium Instruction Delivery Feedback Development Speed Ease of access/use Anyplace Anytime Flexibility Self-based learning Group-based Learning style Student-machine Student-content Student-teacher Student-student Type of interaction Asynchronous Synchronous Time of interaction
  13. 13. <ul><li>Telephone and audio-conferencing </li></ul>Media and Technologies Used in Distance Education
  14. 14. <ul><li>The use of the telephone in distance education was a result of the limitations of broadcasting as one-way medium. </li></ul><ul><li>The main reason for using the telephone medium is to establish a direct connection between the teacher and students at a distance. </li></ul>Telephone and audio-conferencing
  15. 15. <ul><li>Forms of telephone use in DE </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one telephone tutoring (teacher-to-student): To provide students with human support. </li></ul><ul><li>Small-group audio-conferencing (students-to-students): To link students together for helpful dialogue and to socialize the learning process. </li></ul>Telephone and audio-conferencing
  16. 16. <ul><li>Advantages of telephone and audio-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone can overcome many contact problems between students and tutors, whether in one-to-one links or in small group conferencing. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can gain learning experiences by interaction with the tutor, receiving feedback or asking for immediate support. </li></ul>Telephone and audio-conferencing
  17. 17. <ul><li>Advantages of telephone and audio-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Using additional equipment, voice message can be stored for distance students to access at any time/anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Using fax, the tutor can send course materials, homework and feedback, and students can submit their assignments or send their questions for more explanation . </li></ul>Telephone and audio-conferencing
  18. 18. <ul><li>Advantages of telephone and audio-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone conferencing enables distance students to interact directly with the tutor or experts, exchanging experiences or ask questions . </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone can be used for tasks which involve cooperation, problem-solving, generating ideas and exchanging opinions. </li></ul>Telephone and audio-conferencing
  19. 19. <ul><li>Disadvantages of telephone and audio-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone tutorials do not allow full interaction between teacher and students. Prepared materials have to be delivered by print or audio-tapes to the learners in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Conference calls require special equipment known as a conference amplifier or conference bridge. </li></ul>Telephone and audio-conferencing
  20. 20. <ul><li>Disadvantages of telephone and audio-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Most science courses are heavily dependent upon visual representation, particularly these that contain graphs, formulae and diagrams. These subjects need additional visual media besides the telephone. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual calls are costly in time and money for the tutor and students. </li></ul>Telephone and audio-conferencing
  21. 21. Telephone and audio-conferencing Features analysis Cost Multimedia support Stand-alone medium Instruction Delivery Feedback Development Speed Ease of access/use Anyplace Anytime Flexibility Self-based learning Group-based Learning style Student-machine Student-content Student-teacher Student-student Type of interaction Asynchronous Synchronous Time of interaction
  22. 22. <ul><li>Discussion of class assignment and presentation: Topics and guidelines </li></ul>The End
  23. 23. <ul><li>Write an assignment and present it to your classmates to describe the technical and pedagogical features of a DE technology. In this assignment you should: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Define objectives of using the technology in DE </li></ul><ul><li>Specify features/advantages and limitations of the technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how this technology are used to deliver and support learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss concerns raised by researchers and distance students/tutors about this technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide some case studies/examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow these guidelines: Cover page contains assignment title, your name & ID,1500 words length (exl ref & cover), 12pt font size, Arial font, 2 cm margins each side </li></ul>The End

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