Study of the impact of technology in primary schools Roger Blamire, European Schoolnet Berlin, December 2009
Aims   of STEPS Compare ICT strategies in  EU27, IS, LI, NO Analyse impact on Identify Provide evidence <ul><li>209,866 ‘p...
Multi-perspective approach leading to five analytical reports Birmingham UK Sample of teachers (2006) 18,000 interviews Re...
.. and 30 country   briefs Common  format Evidence from  national research Examples of  good practice Case  studies LearnI...
Key findings Sweden: YouTube song contest
System /1: ICT strategies = infrastructure and digital skills <ul><li>At least one ICT policy or initiative in every count...
System /2: Responsibilities can be unclear <ul><li>ICT is usually: </li></ul>- Part of general education policy - A specif...
Impact on learners /1: Knowledge, skills and competences <ul><li>Skills and competences developed  </li></ul><ul><li>Subje...
Impact on learners /2 :  Motivation, confidence and engagement in learning <ul><li>Higher levels of motivation and  </li><...
Impact on learners /3: Sophisticated and individualised assessment <ul><li>Sophisticated feedback on performance </li></ul...
Impact on teachers /1: Teachers use ICT and are ‘ICT-optimistic’ <ul><li>Three in four teachers use  ICT </li></ul><ul><li...
Percentage of teachers  using computers in class (2006)
Impact on teachers /2:  ICT is pedagogically under-used <ul><li>Lack of pedagogical vision </li></ul><ul><li>New pedagogic...
Impact on teachers /3: Motivation and digital and pedagogical skills Spain: on-site training <ul><li>Motivation and teachi...
ICT user literacy index by country (2006)
Country clusters (2006) <ul><li>‘ Frontrunners’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Enthusiasts’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Inhibited’ </li></ul>...
Impact on schools /1: Children’s access to technology is improving <ul><li>Almost all primary schools use computers </li><...
Broadband: 2009
Impact on schools /2: Whole school ICT integration and leadership matter <ul><li>Integration = key to changing practices <...
Impact on schools /3:  ICT improves administration and access to information <ul><li>School ICT plans underplay learning  ...
Recommendations <ul><li>Increase, diversify and  </li></ul><ul><li>certify  teacher education ;  </li></ul><ul><li>support...
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Impact of technology in primary schools in Europe

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Roger Blamire's presentation on STEPS at the European Commission pre-conference, Online Educa Berlin, 2 December 2009. The views expressed are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. The €300 000 study was commissioned by the European Commission, Directorate General Education and Culture.

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  • To compare strategies for ICT in primary schools in the EU27, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway - Their impact - Future development perspectives NB ICT = hardware (PCs, laptops, IWBs), connectivity (broadband), tools and services (software, VLEs); teachers/heads/support; ICT training and support, teaching, learning, assessing Impact = a significant effect on the measured or perceived quality of (parts of) education To analyse impact on: - Learning and learners - Teachers and teaching - School development plans and strategies To identify drivers and enablers for effective ICT use To provide evidence on which to base a set of recommendations on the integration of ICT in education. The Study of the impact of technology in primary schools (STEPS) was funded by the Executive Agency of the European Commission Directorate General Education and Culture and undertaken jointly by the European Schoolnet and Empirica between January 2008 and June 2009. The main purpose of the study was to produce a comparative analysis of the main strategies for the integration of ICT in primary schools in the EU-27, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, their impact and future development perspectives. The study also aimed to contribute to identifying the impact of ICT on learning and learners, on teachers and teaching as well as on primary school development plans and strategies. It sought to identify the main drivers and enablers for effective and efficient use of ICT, and to propose recommendations on the integration of ICT in education for policy makers and stakeholders.
  • 2006 Teacher survey on ICT in schools: Learnind data from 18,000 interviews Research knowledge base: 60 research studies and reports since 2006 reviewed by Correspondents in 22 countries 2009 Policy knowledge base: completed by 30 National Correspondents 2009 School survey of good practice: 255 respondents, every country represented Case studies: 25 structured visits, 13 countries represented. Evidence for the study came from five sources and analysed in five reports: Reviews of 60 studies (up to 4 per country plus studies covering more than one country) identified and reviewed by National Correspondents (nominated by ministries of education) in 22 countries. This is the most detailed picture ever taken in terms of EU coverage on what kind of research is carried out on the impact of ICT in primary education and the results of that research Data from interviews with a representative sample of over 18 000 primary school teachers and head teachers Responses to a survey of policy-makers in 30 countries on ICT interventions and strategies in their country Responses to a school survey of good practices completed by teachers Case studies based on visits by experts to 25 schools exemplifying the impact of strategies, including lesson observation and interviews with teachers and pupils.
  • Information was compiled into 30 country reports, each 8-10 pages, containing: a summary of ICT policy an analysis of the interviews results from the research in that country examples of good practice case studies (for 13 countries).
  • Impact on: learners teachers schools primary education system. 209,866 primary schools in the 30 countries surveyed, ranging from 14 in Liechtenstein to 55,329 in France. Many of these schools are small and in isolated or rural areas: including, for example 4,285 in France and 1,185 in Finland. Compulsory schooling in the countries covered by STEPS begins between the ages of four to seven. Teacher supply, entry qualifications, conditions of work and salaries vary considerably: for example gross monthly salaries range from €200 (Romania) to €3,195 (Denmark) and among the 21 reporting countries the average was €1,630. Most primary schools are managed, funded and governed by the local municipal councils - and so data tends to be held locally and is not always available. However, even based on fragmented information, a number of core characteristics appear among primary schools in Europe: Teachers working at primary level are predominantly female Primary teachers typically stay with one class of children all day Most primary schools are free of exam pressure compared to secondary level Children are in relatively small schools. A primary school is defined as one that educates children between the ages of four and eleven (ISCED 1). The figures do not include private schools or kindergartens. A number of countries have all-age schools or combine primary and lower secondary schools in one school.
  • All 30 countries have or have recently had at least one ICT policy or initiative affecting primary schools: - Usually aimed at infrastructure and teachers’ digital competence - Less frequently at content, pedagogical reform or leadership Strategies range from system-wide intervention to specific projects: - From cross-sector e-learning initiatives - To laptops for families, e-safety or teacher educator ICT training The locus of control varies: - Central government control to school autonomy ICT in schools is still a topic that arouses controversy: - Public concerns tend to be about e-safety. Responses to the policy survey indicate that all 30 countries have or have recently had at least one ICT policy or initiative affecting primary schools, usually aimed at improving infrastructure and teachers’ digital competence, less frequently targeted at the supply of digital learning resources, pedagogical reform or leadership. From the 74 policies, programmes and projects analysed in the study, strategies range from a system-wide intervention including ICT to specific projects focused on, for example, equipment, e-safety or teacher educator ICT training, and with the locus of control running from central government control to high levels of school autonomy and responsibility. ICT in schools is still a topic that arouses controversy; where the debate involves the general public concerns tend to be about e-safety, according to the policy survey.
  • In most countries ICT is: - Part of general education policy - The subject of a specific ICT policy for all schools - Not a specific policy in primary schools Fewer references to ICT in ‘e-mature’ education systems: - ICT is pervasive and a given ICT responsibilities can be unclear: - Hardware provision is national or municipality role - Maintenance, technical and pedagogical support? In most countries ICT is part of general education policy and there is also a specific ICT policy for all schools, but not a specific policy for ICT in primary schools. In countries where ICT has long been used in primary schools, policies seem to make fewer explicit references to ICT; ICT could be said to be pervasive and a given. Responsibilities can be unclear according to the policy survey: while primary schools have increasing autonomy as public sector services are decentralised, ICT responsibility in the system varies and is sometimes unclear: hardware provision is often a national or municipality responsibility, but not maintenance, technical and pedagogical support, leaving schools in some confusion.
  • Teachers positive about the impact of ICT on learners and learning Skills and competence development are supported with ICT: - Communication - Language (first and second) - Mathematics - Science - Digital - Social and cognitive skills ICT helps children understand better the subject they are studying ICT improves schools’ ability to cater for individual needs However, learners may not have the necessary basic computer skills There is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use. Overall, there is a broad consensus among primary teachers about the positive impact of ICT on learners and learning. Research shows that a range of skills and competencies are acquired by the use of ICT: digital, communication, language (first and second), social and cognitive skills. Teachers interviewed in the LearnInd survey note a positive impact on basic skill acquisition (reading, writing, calculation) through the use of ICT and research echoes this finding. UK research shows that English, maths and science test scores improve with ICT. Many case studies highlight how ICT helps children understand the subject they are studying and caters for individual needs, although schools find it hard to isolate ICT’s contribution to test scores. However, research suggests pupils may not have the necessary basic computer skills and there is a discrepancy between children’s home and school ICT use.
  • 87% of teachers say that pupils are more motivated and attentive with ICT Positive impact on students´ motivation, attitudes and engagement Guided, active and enquiry-based tasks with ICT are motivating Learners participate more actively in learning when ICT is used ICT impacts on group processes and collaborative learning ICT is a means to overcome low motivation, social diversity and disengagement ICT improves links between learning inside and outside school and involves parents. 87% of teachers say that pupils are more motivated and attentive with ICT according to the LearnInd data. Much of the research suggests that ICT has a positive impact on students´ motivation, attitudes and engagement, in particular that guided, active and enquiry-based tasks with ICT are motivating. A large scale comparative study shows that pupils participate more actively in learning when ICT is used. Teachers in the school survey strongly felt that ICT is a means to overcome low motivation, social diversity and disengagement. In the case studies there are examples of schools using ICT to improve links between learning inside and outside school and to involve parents, and ICT impacting on group processes and collaborative learning.
  • ICT-based assessment systems give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on performance Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcoming. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios. ICT-based assessment systems used in some case study schools give more sophisticated feedback to teacher, parent and pupil on their performance, e.g. through the analysis of test scores. Virtual learning environments allow for individual tracking of progress and help identify the next ‘learning step’, enabling pupils themselves to detect errors and shortcomings. Achievement can be recorded in e-portfolios.
  • 75% of teachers use computers in class Range of learning and teaching styles supported Rich constructivist learning environments improve learning outcomes Teachers in some countries are more optimistic about ICT than others A significant minority (21%) consider that using computers in class does not have significant learning benefits There is little to no correlation between impact optimism and level of equipment or sophistication of use, and even teacher skills. 75% of primary teachers (and their pupils) use computers in class according to the LearnInd data: from around 90% in the Nordic countries to approximately 35% in Greece, Latvia and Hungary. Teachers find that ICT supports in equal measure a range of learning and teaching styles, whether didactic or constructivist, in passive activities (exercises, practice) or in more active learning (self directed learning, collaborative work). The research shows that rich constructivist learning environments improve learning outcomes, especially for learners from disadvantaged areas. Teachers in some countries (United Kingdom, Cyprus, the Netherlands, Portugal and Poland) are more optimistic about ICT than others (Sweden, France and Austria). Nevertheless a significant minority (21%) consider that using computers in class does not have significant learning benefits. There is little to no correlation between impact optimism and level of school equipment or sophistication of use, and even teacher skills. There is a cluster of countries with high skills levels and high expectations as to ICT impact: the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Cyprus and Malta. Only some relationship between teacher’s ICT skills and optimistic impact expectations Correlation between skepticism re ICT benefits and the motivation to ICT us in class and The older the teachers, the more likely they will lack motivation to ICT use in class.
  • LearnInd data
  • Teachers use ICT more for administration, organisation and planning, according to some studies Teachers are aware of the potential benefits of ICT for students, but lack the pedagogical vision to integrate ICT in teaching ICT can promote new pedagogical approaches, but only if integrated into subject lessons. Despite the high level of reported classroom use (above), teachers use ICT more for administration, organisation and planning, according to some studies. They also show that teachers are aware of the potential benefits of ICT for students, have a positive perception of ICT in terms of supporting active autonomous learning and creating authentic tasks but lack the pedagogical vision to integrate ICT effectively in teaching. The research shows that ICT can promote new pedagogical approaches, but only if ICT is fully integrated into subject lessons. In the Nordic countries teachers in primary schools more often regard ICT as supporting their pedagogy than teachers in secondary school.
  • Teachers consider that using ICT improves their motivation and teaching skills All 30 countries are investing in developing teachers’ ICT skills New teachers may have little training in using ICT in teaching in some countries Teachers adopt technology more easily step by step with minimal disruption On-site preferable to off-site training. There are some worrying findings: Failure to acquire sufficient ICT skills No gains in pupils’ learning Courses lack the practical dimension No technical and pedagogical support. Teachers responding to the good practice survey consider that using ICT improves their motivation and teaching skills. We know from the policy survey that the 30 countries are investing in developing teachers’ ICT skills but that teachers entering the profession may have little formal training in using ICT in teaching in a significant number of countries. Research has some worrying conclusions about the effectiveness of continuing professional development in ICT: that teachers have failed to acquire the desired level of ICT skills for classroom instruction and that training has not translated into gains in pupils’ learning. Research suggests that teachers adapt new technologies more easily in a step by step process with minimal disruption, and that on-site training is preferable to off-site training. Training courses fail to match needs and lack the pedagogical and practical dimension, according to the analysis of responses to the policy survey.
  • LearnInd data
  • Country clusters (from LearnInd data): Frontrunners-&gt; Nordic countries and Islands (blue) Enthusiasts -&gt; Eastern and Southern European countries (yellow) Inhibited -&gt; German speaking countries (green) Mixed -&gt; continental cluster (orange) Outliers -&gt; Greece and Latvia (red) 1) Teachers highly skilled, whole environment positive about ICT resulting in teachers perceiving the least barriers to effectively using IT in class. On average schools excellently equipped and provided with broadband. However , factor use of in-school networking only at an average level, resulting from teachers being only mildly agreeable with equipment. But teachers use ICT to a large extent in class, using online materials. 2) Countries enthusiastic about use of IT in class, offering above average computer science classes as well as ICT supported language learning. Also above average networking and internet facilities; however, bad score on computer equipment in schools. Teachers use ICT in class only at a below average level, and skills remain a challenge. Use of offline rather than online materials. 3) Countries still facing challenges. Above average scores: computer equipment and open access, pointing to a good infrastructure with regard to the number of computers available. However, infrastructure challenges for internet and broadband, in-school networking and e-mail addresses, school websites and external service contracts. Teachers use ICT in class to a lesser extent, are less skilled and experience barriers to a higher extent. Less content with material available, less optimistic about ICT impact. 4) German and Austrian teachers heavy users of offline teaching materials such as CD-ROMs. Also content with support and materials at their schools. Equipment above average as school connectivity. However, open access to computers by pupils is more uncommon, and use of ICT in teaching languages and computer sciences is below average. 5) Optimism about ICT impact and use of online materials by teachers who use ICT. Teachers in Greece and Latvia apparently not well ICT-skilled; they use it very little in class and experience a number of barriers.
  • Almost all primary schools use computers: - At least 88% in each country have internet access - On average eight internet computers per 100 learners - 8 countries have more than 14 computers per 100 learners - 72% of the study’s 209,866 primary schools have broadband internet - In 20 countries over two-thirds of primary schools have broadband. However, large variations in ICT infrastructure across and within countries: - From 3.1 to 32 computers per 100 pupils - Smaller primary schools are disadvantaged. Interactive whiteboard provision ranges from very few to all schools. Analysis of the 2006 LearnInd data reveals that almost all primary schools use computers, at least 88% in each country having internet access and with on average eight internet computers per 100 pupils. However, there are huge variations in ICT infrastructure and connectivity across and within countries. The computer to pupil ratio ranges from Luxembourg (23 computers per 100 pupils), Denmark and Norway (18), the United Kingdom (16) and the Netherlands (15) to lower figures in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (6) and Greece and Slovakia (5). According to figures provided for the policy report the computer to pupil ratio now ranges from 3.1 to 32 per 100 pupils and that eight countries have more than 14 computers per 100 pupils (representing over 50 000 schools). 72% of the study’s 209,866 primary schools have broadband internet access and in 20 countries over two-thirds of primary schools have broadband. Interactive whiteboard provision ranges from very few (e.g. Finland, Norway) to near saturation (UK, where all primary schools have at least one). Denmark, Estonia and Norway have the highest levels of virtual learning environment use offering access from outside school. Smaller primary schools are disadvantaged in terms of equipment according to research, yet case studies show the benefits for schools in small communities are considerable.
  • From policy survey data: Over 98% of primary schools have a broadband connection in nine countries: Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Malta, Portugal and Spain Over 80% have broadband in a further seven countries: Bulgaria (no figure is provided but ‘almost all’ are reported as having broadband), Czech Republic, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Sweden Broadband appears to be rarely available in schools in Cyprus (despite the high number of computers), Poland and Romania.
  • ICT integration into subjects and classrooms is the key to changing teaching practices The school leader´s support is crucial Countries with high levels of ICT favour dispersion into classrooms rather than in computer labs 68% of primary schools have located computers in classrooms. ICT integration into subjects and classrooms is the key to changing teaching practices, according to research, and the school leader´s support is crucial where primary schools are free to integrate ICT in the curriculum. The policy survey suggests that countries with high levels of ICT favour dispersion into classrooms. 68% of primary schools have located computers in classrooms rather than in computer labs according to the Learnind data. In more than 90% of primary schools this is the case in Luxembourg, Slovenia, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Cyprus and Ireland. On the contrary, there are ten countries with computers in classrooms in fewer than 50% of schools (Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Spain). In these countries a majority of primary schools use computers for education in dedicated computer labs.
  • Schools have incorporated ICT into management tasks ICT is increasingly used by teachers for administration and planning Whole school planning improved with the help of ICT ICT makes administration accessible to wider groups School ICT plans tend to concentrate more on infrastructure than teaching and learning Virtual learning environments are becoming more widespread: - But are used more for administration than for learning - Time is needed to assimilate virtual learning environments. Schools have incorporated ICT into management tasks and ICT is increasingly used by teachers for administration and planning. In several case studies whole school planning improved with the help of ICT; ICT makes administration accessible to wider groups through a web interface; school records are easily maintained, exchanged and updated. However, the research indicates that school ICT plans tend to concentrate more on infrastructure than on how ICT can be used to enhance teaching and learning, and can actually work against innovation (as found in some case studies). Virtual learning environments are becoming more widespread, but are used more for administration than for learning. Research shows that sufficient time is needed to assimilate virtual learning environments; once introduced, however, they are increasingly used by teachers.
  • Nine recommendations drawn from the evidence and findings gathered together in the five analytical papers of the STEPS study are made for actions at three levels: EDUCATION POLICY Ensure training (provided by credible trainers) addresses the pedagogical and practical dimension, is related to subject-specific didactics, and is personalised (incremental, on-site, tutor-based, with peer sharing of experiences). Certificate teachers’ ICT skills to boost impact and reward significant investments already made by many teachers. Demonstrate that digital skills are a priority. Highlight models of carefully selected effective and transferable practice to inspire change in the teaching workforce, a way of inspiring change in the teaching workforce. Build up the capabilities of school leaders to manage ICT and ICT-related educational change, supporting them at national, regional and local level in their decision-making through guidelines, self-review frameworks and peer learning, linked to a set of common indicators of ICT quality in teaching and learning in the school. Give policy signals that ICT can enable wider educational and economic objectives, and that ICT should be systemically embedded and mainstreamed. Make national strategies clear, coherent, enabling and structured. They should outline ways of implementation, be operational and not overly prescriptive. Specify clearly the ICT responsibilities of local authorities. Integrate ICT explicitly into the curriculum, a curriculum which is flexible, open and gives room for school-level initiative. Define the specific ICT functional skills and a set of skills and competencies developed with ICT. Aim for a culture of ‘ICT everywhere, learning everywhere’. Investigate all aspects of assessment; develop effective tools to measure ICT skills, allowing ICT use by learners in tests, and ways to assess new skills and competencies. Ensure equitable access to ICT equipment and resources, especially in small primary schools, by moving away from funding based solely on the number of students per school. Cluster remote and small schools to reduce isolation. Engage in the exchange of best practices in reaching disadvantaged schools. Support initiatives to improve the interoperability and sharing of high quality teaching and learning resources and practices in the interests of maximum exchange and deployment. SCHOOLS Capitalise on learners’ ICT skills in a variety of motivating ways for learning, by providing compelling ICT based learning opportunities at school and as extra-curricular activities, thus ensuring those who are ICT disadvantaged at home in terms of access or supervision are not further disadvantaged in school. Offer authentic and enquiry based learning tasks involving the learner more actively (including play), and use ICT for self-and peer assessment. Use the potential of ICT to support traditional and basic skills but also ‘21 st century’ skills and competencies such as learning to learn or critical thinking. Use ICT to support autonomous or self-directed learning of students, but where the teacher still stimulates, explains and supports the student. Prefer promoted independence models to models where learning is strongly controlled by the teacher or conversely where learning is organised by the pupils themselves. Integrate ICT fully into subject teaching but also use it as an interdisciplinary approach in collaborative projects. Physically locate computers in classrooms and teachers’ rooms to improve integration into subject teaching and to foster the exchange of practices. Engage with peers in the exchange of practices and resources (in subject- and topic-related working groups within and with other schools) using ICT as a driver to upgrade teachers’ professional competencies. Aim for openness and education partnerships, creating more fluid boundaries between partners in learning (school, libraries, parents and the community) during and beyond the formal school day. Use a virtual learning environment which brings together learners, teachers, management and families, resources, administration and assessment. Embed ICT into the educational vision of the school clearly showing where it can make a difference and act as a tool for change, and emphasising the positive impact of ICT to achieve a wide range of educational goals. Give incentives for teachers to use ICT and reward its use. Develop the use of technology for management, communication, administration, planning and preparation as a starting point for wider systemic change. Specify clearly roles and responsibilities for ICT and pedagogical support. RESEARCH Combine qualitative and quantitative methodologies in ICT impact studies to strengthen the current evidence base. Conduct large scale quantitative international comparative studies of primary pupils´ learning with ICT. Carry out longer-term studies on the impact of ICT on improving learning achievement, taking into account the effects of differing learning styles. Apply a range of methods to capture the effect of technology on learning, including test beds, ethnographic studies and learning from learners themselves to obtain insights into online behaviour and learning styles in different learning environments. Direct research towards the scientific evaluation of the use of ICT, its benefits and impact on outcomes, in line with the high levels of investment in infrastructure and training. Evaluate the impact of ICT on schools, including school collaboration, interdisciplinary and innovative use of ICT within projects and the school as a learning organisation. Investigate subject-specific ICT impact especially in key priority subjects such as basic skills and mathematics, science and technology and in subjects where the development of teaching materials by individual teachers is difficult and/or costly. Explore and research how quality assurance and inspection regimes are developing to take full account of ICT developments. Sustain and extend the existing knowledge base of ICT in primary education through further network activity, adding new studies and monitoring results over time regarding ICT in primary schools. Modify and apply the experience gained in the STEPS study to secondary and vocational schools (also tertiary and adult education). An evidence-based approach would shed more light on the impact of ICT in three main areas - teachers, learners and institutions - and identify the main enablers and barriers for ICT use. Develop a toolkit for indicator use by researchers, schools and policy makers. This includes achieving greater consistency across countries on definitions (e.g. broadband, a computer, e-maturity) and data collection by developing a continuous dashboard on progress on ICT use and impact on schools in Europe.
  • Impact of technology in primary schools in Europe

    1. 1. Study of the impact of technology in primary schools Roger Blamire, European Schoolnet Berlin, December 2009
    2. 2. Aims of STEPS Compare ICT strategies in EU27, IS, LI, NO Analyse impact on Identify Provide evidence <ul><li>209,866 ‘primary’ schools: </li></ul><ul><li>ICT = People, Processes, Resources </li></ul><ul><li>E quipment, broadband, applications, </li></ul>- Learning and learners - Teachers and teaching - School plans and strategies Barriers and enablers For recommendations
    3. 3. Multi-perspective approach leading to five analytical reports Birmingham UK Sample of teachers (2006) 18,000 interviews Research since 2006 60 from 22 countries Policy survey 2008-9: 30 correspondents School survey 2008-9: 255 respondents Case studies 2008-9, 25 in 13 countries
    4. 4. .. and 30 country briefs Common format Evidence from national research Examples of good practice Case studies LearnInd country analysis ICT in schools Education policy
    5. 5. Key findings Sweden: YouTube song contest
    6. 6. System /1: ICT strategies = infrastructure and digital skills <ul><li>At least one ICT policy or initiative in every country </li></ul>- Usually infrastructure and teachers’ digital competence <ul><li>System-wide intervention / specific projects </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of control varies: top-down/bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Public concerns tend to be about e-safety </li></ul>- Less frequently content, pedagogical reform or leadership
    7. 7. System /2: Responsibilities can be unclear <ul><li>ICT is usually: </li></ul>- Part of general education policy - A specific policy in compulsory education - But not a specific policy in primary schools <ul><li>Fewer references to ICT in ‘e-mature’ education systems </li></ul><ul><li>ICT responsibilities can be unclear </li></ul>
    8. 8. Impact on learners /1: Knowledge, skills and competences <ul><li>Skills and competences developed </li></ul><ul><li>Subject understanding is enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>Provision for individual needs improved </li></ul><ul><li>Learners may lack basic computer skills </li></ul><ul><li>Discrepancy between home and school ICT </li></ul>Romania: maths
    9. 9. Impact on learners /2 : Motivation, confidence and engagement in learning <ul><li>Higher levels of motivation and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attention, say 87% of teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More active participation </li></ul><ul><li>Low motivation, social division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and disengagement overcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning supported </li></ul><ul><li>Guided, enquiry-based tasks work </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outside school supported </li></ul><ul><li>Parental engagement improved </li></ul>Italy: Twinning with Bucharest
    10. 10. Impact on learners /3: Sophisticated and individualised assessment <ul><li>Sophisticated feedback on performance </li></ul><ul><li>Value of virtual learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement recorded in e-portfolios </li></ul>Estonia: e-diary
    11. 11. Impact on teachers /1: Teachers use ICT and are ‘ICT-optimistic’ <ul><li>Three in four teachers use ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Range of pedagogies supported </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist learning </li></ul><ul><li>environments leverage ICT value </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers in some countries are </li></ul><ul><li>more ICT-optimistic than in others </li></ul><ul><li>There is a sceptical 21% </li></ul><ul><li>Low correlation between levels of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equipment, use and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and ICT-optimism </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Percentage of teachers using computers in class (2006)
    13. 13. Impact on teachers /2: ICT is pedagogically under-used <ul><li>Lack of pedagogical vision </li></ul><ul><li>New pedagogical approaches </li></ul><ul><li>only if integrated into subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Use for administration, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organisation and planning </li></ul></ul>Finland: collaborative learning
    14. 14. Impact on teachers /3: Motivation and digital and pedagogical skills Spain: on-site training <ul><li>Motivation and teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills improved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideal = step by step, on-site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training, minimal disruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little ICT training for new teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Courses lack practical dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Little technical / pedagogical support </li></ul>
    15. 15. ICT user literacy index by country (2006)
    16. 16. Country clusters (2006) <ul><li>‘ Frontrunners’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Enthusiasts’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Inhibited’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Mixed’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Outliers’ </li></ul>
    17. 17. Impact on schools /1: Children’s access to technology is improving <ul><li>Almost all primary schools use computers </li></ul><ul><li>Large variation in infrastructure across and within countries </li></ul><ul><li>IWB provision ranges from very few to all schools </li></ul>- 88+% in each country have internet access - 8 internet computers per 100 learners - 8 countries have more than 14 computers per 100 learners - 72% of the primary schools have broadband internet - In 2/3 of countries over 2/3 of schools have broadband - Ten-fold range: 3.1 to 32 computers per 100 pupils - Smaller primary schools are disadvantaged
    18. 18. Broadband: 2009
    19. 19. Impact on schools /2: Whole school ICT integration and leadership matter <ul><li>Integration = key to changing practices </li></ul><ul><li>School leader support is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom deployment, not computer labs </li></ul>Portugal: whole-school approaches
    20. 20. Impact on schools /3: ICT improves administration and access to information <ul><li>School ICT plans underplay learning </li></ul><ul><li>Whole school planning improved </li></ul><ul><li>ICT used for management </li></ul><ul><li>Administration more accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual (learning) environments </li></ul>UK: parents access learning environment
    21. 21. Recommendations <ul><li>Increase, diversify and </li></ul><ul><li>certify teacher education ; </li></ul><ul><li>support change leaders </li></ul><ul><li>2. Build ICT into general </li></ul><ul><li>educational policies </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ensure access to quality </li></ul><ul><li>equipment and learning </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalise on learners’ </li></ul><ul><li>ICT competenc e, and </li></ul><ul><li>reduce digital divides </li></ul><ul><li>5. Strengthen pedagogical </li></ul><ul><li>use of ICT; develop an open </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge-sharing school </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit the potential of </li></ul><ul><li>ICT to achieve wider </li></ul><ul><li>educational goals </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a variety of methods </li></ul><ul><li>to assess the impact of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Shift the focus towards the </li></ul><ul><li>learner and the school as a </li></ul><ul><li>learning organisation </li></ul><ul><li>9. Establish a long-term and </li></ul><ul><li>continuous monitoring system </li></ul><ul><li>on the impact of ICT in schools </li></ul>EDUCATION POLICY SCHOOLS RESEARCH
    22. 22. Thank you [email_address]

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