This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
Any publi...
NEWS, JOURNALISM, AND
PUBLIC AFFAIRS
Chapter 9
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
 
News: The Information Function of
the Press
News is current or fresh knowledge about an event
or subject that is gathere...
News: The Information Function of
the Press
 News Process
 gathering relevant facts
 preparing them into newsworthy sto...
News: The Information Function of
the Press
 Categories for Surveillance
 Territories, topics, and organizations
 local...
News: The Information Function of
the Press
 Categories for Surveillance
 Time as a category
 Spot news: immediacy, no ...
News: The Information
Function of the Press
 Categories for Surveillance
 Hard v. Soft News
 Hard news: what we know as...
News: The Information Function of
the Press
 How Facts Become Distorted
 Direct observation
 Reports of witnesses
 Exp...
Question to think about
 In your opinion, what are the major
differences between a Internet web
site and a newspaper? 
 ...
Encoding Strategies: Packaging the
News
 Traditional News Values
       Impact
       Timeliness
       Prominence
  ...
Encoding Strategies: Packaging the
News
 Story Formats
 Tradition: Who did
What, Where, When
and Why?
 Inverted Pyramid...
Journalistic Styles
 Sensational or Tabloid Journalism
 1890s – 1920s (remember Hearst & Pulitizer) 
 Objective or Impa...
Journalistic Styles
 Literary or “New” Journalism
 1960s and 1970s
 scene setting
 extended dialogue
 point of view
...
Journalistic Styles
 Advocacy Journalism
 point of view
 magazine, cable, radio, websites
 Bill O’Reilly, Lou Dobbs 
...
Journalistic Styles
 Citizen Journalism, Blogging, and
Demonstration of News
 Using technology to empower “backpack
jour...
Social and Cultural Influences on
the News
 The Social Organization of the Newsroom
       Ownership
       Managers
 ...
Consequences of the Profit Motive
 Audience or Profit?
 audiences and advertisers
 Infotainment
 Trivialization
 high...
Social and Cultural Functions of the
News
 The Market Approach: News as a
Product
 News as a commodity
 Using marketing...
Social and Cultural Functions of the
News
 The Adversarial Approach: Watchdogs of
the Public Interest
 Traditional Inves...
Social and Cultural Functions of the
News
 The Agenda-Setting Function of the News
Media
 which stories lead
 prominenc...
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Dennis & Defleur Chapter 9

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  • News and journalism focus their surveillance of the environment on four major geographic areas – local, regional, national and international news.  Local television stations and newspapers generally focus the majority of their news effort on local and regional; national news producers generally focus their coverage on national and international events.  
  • This question is designed to lead students to think about the differences between the number one source of news for Generation M and the older technologies of newspapers and television news.
  • There are distinct differences in the encoding of news between television/radio and print media.  For tv, news producers prepare word stories for anchors to read, voice overs (VO), stand-ups (where the reporter is doing a live interview or a package interview).   
  • during the 1960s and 1970s, social changes, questions about the truthfulness of government reports and other societal issues brought a new type of journalistic technique.  Some journalists began to explore and delve deeper into news issues and began to use the writing techniques of fiction writers to add depth into their stories.  
  • In general, the social organization of the newsroom is the same for most types of news organizations – the owners or corporate representatives follow the day to day operation at a distance in many cases and leave the production of the news to managers, editors, and actual news producers.  However, gatekeeping is and can be present at each level – individuals in all types of positions make decisions on not only what becomes a news story but how it is packaged
  • : Recent critics of the news industry have pointed to the ownership of media companies focusing too much on profits and maximizing advertising revenues rather than focusing on what is in the public interest. Producing news at a newspaper, radio station or television station costs money – it is expensive to pay talent, a production team and have the latest technologies required to produce the news. Some news stations have had to maintain a news presence with less funding/money – therefore relying on wires and other types of non-local content.  At the same time, some news organizations have actually staged events to gain and hype viewer/readers/listeners.  
  • Investigative reporting got its beginnings in the mid-1800s with the Penny Press.  During the late 1800s, a reporter “Nellie Bly”  (Elizabeth Cochrane) made an agreement with Pulitzer’s New York World to help her get out of an insane asylum – where she spent 10 days documenting horrific treatment.  She wrote about the experience and gained worldwide notoriety. Later, in the 1970s, two reporters for the Washington Post – Woodward & Bernstein –  helped uncover the Watergate scandal.  During the 1990s, Matt Drudge began posting stories about Bill Clinton and later developed the Drudge Report.  
  • Dennis & Defleur Chapter 9

    1. 1. This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. NEWS, JOURNALISM, AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS Chapter 9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    3. 3.   News: The Information Function of the Press News is current or fresh knowledge about an event or subject that is gathered, processed, and disseminated via a medium to a significant number of interested people Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. News: The Information Function of the Press  News Process  gathering relevant facts  preparing them into newsworthy stories  transmitting those stories via a mass medium  audience attends to and comprehends what has been presented Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. News: The Information Function of the Press  Categories for Surveillance  Territories, topics, and organizations  local  regional  national  international Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. News: The Information Function of the Press  Categories for Surveillance  Time as a category  Spot news: immediacy, no history  Developing news: over time, occur in stages  Continuing news: no clear beginning or end Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. News: The Information Function of the Press  Categories for Surveillance  Hard v. Soft News  Hard news: what we know as ‘news’: crime, politics, economy…  Soft news: human interest: lifestyles, pop culture, arts Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. News: The Information Function of the Press  How Facts Become Distorted  Direct observation  Reports of witnesses  Experts  News releases  Public records  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. Question to think about  In your opinion, what are the major differences between a Internet web site and a newspaper?   Why? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Encoding Strategies: Packaging the News  Traditional News Values        Impact        Timeliness        Prominence        Proximity        The Bizarre        Conflict        Currency  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. Encoding Strategies: Packaging the News  Story Formats  Tradition: Who did What, Where, When and Why?  Inverted Pyramid  important ideas lead   Story Formats  For radio and television  Word story  VO  Stand-up  Package  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. Journalistic Styles  Sensational or Tabloid Journalism  1890s – 1920s (remember Hearst & Pulitizer)   Objective or Impartial Journalism  separate fact from opinion  present emotionally detached view of news  strive for fairness and balance   Critical, Interpretative Journalism  providing analysis about news  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Journalistic Styles  Literary or “New” Journalism  1960s and 1970s  scene setting  extended dialogue  point of view  interior monologue  composite character  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Journalistic Styles  Advocacy Journalism  point of view  magazine, cable, radio, websites  Bill O’Reilly, Lou Dobbs   Precision Journalism  computer assisted reporting  uses tools of social science to analyze the news  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. Journalistic Styles  Citizen Journalism, Blogging, and Demonstration of News  Using technology to empower “backpack journalists”  iPhone and other smart phones  Hudson River plane crash/landing, 2009   Satirical or Humor Journalism  Fake News  Comedy Central, The Daily Show  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. Social and Cultural Influences on the News  The Social Organization of the Newsroom        Ownership        Managers        Editors        News Producers (writers, reporters, wires)        Gatekeeping – all levels  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. Consequences of the Profit Motive  Audience or Profit?  audiences and advertisers  Infotainment  Trivialization  high costs of news  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. Social and Cultural Functions of the News  The Market Approach: News as a Product  News as a commodity  Using marketing to deliver the news   Critics: pandering to “market research” and not “journalism”  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Social and Cultural Functions of the News  The Adversarial Approach: Watchdogs of the Public Interest  Traditional Investigative Reporting  James Gordon Bennett, New York Herald (1840s)  “Nelly Bly”: reporting about insane asylum in New York  1970s: Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, Watergate  1990s: Drudge Report, Bill Clinton  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. Social and Cultural Functions of the News  The Agenda-Setting Function of the News Media  which stories lead  prominence  McCombs & Shaw’s Agenda Setting Function of the Mass Media  Press tell us what to think about  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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