PROJECT ON CURRENT AFFAIRS
AND PUBLIC AWARESNESS
Submitted To: Prof. Narinder Verma
Submitted By: Ankit Dabral
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It is the study of how individuals and entities relay information through mass
media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to
relate to newspaper, magazine, and book publishing, as well as radio, television and film,
as these mediums are used for disseminating information, news and advertising.
Mass communication differs from the studies of other forms of communication,
such as interpersonal communication or organizational communication, in that it
focuses on a single source transmitting information to a large group of receivers.
It is also the process by which a person, group of people, or large organization
creates a message and transmits it through some type of medium to a large, anonymous,
heterogeneous audience." Mass communication is regularly associated with media
influence or media effects, and media studies.
Mass communication is a branch of social science that falls under the larger
umbrella of communication studies or communication.
Mass communication has become a vital and seamless part of everyday human life.
Today’s society is dependent on mass communication —from morning television news to
social media feeds and blog posts; from personalized advertising messages to branded
content sponsored by a specific company.
Messages sent by mass communicators help inform the public and often help set
agendas and public opinion. Mass communicators help people develop an understanding
of social problems and make informed decisions. The general public is dependent on
mass communication for information about goods and services available for purchase or
The use of effective mass communication channels is becoming even more
important in today’s fast-paced and global environment. The study and implications of
mass communication, as well as the understanding of effective, ethical and diverse
messaging, has never been more important.
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ALL POSSIBLE WAYS OFMASS COMMUNICATION
Newspapers are printed and published for providing information of public interest,
advertisements and views.
These publications are usually issued daily, weekly or at other regular intervals.
Newspapers were first published in countries like Germany, Italy and the Netherlands in
the 17th century. Journalism involves the collection of information and communicating
it. It also involves the selection and editing of information and printing and presentation
of events, ideas, information and controversies in their proper context. Journalism was
started in India during the British days by Englishmen and later by national leaders and
social reformers like Raja Rammohan Roy, BalGangadharTilak and later Mahatma
Gandhi. They used journalism to fight the British during our freedom movement.
Examples: The Tribune, Hindustan Times, Amar Ujala, Times Of India etc.
These are publications that are printed with ink on paper or distributed online (or other
forms of electronic communication), and generally published on a regular schedule and
containing a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a
purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three. At its root, the word
magazine refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it
is a collection of written articles.
Example: Outlook, India Today, Interior Exterior, Competition Success etc.
One of the technological marvels of the 20th century was television inventedin 1920 by
Baird. In India, television started in 1959 on an experimentalbasis and the first television
station was set up in Delhi. The beginningswere modest and slow but television was
popular and became available incolour in 1982. Today Doordarshan has one of the
largest television networks.From early 1990s satellite television also came to India and
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later Direct toHome (DTH) television.
Examples: Aajtak, NDTV Profit, Zee TV, Doordarshan, ABP News, CNBC etc.
From mere curiosity and technical experiments radio became a truly powerful and
popular medium of mass communication. After it was developed in the west we had
radio by the 1920s and the first formal radio station was started in Bombay.
Examples: Radio Mirchi, AIR FM Rainbow, Big FM, VividhBharti, All India Radio etc.
Also known simply as "the Net" or less precisely as "the Web") is a more interactive
medium of mass media, and can be briefly described as "a network of networks".
Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer
networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol
(IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental
networks, which together carry various information and services, such as email, online
chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the World
Examples: Google, Yahoo, Ask, Facebook, Twitter, email etc.
Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras, or by creating them
using animation techniques and/or special effects. They comprise a series of individual
frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is
given to the viewer. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as
persistence of vision—whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second
after the source has been removed. Also of relevance is what causes the perception of
motion; a psychological effect identified as beta movement.
Examples: Madras Café, BhagMilkhaBhag, Rang De Basanti, Lagaan etc.
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Outdoor media is a form of mass media which comprises billboards, signs, placards
placed inside and outside of commercial buildings/objects like shops/buses, flying
billboards (signs in tow of airplanes), blimps, and skywriting. Many commercial
advertisers use this form of mass media when advertising in sports stadiums. Tobacco
and alcohol manufacturers used billboards and other outdoor media extensively.
Examples: Boards of Universities, Hotels, malls, flats etc.
Mobile phones were introduced in Japan in 1979 but became a mass media only in 1998
when the first downloadable ringing tones were introduced in Finland. Soon most forms
of media content were introduced onmobile phones, tablets and other portable devices,
and today the total value of media consumed on mobile vastly exceeds that of internet
content, and was worth over 31 billion dollars in 2007.
Like email on the internet, the top application on mobile is also a personal messaging
service, but SMS text messaging is used by over 2.4 billion people. Practically all internet
services and applications exist or have similar cousins on mobile, from search to
multiplayer games to virtual worlds to blogs.
Examples: SMS service, MMS service, Internet service etc.
Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or
amplification of sound, often as music. This involves the use of audio equipment such as
microphones, recording devices and loudspeakers. The most recent developments have
been in digital audio players. An album is a collection of related audio recordings,
released together to the public, usually commercially.
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COMPARISON OF MODES OF COMMUNICATION
IN TERMS OF IMPORTANCE AND PREFRENCE
I. TELEVISION V/S NEWSPAPER:
When it comes to finding about the news of what’s going on in our world, we want
details and facts. We want the juice of what’s actually going on. The debate between
the efficiency of newspapers and TV news, TV news is a lot more effective.
Watching the news on TV is a lot easier for people to understand and is more
convenient than reading it on paper. For the people who are always in a rush in the
morning, it’s more convenient to turn on the TV and listen to what’s going on rather
than trying to read a paper because it will only slow your task down.
Also, for the people who don’t know how to read and for elders whose eyes don’t
function properly, the TV is a better source of finding out the news. Not only can they
watch, if their eyes are messed up, they can also listen. It doesn’t require any thinking or
straining the eyes trying to read. It may actually be seen as very much relaxing.
Newspapers, however, requires more thinking; it has very good sentence structure that
may be hard to understand sometimes with the extensive vocabulary words.
TV news is more entertaining. The news casts are always bubbly and energetic while
broadcasting which receives a positive perspective from the viewers which gives them
higher ratings and more airtimes. When we watch the news on TV we get a better visual
image of what’s going on. They show actual photos and footage of the story which
produces emotion to the audience. Meanwhile, newspapers are straight up boring.
These stories are printed out on grayish colored paper and the photos have limited color
to them. A newspaper only shows maybe 1 or 2 photos per story that doesn’t give any
type of emotion whatsoever.
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The delivery of news on TV is a lot faster. Once there is something new to talk about, it’s
automatically put on air. There’s no wait nor delay like the newspaper. The newspaper
doesn’t issue out new news until the following morning.
II. INTERNET V/S NEWSPAPERS:
Let’s first talk about newspapers since they were the first who provided up with news
updates. The advantages of subscribing from newspapers companies or buying
newspapers is first, you can file it and you can touch it and can read it anywhere you go.
Newspapers can be delivered even on the remote areas where internet can’t reach.
Second is convenience since you can carry it anywhere you want to read them, in your
room, garden, patio while drinking your morning coffee, or in the comfort of your bed.
Third, it’s you can recycle newspapers, you can use it to wrap something, cover
something, burning materials, or you can make a bag out of it. Lastly, you don’t need
touse and pay electricity just to get an updated news. The disadvantages are; you need
to pay for your subscription. Then it could cause clattering in your home.
On the other hand is the online news. The advantages of online news are its accessible
24/7. You can read online news any time of the day. The second thing is it’s free. You
can freely read online news unlike newspapers that you need to pay or spend money to
buy them. Then you don’t need to worry with the clattering in your home since you
don’t have anything to pile like newspapers. The disadvantage of reading online news is
it’s more expensive since you will be suing electricity just to read updated news. Then
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second is the internet connection, you also need to pay for that. Without internet
connection you will have any access to any networking sites.
Now you know the difference of online news vs. newspapers. But either ways it’s
still a reliable source for news information. it’s up to you which of these you think is
more convenient for you as long as you get the news that you want to know, as long as
your money is worth the service that you want.
III. TELEVISION V/S RADIO:
The two most common forms of advertising consist of radio and television. First off, let's
talk about how radio spots can be an effective form of advertising. Radio has many
distinct advantages that a media buyer should take into consideration. Radio spots can
be had on both local and national levels. This allows targeted marketing efforts to be
coordinated. In other words, if you are advertising for a local company, you would be
best off using local radio stations.
Also, radio can be used in cooperation with other media efforts. Many companies find
success in using radio spots to correspond with television efforts, or vice versa. This
guarantees that you are reaching as many people as possible, both while at home, and
while in the car.
Also, it should be remembered that people often listen to the radio while on their way
to purchase new products.
So, if somebody is on their way to the car dealership to look at a new car, and hear a
radio spot advertising for the newest luxury sport utility vehicle, the buyer would be
more so inclined to check it out.
When used alone, or with another form of media, radio advertising can be most
effective and a great way to maximize return on investment.
Now let's talk about advertising via television commercials. To many companies who can
afford it, this is the most effective way to reach potential clients.
Millions of people spend millions of hour's everyday watching television, including the
commercials. During the Super Bowl, advertisers spend millions of dollars on a single 30
second spot. Like the radio, television spots are also available on both a national and
local level. During the Super Bowl advertisers are paying to be seen by everyone
watching the game, thus the price increases greatly.
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On a more local level, companies can place spots on local access television stations.
Again, if you are going for a more regional presence, local stations would more than
likely be the way to go. It will save you time, and also ensure that you are in front of
your most prized customers.
DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF
PUBLIC AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS
A comprehensive effort that includes multiple components (messaging, grassroots
outreach, media relations, government affairs, budget, etc.) to help reach a specific goal.A
public awareness campaign is not just billboards, television commercials, social media or fund
Setting up a campaign you have to consider a number of essential elements. First of all,
you have to identify what is your goal: the objective includes reaching a given target audience
effectively and pointing out what exactly it is the given behavior that you want to change.
Achieving a good campaign, you need to convince people. Crafting a good message you have
to evaluate your target’s cultural as well technological background: using cultural reference
and a shared knowledge is one of the most important thing to effectively reach your audience.
In addition, humor and coolness will make more likely that people will be happy and
motivated to share a clear, short and simple key message.
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WHAT SHOULD ONE DO AFTER THE PUBLIC CAMPAIGN IS OVER
MEASURE ITS EFFECTIVENESS
AFTER THE CAMPAIGN:
After the campaign is finished, a second round of information-gathering will help with
assessment of outcomes and impact.
These data can be collected through:
●Surveys conducted in premises where the campaignwas carried out
●One-on-one interviews with target audiences, alsoon premise
●Focus groups drawn from target audiences are particularly important in determining any
effect on thebehavior of respondents.
ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS:
The purpose of the analysis phase is to transform the datacollected into credible evidence
about the developmentof the campaign and its performance. This process usually
includes the following steps:
●Organizing the data for analysis (i.e., data preparation)
●Describing the data (e.g., generating findings of facts)
●Interpreting the data (e.g., assessing the findingsagainst the evaluation criteria)
Collating and analyzing qualitative data can be achallenge.
The following guidelines may be helpful:
●Writing up interviews and focus group discussionsregularly and quickly (e.g., at the end of
●Conducting regular analysis, combining data intokey points
●Involving the whole team during the analysis process
●Using examples to illustrate key findings
●Using tables, photos, and other visual means to presentkey findings.
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A well structured report should present findings in a clearand interesting way. At a minimum,
it should include thefollowing:
●The executive summary presenting the main findingsof the evaluation
An overview of the purpose of the evaluation and how it was carried out
●A clear explanation of the methodology used, includingdata collection methods
●Findings, usually linked to particular objectives againstwhich performance is assessed
●Conclusions, lessons learned, and recommendations
●Annexes including the Terms of Reference,2 list ofpeople interviewed, and list of documents
The most desirable results relate to the impact that thecampaign may have had on attitudes
and behaviors ofthe respondents. In this case, the impact also relates to any changes that may
have occurred in road trafficcrashes as a result of the campaign. The same measurements
that are taken from the target group of thecampaign should also be taken from the control
●Did the campaign change awareness about designateddriver schemes among respondents?
Did awarenessincrease/decrease/stay the same?
●What was the level of awareness among the controlgroup?
●Were changes different among different groups ofrespondents (e.g, differences by age,
●Did the campaign change intent to rely on designateddrivers? Would respondents be
More/less likely to usea designated driver as a result of having been exposedto the campaign?
How does this compare with thecontrol group?
●Did the campaign result in a change in behavior?Among whom?
●Are members of target audience more likely to usedesignated drivers as a result?
●Have they changed their use of designated drivers?
●Did the campaign have an impact on road trafficincidents (crashes and fatalities)?
By how much?
(This sort of measurement is only realistic if the samplesize used is large enough to effect a
demonstrablechange in objective measures like road traffic crashes.)
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If possible, a followup data point should also be included.This should be collected some time
after the campaignis concluded to allow assessment of whether anychanges due to the
campaign have persisted. Followupis particularly important in determining any effect on the
behavior of respondents.
RELIABILITY AND CONSISTENCY:
To increase the likelihood that data collected are reliable and consistent across different time
points, it is important to pay attention to the following:
●All data should be collected in the same way, using the same instrument (e.g., questionnaire),
at each time point.
●Where one-on-one interviews or focus groups are used, the same individuals should be
included, to the extent possible, in each data collection round.
●Where this is not possible, or where broader surveys are used, efforts should be made to
maintain consistency among respondents: i.e., the same target groups should be used, and
their demographic compositions should be kept as consistent as possible.