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ENG 6324 Slide Presentation Week 9

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ENG 6324 Slide Presentation Week 9

  1. 1. Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Chapter 14 MEDIA EFFECTS: THE PROCESSES AND INFLUENCES OF MASS COMMUNICATION Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  3. 3.   Early Views of Media Influences  de Tocqueville’s dead-level theory: everyone exposed to same flow of ideas, influenced in uniform manner  1900s: everyone believed newspapers had great power  Magic Bullet Theory  immediate, uniform, and powerful effects Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Media Effects Research Begins  A National Dilemma  examine media effects scientifically  systematic perspective Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Media Effects Research Begins  The Nature and Functions of Research  Experiments  Surveys  Content Analysis  Qualitative  Quantitative  The Nature and Functions of Research     Distinct Research Goals basic research applied research scholarly research  Research Moves Cutting Edge Forward Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Media Effects Research Begins  Early Support for the Magic Bullet Theory    The Payne Fund Considers Movies and Kids 1920s and 1930s significant and widespread effects on children  The Invasion from Mars    1938, War of the Worlds broadcast Orson Welles panic in the streets? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Media Effects Research Begins  Inconsistencies in the Magic Bullet    critical ability amount of education interpersonal communication Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Beyond the Magic Bullet: Selective and Limited Effects  The Why We Fight Experiments         WWII Goals and Conduct of the Experiments Frank Capra why we fight; what the enemy had done; who were the allies; why victory Implications: Limited Effects! able to teach some new facts able to alter a few opinions little evidence for powerful effects Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Beyond the Magic Bullet: Selective and Limited Effects  Effects of Media in a Presidential Campaign    The People’s Choice Lazarsfeld, Berelson, Gaudet 1940 election  Media as a part of the web of influences   activation, reinforcement, conversion The Two-Step Flow  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. opinion leaders
  10. 10. Audiences Use Media Content to Obtain Gratifications  Gratifications Found in Media Content       Herta Herzog, 1940s radio soap opera listeners identifying with characters obtaining emotional release wishful thinking obtaining advice Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Audiences Use Media Content to Obtain Gratifications  Children and Television  Patterns of Viewing   television is most attended to medium between 3 and 16, spend more time watching tv than going to school!  Gratifications Obtained from Watching Television   Fantasy, diversion, instruction, learning Basic Finding: Viewing Television Seemed to Pose Few Dangers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Question to think about  In your opinion, does media have a limited or powerful effect on children? What about adults? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Television and Youth Violence  The Report to the Surgeon General     late 1960s Congress funded study National Institute of Mental Health televised violence influence on children Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Television and Youth Violence  The Report to the Surgeon General  Network Television’s Violent Content   very frequent and very unrealistic Social Learning from Models of Behavior     Bandura’s “Bobo Doll” experiment observational learning direct imitation modeling theory: positive reinforcement increases reproduced activity repeatedly Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Television and Youth Violence  Television and Teenage Aggression    specific kinds of youths participate in specific types of behavior more likely to watch tv violence more likely to be aggressive  Overall: Viewing Violence on Television MAY Cause Aggression Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Television and Youth Violence  The Second Report to the Surgeon General    1982 Increased pace of research Confirming findings: Viewing of televised violence by children clearly does cause aggression among heavy viewers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Long-Term Influences on Society and Culture  Accumulation Theory: The Adding Up of Minimal Effects     Armed Interventions  Smoking and Health Media must focus repeatedly on issue Media must be consistent in coverage about issue Media must corroborate each other on issue Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Long-Term Influences on Society and Culture  Social Expectations Theory: Learning Group Requirements  learning how to act as part of the ‘group’ through media portrayals  Social organizations: that pattern of general group norms, specialized roles, ranking positions, and the set of social controls used by the group to ensure reasonable conformity to its requirements. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Long-Term Influences on Society and Culture  Implications of Long-Term Theories     over time new technologies new audiences requires new theories, new methods Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Chapter 15 ETHICS: ASSESSING CONTENT AND BEHAVIOR OF THE MEDIA Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  22. 22.   Media-Wide Ethics Watch  Motion Pictures – distorting reality?  Book Publishers – cancel book contracts      based on plagiarism? Advertising – exploiting children? Internet Websites – fabrication of news items? Public Relations – representing dishonest clients? Television – sensationalizing issues? Music – sharing mp3 files? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. New Technology Challenges  Social Media  Second Life  Virtual Worlds Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Dimensions of Ethics for the Media  Accuracy and Fairness  The Behavior of Reporters  Conflict of Interest  checkbook journalism Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Distinguishing Ethics and Law  Moral Codes v. Law   Chicago Sun-Times purchase of a bar to gather info about payoffs Richard Jewell case, Atlanta 1996 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Ethics     doing what is ‘right’ problem: different people decide what is ‘right’ tabloid television editorial cartoonists Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Special Privileges, Special Responsibilities   rights of news organizations responsibilities and duties of news organizations Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Beyond the First Amendment  social conscience of society  profit-making business Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Growing Concern over Media Ethics  The Long Struggle for Professionalism  Constant battle over the ‘hoax’ Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Growing Concern over Media Ethics  The Rise of Mixed Media Culture      Never ending news cycle Sources are gaining power over journalism There are no more gatekeepers Argument is overwhelming reporting The ‘blockbuster’ mentality Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Question to think about  Do you think it is proper to buy a CD, rip it to your hard drive, and then make copies for your own personal use on multiple devices and computers? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Ethical Challenges to Mixed Media Culture    content of media behavior of media organizations effects on audiences Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Media Criticism and Media Ethics  A Double Standard    institutional individual content-related Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Media Criticism and Media Ethics  The Link to Individuals and Content  Janet Cooke and “Little Jimmy”  Washington Post Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Alternative Approaches to Ethics  Situational Ethics  The Continual Search  Credibility Studies and Market Research  Ethics, Technology and the Future Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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