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Lecture 2 New Media & Journalism Dec09

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Lecture 2 New Media & Journalism Dec09

  1. 1. (New!) Media - and journalism in the online age -
  2. 2. This lecture aims to: <ul><li>Build on the notions presented the previous day (convergence and web 2.0) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the challenges that the emergence of new media pose to traditional media </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the changes in media landscape (both in terms of practice and technology) and their implication on the journalism practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Media - a definition <ul><li>A two level definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The technology that enables communication </li></ul><ul><li>Set of associated “protocols” or social and cultural practices that have grown up around a specific technology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lisa Gitelman apud Jenkins, 2006 Technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Communication Models <ul><ul><li>The transmission model (Lasswell, 1920; Shannon & Weaver, 1949) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sender --> Receiver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sender --> Medium --> Receiver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sender <-- Medium <-- Receiver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sender <--> Medium <--> Receiver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The journalist’s role <ul><li>What is the role of the (new) media in your society? </li></ul><ul><li>Which media: news, entertainment, arts, documentary, sports? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the role of the media developed? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the media fulfill this social obligation? </li></ul>
  6. 6. The journalistic ideology <ul><li>Public service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>journalists provide a public service (as watchdogs or n ewshounds', active collectors and disseminators of information) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>journalists are impartial, neutral, objective, fair and (thus) credible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>journalists must be autonomous, free and independent in their work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>journalists have a sense of immediacy, actuality and speed (inherent in the concept of n ews ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>journalists have a sense of ethics, validity and legitimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Deuze, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Every traditional medium fears the “new” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1929, London - first radio presence @ the Olympic Games (with restrictions imposed by the Newspaper Proprietors’ Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2002, US - reporters of Tampa Bay Online (TBA.com) refuse to work in synergy with colleagues in other part of the organization (Deuze, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2002, EU - European multimedia news report shows little cooperation between various departments of news organizations </li></ul></ul>The media competition
  8. 8. Home Media Capacity - 1975 <ul><li>Product Route to home Display Local storage </li></ul><ul><li>TV stations phone TV Cassette/ 8-track </li></ul><ul><li> broadcast TV radio </li></ul><ul><li> broadcast radio stereo Vinyl album </li></ul><ul><li>Local news mail </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising newspaper delivery phone </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Stations </li></ul><ul><li>non-electronic </li></ul>Tom Wolzein, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co
  9. 9. Home Media Capacity – Today Tom Wolzein, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co
  10. 11. <ul><li>New media blend </li></ul><ul><li>Watched TV news: 1994 72% </li></ul><ul><li>2004 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Read a newspaper 1994 49% </li></ul><ul><li>2004 42% </li></ul><ul><li>Accessed news online 1994 N/A </li></ul><ul><li>2004 24% </li></ul><ul><li>Went online 1995 4% </li></ul><ul><li>2004 47% </li></ul>
  11. 12. Net loss in newspaper use and prime time broadcast TV
  12. 13. Summer 2003 Image of News Sources 8% 41% 14% 11% 15% Useful way to learn 9% 20% 10% 11% 37% Offers “news I can use” 4% 29% 24% 13% 19% Up-to-date 9% 10% 21% 19% 21% Trustworthy 12% 23% Local TV News Newspaper Internet Cable TV News National Net. News 9% 49% 9% 6% Provides news only when I want it 4% 20% 18% 12% Entertaining
  13. 14. New Media Journalism <ul><li>Cyberjournalism </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t know yet what the Net makes possible because we’re still asking how the journalism we’ve known and loved translates to the new medium – or doesn’t. (Rosen, apud Outing, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Thorston & Duffy, 2005
  15. 16. <ul><li>Show: </li></ul><ul><li>EPIC movie 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Future of media </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Imagine for a moment that you are a journalist in Brussels. You don’t work for a TV company or newspaper. You have no particular assignment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would you write about? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What story do you want? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will you be prepared to report, to get the truth out? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Citizen Journalism? <ul><ul><li>Producer/consumer blurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ephemeral and Informal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical of media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global moral code rather than ethical code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little attempt to impose a hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community value, rather than commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreverent opinion </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. The Values of Citizen Journalists <ul><li>Politically motivated? </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda setting? </li></ul><ul><li>Shared resources </li></ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul>
  19. 22. How/where? <ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Videos (shared) </li></ul><ul><li>Photos (shared) </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts/audio (share) </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phone </li></ul>
  20. 23. Outing’s layers of citizen journalism <ul><li>Open up to public comment </li></ul><ul><li>- not only articles but other sections as well </li></ul><ul><li>- moderate/ subscription </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen as an add-on reporter </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- citizens add information to a current story (eg. Theft/Burglary - they provide the examples, photos, solutions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Open-source reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contact with knowledgeable readers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>submit just to a couple of readers for suggestions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for readers/viewers for questions for a future interview </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Outing’s layers of citizen journalism <ul><li>4. Citizen bloghouse </li></ul><ul><li>- blog on a story </li></ul><ul><li>- blog for a publication </li></ul><ul><li>- own publication’s own blogs hosting service </li></ul><ul><li>- have an aggregator application </li></ul><ul><li>5. Newsroom citizen “transparency” blog </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- share information about the workings of the newsroom: processes, people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>6. The stand-alone citizen journalism site - edited version </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very local news </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The editor is a guide to the community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Might cover what the journalist cannot reach/not mainstream </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Outing’s layers of citizen journalism <ul><li>7. The stand alone citizen journalism site - unedited version </li></ul><ul><li>- has all the typos and misspellings but has character </li></ul><ul><li>8. The added print edition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- put in print either 6 or 7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>9. The hybrid: professional and citizen journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- OhMyNews (70% citizen; 30% professional) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The web version dictated the print one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>10. Under one roof </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- news is conversation not just lecture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Outing’s layers of citizen journalism <ul><li>Wiki Journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- readers are editors (WIKI NEWS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHOW FILM: WIKIS IN PLAIN ENGLISH </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. New(s) media types <ul><li>Authoritative: Created and produced by news professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Created: News and information produced by audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Opinionated: News and information with attitude and voice </li></ul>
  25. 29. Journalism (new) ideology <ul><li>Public service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More multicultural and more multi-angled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The public gets to contribute to the stories (comments, photos, videos, testimonials) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The primacy of story-telling remains but there while cautiously embracing the wants and needs of the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More interpretations of objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A more active awareness of what is out there (both technologically and culturally) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Journalism (new) ideology online <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared (calls for an even higher degree of integration are still out there) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ When news happens it’s common for the first photographs not to be sent via news wire, but posted to a Flickr site.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newsweek, April 3, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions still remain (if the number isn’t bigger) but the answer is more complicated due to the multiculturalism, diversity and glocality of the “news” environment </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Conclusions <ul><li>Media as technology and as social and cultural practices surrounding that technology </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies lead to new forms of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen journalism is an addition to traditional journalism </li></ul><ul><li>The journalism practice is changing, multi-skills being more and more required </li></ul><ul><li>Reality becomes multi-faceted and multi-layered </li></ul>
  28. 32. Tomorrow: <ul><li>Practice day </li></ul>

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