Communication And Media Studies

1,119 views

Published on

Bachelor of Communication (Communication and Media Studies)
“Archiving Print, Screen & Broadcast Media”

Or….. a glimpse into the history of
Communication & Media Studies

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,119
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Why communicate? The importance of knowledge and the communication of the learning.
  • Previously, communication media fixed: eg Greek Tragedies, Babylonian Obelisks, Aboriginal Wall Art. Print brought new independence to the written word.
  • Cultural effects of printing machinery.
  • The Gutenberg Bible is the best-known major work using the movable type system.
  • Defoe ( Robinson Crusoe ) went from satirical to self-preservation (late 1720s). The rise of the press under government attempts to suppress ... Freedom of the press versus censorship.
  • Or, to be precise, Survival of the Press. To revisit this in greater depth in Session 10: Citizen Journalism.
  • Question: In our times, what are press media selling and to whom?
  • Printing press created shift from hand copied texts to mass-produced texts. Implications: Explosion of literacy, advocacy, promotion of liberty and democracy... Computer technology ... Implications: Creativity, credibility, careers...
  • The power of radio: Flexible & economic production (cheaper, lighter, more immediate) Mobility in use (not fixed in one location like TV) Participant potential (talk back) Churchill (1940) used radio to boost and maintain moral in World War II. Radio used as a means to bypass gatekeepers of print and television.
  • Music video found at: Speculation in 1980s that TV would replace radio. Historically, radio persists as a technology of mass populism , evolving from broadcast to podcast. What do YOU think?
  • Let’s make a list ... Now. Where from? Countries?
  • BBC model – license fees or tax (citizens pay) Commercial model – advertising (corporations pay) Often a combination of both today. In both cases, government retains control through broadcast licensing and regulation.
  • Cultural form of television determined by social relations of capitalist production – need to sell both programs and viewers to advertisers (primary market). Control over programming decisions passed from media firm to advertisers (co-production, branded formats).
  • Citizenship and participation are mediated by television programming especially via television news. Ironically, television being the “arena for both entertainment (mass culture) and for political participation” (Hirst & Harrison 2007, 146), it is the site for reinforcing and perpetuating deeply entrenched ideologies = hegemony. More in later weeks.
  • Illustrate with discount coupon books (eg DVG) Reality TV: product placement, ads, SMS participation...
  • Communication And Media Studies

    1. 1. Bachelor of Communication (Communication and Media Studies) “Archiving Print, Screen & Broadcast Media” Or….. a glimpse into the history of Communication & Media Studies
    2. 2. Employ your time in improving yourself by other men's writings so that you shall come easily by what others have laboured hard for. -- Socrates If I have seen further it is only by standing on the shoulders of Giants. -- Isaac Newton You don’t know what you don’t know. -- Modern axiom
    3. 3. Let’s start with print media’s history…
    4. 4. Modern mass communication is the liberation of the communication form from its place of creation. - - Hirst & Harrison 2007, 81
    5. 5. Cultural effects of print Encouraged literacy Disseminated ideas more rapidly Fostered greater standardisation of texts The 1 st Printer - otherwise known as the “movable type” developed by Johann Gutenberg (1398-1468)
    6. 6. Gutenberg Bible – the 1 st full book published 1450 ... 1455 Took 5 years to produce... And we can’t stand waiting 1 or 2 minutes for a page to print!!
    7. 7. The print media has undergone major cultural shift over many decades… From: Agitational party press (agenda-driven print media) To: Capitalist conglomerate (profit-driven print media) <ul><li>Media concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Oligopoly </li></ul><ul><li>Partisan </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Handbills </li></ul>
    8. 8. Ask yourself: What’s the point of printing? Or why do we bother to print anything?
    9. 9. ANSWER: We print because….. <ul><li>Defoe, the ‘father of modern journalism’ - he printed, and was therefore a: </li></ul><ul><li>Propagandist </li></ul><ul><li>Pamphleteer </li></ul><ul><li>Social commentator </li></ul>Journalism & Print = 1) Active citizenry 2) Agenda setting 3) Freedom & Power Daniel Defoe, 1660-1731 Best known for his book Robinson Crusoe
    10. 10. That’s why….. Freedom of the Press (as the 4 th estate) is very much defended in liberal democratic societies today. But there are risks to this model….
    11. 11. Risk 1: Economic shift The primary content of newspapers today is commercialised news and designed to appeal to broad audiences, to entertain, to be cost effective and whose attention can be sold to advertisers . -- Picard 2004, 61
    12. 12. Risks 2 & 3: 2) Regulatory Interferences (Censorship, Media Policies, Controls, etc.) 3) Imperialism/Homogenisation (or too many of the same mass content/programmes, especially from Hollywood..)
    13. 13. Risk 4: From hot metal to Hotmail (or The Internet)…
    14. 14. Okay… now we know a bit about print media. What about Screen & Broadcast Media???
    15. 15. Churchill: “We shall never surrender”
    16. 16. Churchill: The power of radio <ul><li>The power of radio: </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible & economic production (cheaper, lighter, more immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility in use (not fixed in one location like TV) </li></ul><ul><li>Participant potential (talk back) </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill (1940) maximised the power of radio to boost and maintain morale in World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio used as a means to bypass gatekeepers of print and television. </li></ul><ul><li>Still being used today….. </li></ul>
    17. 17. End of an era? Or start of another? On 1 August 1981, at 12.01am, MTV aired its first music video, Video Killed the Radio Star by The Buggles. This debut is remembered as the breakthrough cultural event of the early 1980s, marking the beginning of the music video era. This video celebrated the birth of one new medium – the music video – and mourned the waning of another – radio. You can view the music video on youtube at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvvCupfpric Historically, radio persists as a technology of mass populism , evolving from broadcast to podcast.
    18. 18. What programs are we watching on free-to-air television today? (What’s free-to-air? You can surely find out on www.wikipedia.com , can’t you? Isn’t screen-based media technology amazing?)
    19. 19. Free-to-air TV: Who pays? Commercial Broadcasting BBC Public Service Model
    20. 20. Indeed, there’s no business like show business…. Commercial impetus Public service ‘dialogue’ Tension Public service broadcasting must also be good for business. -- Phelan, 1991 (in Hirst & Harrison, 2007, 146)
    21. 21. TV Screen enables mediated participation [Television has become] such a formidable instrument for maintaining the symbolic order. -- Bourdieu 1998 (in Hirst & Harrison 2007, 147) Citizenship and participation are mediated by television programming, especially via television news. Ironically, television being the “arena for both entertainment (mass culture) and for political participation” (Hirst & Harrison 2007, 146), it is also the site for reinforcing and perpetuating deeply entrenched ideologies (or hegemony).
    22. 22. Reality TV: Really? Make money all the way
    23. 23. Looking ahead... On 6 June 2000, eStudio.com helped usher in another paradigm-breaking medium with a parody of the original MTV video – Internet Killed the Video Star . Like the video it parodies, Internet Killed chronicles the explosive growth of a whole new medium: the Internet!!!
    24. 24. The Internet as the new risk? After video was purported to supplant radio, the Internet appears to at first directly threaten future of television. See video clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BiB0VgOKojg Form and content of programming has changed. Free-to-air model under threat from ‘pay per view’ and Internet-based TV series. Crisis of TV networks, future of broadcasting is uncertain. There’s only one way to find out and explore further….
    25. 25. Study Communication and Media Studies at Murdoch Uni. For more information, visit: www.murdoch.edu.au Thank you for checking this presentation out. Presented by A/Prof Terence Lee & Daniel Chan

    ×