Take out your HOMEWORK to be checked and reviewed.
FRONT BACK Charlemagne Powerful Frankish ruler who built a huge empire; was crowned emperor of the “Roman Empire” by Pope Leo III
Imagine all of the schools, colleges, libraries and computers were destroyed.
Now imagine all the teachers and doctors quit because no one was paying them.
What would the world be like? Take 5-10 minutes to write a paragraph about this.
Many Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire were reunited under Charlemagne’s empire. CHARLEMAGNE UNITES GERMANIC KINGDOMS
New society rooted in:
Classical heritage of Rome
Beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
Customs of various Germanic tribes
Invasions of Western Europe
What was the immediate cause of the fall of the Western Roman Empire again?
Right! Germanic invasions!!!
Repeated warfare and invasions altered the economy, government, and culture of the people in the Western Roman Empire
Economy : Disruption of trade led to the collapse of businesses, breakdown of European cities as economic centers, and scarcity of money.
Government : cities were abandoned as centers of administration
Culture : nobles (wealthy landowners) retreated to the rural areas when cities collapsed; cities no longer had strong leadership; people moved to the rural areas and began farming; population became rural
What do people need for survival?
Food & water
What do you NOT care about when trying to survive?
Decline of Learning
Germanic invaders were illiterate
Romans who moved into rural areas became less concerned about education
Priests and other church officials were literate
Knowledge of Greek became lost (but we still have that knowledge today…SO…bonus point: WHO PRESERVED IT???)
Germanic tribes had a rich oral tradition of songs and legends but no writing
Loss of a Common Language
Mixing of Germanic-speaking peoples with Romans change in Latin
Different dialects emerged
800s: French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages evolved from Latin
Various languages = continued breakup of a once unified empire
Germanic Kingdoms emerge
400s-600s: small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces
Let’s think about this…
Which of the five traits of a civilization is necessary to maintain a civilization? In other words, if this trait disappeared, so could a civilization…
So…which institution remained in the Western Roman Empire?
The Church was the sole surviving institution of the Roman Empire.
During this time of political chaos, the Church provided order and security.
Concept of Government Changes
Loyalty to public government and written laws
Citizenship in a public state
Family ties and personal loyalty
Small communities governed by unwritten rules and tradition
Band of warriors pledged their loyalty to a Germanic chief
Followers lived in lord’s hall
He gave them food, weapons and treasure.
Warriors fought to the death at lord’s side
Outliving him was a disgrace
Germanic warriors did not feel obligated to obey a king they did not know nor did they feel obligated to obey an official sent to collect taxes or administer justice in the name of an emperor they’d never met.
Stress on personal ties made it difficult to establish orderly government for large territories
Clovis & the Franks
Gaul (present-day France & Switzerland)
Franks held power
Clovis was the leader; brought Christianity to the region
496: Clovis prayed to the Christian God for help in battle; they won; they converted
Church in Rome welcomed his conversion and supported his campaigns against other Germanic tribes
511: Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom
Why do we care?
Clovis + Roman Church = the beginning of a marriage of political and religious institutions
Religion in the Middle Ages
Monasteries were established to adjust to rural ways of living and became best-educated communities
Monks/nuns and their illuminated manuscripts helped to preserve part of Rome’s intellectual heritage.
Became Pope and broadened the authority of the papacy (pope’s office) beyond its spiritual role
Made the Church a secular power
Pope’s palace became center of Roman government
Used church revenue to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor
Negotiated treaties with invaders
Region from Italy to England and Spain to Germany fell under his responsibility
Ruled from 751-987
Started by Pepin the Short
Son, Charles, ruled the kingdom after him
Charles became known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
Built an empire larger than any since Rome
Conquered lots of land
Spread Christianity through his conquests
First to reunite Western Europe since the Roman Empire
800: empire larger than Byzantine Empire
Most powerful king in Western Europe
Crushed an unruly mob who had attacked Pope Leo III
Pope crowned him emperor
Why do we care?
This was the FIRST time a pope had claimed the political right to confer the title “Roman Emperor” on a European king.
This event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire.
Warm-Up – Honors/Gifted
Charlemagne leads a revival….
He actually was illiterate but dedicated himself to learning how to read and write.
Surrounded himself with English, German, Italian, and Spanish scholars.
Opened a palace school for his children
Ordered monasteries to open schools to train future monks and priests
Son Louis the Pious succeeded him
Devoutly religious but politically ineffective
Charlemagne’s three grandsons fought each other for control and essentially divided it with the signing of the Treaty of Verdun in 843.
Carolingian kings lost power, and central authority broke down
Lack of strong rulers led to new system of governing and landholding: feudalism