Revolution in England


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Revolution in England

  1. 1. Revolution in England<br />Circa 1600s<br />
  2. 2. Instructions<br />NO FILL IN THE BLANKS<br />NO BLANKS WHATSOEVER…<br />
  3. 3. Part 1: Divine Right Monarchs in England and Civil War<br />“Houston…We’ve got a problem.”<br />
  4. 4. The back story…<br />Queen Elizabeth dies in 1603….she leaves: <br />No heir…<br />But LOTS of debt…<br />Throne is passed down to her cousin King James VI of Scotland…who is now King James I of England<br />James is the son of Mary, Queen of Scots…who Elizabeth had beheaded<br />James I and his son, Charles I, adopt the belief in the “divine right” theory<br />And…they’re Catholic…why is this a problem?<br />
  5. 5. Divine Right of Kings<br />
  6. 6. Divine Right…recap<br />Evolved during the Middle Ages<br />Kings are God’s representatives on earth….<br />Kings answered only to God and it was sinful for subjects to resist them…<br />Justified absolute rule…<br />BUT…<br />
  7. 7. ABSOLUTE MONARCHY + PARLIAMENT = <br />Remember Parliament?<br />Established around the 13th century<br />MAGNA CARTA – signed by King John <br />Placed the king under the law<br />Limited his powers <br />Gave more powers to nobles <br />Anyone sensing… trouble???<br />
  8. 8. Let’s make a llllooooonnnngggg story short…<br />Needs money for wars with Spain and France (Louis XIII)<br />Dissolves Parliament several times because they won’t give him money<br />Parliament finally agrees to give him money IFhe signs the Petition of Right (places further limits on his power)<br />Reneges on this document because…OMG…he’s an absolute monarch and the limitations contradict absolutism!!!<br />He dissolves Parliament and decides never to call them into session. AGAIN!<br />So…to raise money, he imposes fees and fines on the English people…and his popularity continues to wane…<br />He then tries to force everyone to follow one religion (Scots and English)…but enough is enough…<br />The Scots threaten to invade, and he reinstates Parliament to ask for money…again…so he can fight the Scots.<br />Parliament uses this as an opportunity to oppose him…and WAR BEGINS!<br />
  9. 9. The English Civil War<br />Cavaliers (Royalists) vs. Roundheads<br />Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell<br />1649: Cromwell and Puritans defeat the Cavaliers and bring Charles I to trial for treason against Parliament<br />“waging war on Parliament”<br />responsible for “all the murders, burnings, damages and mischiefs to the nation”<br />Charles refuses to defend himself since he is God’s representative on earth and no one has the right to pass judgment on him.<br />January 30th, 1649, Charles I is beheaded. With an axe.<br />
  10. 10. Part II: The Commonwealth and Restoration<br />“INTERMISSION”<br />
  11. 11. Cromwell’s Rule<br />Cromwell assumes power and abolishes the monarchy and Parliament.<br />He establishes a commonwealth, which is a republican form of government.<br />A constitution is written…and then torn up…and Cromwell becomes a military dictator.<br />
  12. 12. Life under Cromwell and the Puritans<br />Reforms society—wants to make it moral<br />Abolishes sinful activities<br />Theater<br />Sporting events<br />Dancing<br />Tolerates all Christians but not Catholics; allows Jews to return<br />
  13. 13. The Restoration<br />Cromwell dies in 1658…and the English people restore Parliament…<br />They are SICK of a military dictatorship.<br />So Parliament brings back the monarchy and reinstates Charles II, the son of Charles I. <br />Hence, THE RESTORATION.<br />Charles II signs the Habeas Corpus Act, which prevents the monarch from putting someone in jail for opposing him.<br />Does this sound familiar at all? <br />Ever heard of…Innocent until proven guilty? <br />So…things are good…except…Charles II has no heir.<br />
  14. 14. Part III: The Glorious Revolution<br />“nipping it in the bud”<br />
  15. 15. The Glorious Revolution<br />James II (brother) comes to power after Charles II dies.<br />James begins flaunting his Catholicism and dissolves a protesting Parliament…<br />With the birth of a son, fear cripples the nation…ANOTHER LINE OF CATHOLIC KINGS?!<br />What to do?!?!?!<br />All hope is NOT lost…there is another child!<br />James II’s daughter, Mary, is Protestant and married to a Protestant prince, William of Orange (Netherlands)<br />Parliament asks Mary and her husband to overthrow her father for the sake of Protestantism.<br />William leads an army to London and James flees to France…<br />ALAS! Protestantism is saved. No one had to die. Thus, the GLORIOUS Revolution (sometimes also known as the Bloodless Revolution).<br />
  16. 16. Establishing a Constitutional Monarchy<br />Laws limit William and Mary’s powers.<br />Parliament is their partner in governing.<br />Parliament drafts the Bill of Rights in 1689, and W&M sign it.<br />No monarch can rule without the consent of Parliament. Parliament cannot rule without the consent of the monarch…Thus…<br />
  17. 17. The Cabinet System<br />The cabinet system is developed to serve as a link between Parliament and the monarch.<br />Cabinet members act in the ruler’s name but represent the major party of Parliament.<br />The leader of the major party is called the Prime Minister.<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. HW: Create flashcards for the following:<br />King Charles I<br />Oliver Cromwell<br />King Charles II<br />The Restoration<br />Habeas Corpus Act<br />King James II<br />William & Mary<br />English Bill of Rights<br />