Middle ages 2010


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Middle ages 2010

  1. 1. Middle Ages
  2. 2. The Middle Ages What is it……… The period in European history between the downfall of Rome and the Renaissance.** Divisions of…. Early Middle Ages High Middle Ages Late Middle Ages
  3. 3. The Middle Ages The Fall of Rome External Threats – Northern Germanic Tribes • Invaded Roman Empire in 5th century** – Mongols Internal Threats – Growth and expansion ended – The “Bad” emperors – Social Divide Results from the fall of Rome Loss of Centralized Authority Power Void Dominance of Germanic culture or blending of Loss of “institutions” Decline of Learning Ultimately a new form of government focused upon 1 factor (security)
  4. 4. Who fills void of Roman Empire Kings Rise to power In 496 Clovis will rise to King** 511 Clovis unites the Franks into one kingdom The “Church” Provide for the loss of many “institutions” Education Writing History Some Security
  5. 5. Organization of the Church Monasteries Essentially religious communities** Monasteries enable the “Church” to adapt to the rural population shift of Middle Ages Allowed the “church” to reach the people Men devoted to religious life were monks; women were nuns** Branch office Monks In 520 popular monk named Benedict appears Benedict writes a set of very strict laws for his monasteries – Manual labor and prayer 731 Venerable Bede writes history of England
  6. 6. “Church” organization Organization Parishes: local Christian communities Bishop: head of a parish Diocese: area of authority of a bishop Popes: eventual leaders of Roman Catholic Church Early Popes Gregory I – Becomes Pope in 590** – Also served as leader of the city of Rome (later called the Papal States) – Increased power of Pope – Worked to convert Germanic Europe to Christianity – G. Chant
  7. 7. The Franks The Kings of Franks Charles Martel – Defeats muslims at Battle of Tours 732 Pepin – Mayor of the Palace (eventually took the throne) – Died 768 Charlemagne – Charles the Great (son of Pepin) Charlemagne 768-814 Created the Carolingian Empire – Not until Napoleon 800 coronation; Emperor of the Romans – Symbolized unification of Roman, Germanic, & Christian Elements Death in 814 will start the decline of Carolingian Empire
  8. 8. Invaders of Europe (800-1000) Muslims – Southern coast Magyars – Settled plains of Hungary Vikings – Northmen (Norsemen) – Destroyed towns and churches – Given land named Normandy
  9. 9. Rise of Feudalism Feudalism: new political and social system Vassal: served lord in military capacity Fief: grant of land made to a vassal Feudal Contract: determined relationship between lord and vassal Kings Lords Knights Serfs
  10. 10. Rise of European Kingdoms England Angles & Saxons Oct. 14, 1066 – Battle of Hastings – William of Normandy; crowned King of England Henry II (1154-1189) – Thomas Becket King John – 1215 Magna Carta (beginning of limited power) France Capetian Kings – Little more than Paris Philip II Augustus – 1180-1223 – Growth of French Monarchy Philip IV (Philip the Fair) – 1285-1314 – By 1300 France the largest & best governed monarchy in Europe
  11. 11. Rise of European Kingdoms Holy Roman Empire Otto I – 962 crowned emperor of the Romans Frederick I – “Italy the center of a holy empire” Frederick II – Goal: Strong centralized government in Italy
  12. 12. Time periods of the Middle Ages Early – 500-900 – True “Dark” Ages – Fall of institutions High – 1000-1200 Late – 1300-1500
  13. 13. High Middle Ages Primary Themes – Peak of feudal institutions – Peak of “Church” influence – Revival of Trade, Cities, Learning
  14. 14. Peak of “Church” Influence Age of Faith – Increase of intolerance The Crusades – Urban II encourages military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims – Urban’s challenge well received (religious zeal, class of warriors, economics) False Crusade – 1096 the Peasant Crusaders – Peter the Hermit – Walter the Penniless Early Crusades – First 1097 – Second 1147 – Third 1189 – Fourth 1202
  15. 15. Economic Impact of Crusades
  16. 16. High Middle Ages Rise of Universities – First Universities – Bolgna (1158); then Paris, Oxford – After university could go on to law, medicine or theology – Scholasticism: philosophical and theological system which tried to reconcile faith and reason; harmonize Christian teachings with the works of Greek philosophers
  17. 17. Late Middle Ages Decline of Feudal institutions – Hundred Years’ War – New Monarchies – Rise of money economy & commercial capitalism in High Middle Ages Decline of “Church” influence – Great Schism 1378-1417 Disease – Black Death – 1347-1353 – European population of 75 million; possibly 38 million die
  18. 18. For the Test Pages 283-308; 320-322; 329-340